IoT applications for connected vehicle and ITS

Download IoT applications for connected vehicle and ITS

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  • Internet of Things Applications

    For

    Connected Vehicles

    And

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    And

    Intelligent Transport Systems

    Mr. Shashank Dhaneshwar,

    Consultant In Automotive Electronics

  • Basic Facts

    About

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    About

    Internet Of Things

  • Internet of Things: The Vision

    Internet of Things: A vision by Mark Weiser to extend Internet

    of computers to include objects or things in the real world and

    to access them to enable Ubiquitous Computing. It is called as

    the Internet of Things.

    Enablers for Internet of Things:

    Everyday gadgets have turned into Smart objects

    empowered by microelectronics and having embedded

    computing and communications capabilities, they can

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    computing and communications capabilities, they can

    revolutionize their utility .

    Developments in Internet technology and wireless

    communications have enabled to form a network of smart

    objects in which they can communicate with each other to

    provide new useful services for different domains like

    transport, healthcare, home automation and so on.

  • Visualizing Internet Of Things

    INTERNET INTERNET INTERNET INTERNET

    OFOFOFOF

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    OFOFOFOF

    THINGSTHINGSTHINGSTHINGS

  • Key Verticals For Internet Of Things

    Personal

    wearables

    Connected

    Vehicles

    Smart

    Homes

    Smart

    Cities

    Smart

    Domains

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

  • Characteristics Of Internet Of Things

    Network of very large no. of smart physical objects mostly

    using wireless communication and with a local Server for overall

    control.

    Each smart object has intelligence to read data from sensors

    and to drive the actuators as per the programmed logic.

    Smart objects may not be stationary and the network must be

    self-configuring.

    Data from smart objects is heterogeneous and unstructured

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Data from smart objects is heterogeneous and unstructured

    since it comes from diverse sources.

    The required response time for the smart object is critical to

    implement Real Time control. The object needs to be supported

    with information and processing power by the Server.

    Information security of the network is important to guard

    privacy and to protect the smart objects from unauthorized

    access.

  • Cloud Computing For Internet Of Things

    Cloud Computing:

    Internet of computer workstations shares resources for storage and

    computing. The resources are located in a central Data Center away from the

    workstation and are said to a form a Cloud. Cloud provides services to meet

    computing needs of all client workstations and the paradigm is called as Cloud

    computing.

    Challenges in application of Cloud Computing for Internet of Things:

    The limited communication and computing resources of smart objects

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    The limited communication and computing resources of smart objects

    do not permit direct connection to Cloud Server.

    The latency in response from Cloud Server may not be adequate for

    Real Time analysis and control applications in Internet of Things.

    Solution:

    Introducing small Servers as clients of main cloud Server and locate

    these very near to the smart objects forming Internet of Things.

    In contrast to main server in Cloud, these small servers are near edge or

    ground level of network (like a fog); hence they are called Fog servers and

    the paradigm is called as Fog Computing.

  • Need For Fog Computing

    Fog Computing:

    Fog Computing extends storage and computing services of Cloud to the Edge of

    the network to serve Smart objects in Internet of Things.

    Advantages of Fog Computing:

    Fog Server uses IPv6 protocol to handle very large no of Smart Objects

    (The 128 bit address can handle 3.4x 1038 objects)

    Fog Server reduces latency to few milliseconds by acting at three levels:

    Data latency is reduced by taking snapshot of data in memory just

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Data latency is reduced by taking snapshot of data in memory just

    when it is required.

    Analysis latency is reduced by using Real Time Analytics which uses in-

    memory techniques to use snapshots of data from multiple smart

    objects.

    Action latency is reduced by direct connection with the smart object.

    Use of GPS and similar technologies enables Fog Server to use location

    based context while computing and providing required results for the

    application.

  • An Ecosystem For Internet Of Things

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

  • Architecture Of An Internet Of Things Based Solution

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

  • Applications Of

    Internet Of Things

    For

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    For

    Connected Vehicle

    And ITS

  • Intelligent Transport System

    History: A concept developed by US DOT since 1996 to ensure better

    surface transport and to avoid road accidents, traffic jams and

    increased pollution. ( present update is version 6.0)

    Definition: Intelligent Transportation System is defined as

    the application of advanced sensor, computer, electronics and

    communication technologies and management strategies- in an

    integrated manner- to improve safety and efficiency of the surface

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    integrated manner- to improve safety and efficiency of the surface

    transportation system.

    National ITS Architecture: It is a framework to develop integrated

    transportation systems ; it identifies organization involved, systems

    operated, functions performed, communication links used and

    information exchanged between the entities in the framework.

  • National Architecture: Intelligent Transport Systems

    CentersCommercial

    VehicleAdministration

    ArchivedData

    Management

    Travelers

    TollAdministration

    EmergencyManagement

    TrafficManagement

    Fleet andFreight

    Management

    TransitManagement

    Maintenance &ConstructionManagement

    EmissionsManagement

    PersonalInformation

    Access

    RemoteTravelerSupport Information

    ServiceProvider

    Veh

    icle

    to

    Veh

    icle

    Co

    mm

    un

    icati

    on

    s Wide Area Wireless Fixed-Point to Fixed-Point Communications

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Vehicles Field

    Roadway

    ParkingManagement

    CommercialVehicleCheckV

    eh

    icle

    to

    Veh

    icle

    Co

    mm

    un

    icati

    on

    s

    (Mobile) Communications

    Vehicle

    TransitVehicle

    CommercialVehicle

    EmergencyVehicle

    Maintenance &Construction

    Vehicle

    SecurityMonitoring

    Ded

    icate

    d S

    ho

    rt R

    an

    ge

    Co

    mm

    un

    icati

    on

    sToll Collection

    Fixed-Point to Fixed-Point Communications

  • Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)

    Five Segments of ITS :

    1.Traveler segment: Users who are beneficiary of services

    provided by ITS.

    2.Vehicle segment: Vehicles on road needing ITS services for

    effective utilization.

    3.Field segment: Road traffic support infrastructure like signals,

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    3.Field segment: Road traffic support infrastructure like signals,

    information display.

    4.Core services: Analysis & reports using data collected from

    Vehicle & Infrastructure.

    5.Centers: Agencies for communication and co-ordination

    between different segments.

  • Intelligent Transportation System

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

  • Connected Vehicle

    A connected vehicle forms the important segment of ITS Architecture; all

    types of passenger and commercial vehicles are grouped under this segment.

    Important Facts:

    A connected vehicle is capable of sharing its information(position, direction

    and speed) using wireless links with other vehicles on road (V2V). Also it can

    communicate with infrastructures like signal, road sign, bus stop, toll

    stations, fuel pumps etc using vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communication.

    The wireless communication technologies used by a connected vehicle

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    The wireless communication technologies used by a connected vehicle

    include GSM, Bluetooth, ZigBee, Wi-Fi & Wi-Max and DSRC(Dedicated

    Short Range Communication).

    Communication technologies in Connected Vehicle have a larger range of

    up to 1000 meters and have a higher potential to protect the vehicle from

    crashes with obstacles and other vehicles on road as compared to on-vehicle

    Radars, Cameras and LIDAR systems.

    While safety systems like Air Bag help to survive the occupant after a crash,

    the V2V and V2I communications help to prevent the accident itself.

  • Inside A Connected Vehicle: In-Vehicle Network

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

  • Gateway ECU/Telematics Control Unit

    CAN

    Application Processor

    FlexRay MOST

    ZigBee

    GSM

    GPS

    Bluetooth Wi-Fi

    LIN

    DSRC

    Block Diagram:

    Analog I/O

    Digital I/O

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    ZigBee

    modem

    Bluetooth

    modem

    Wi-Fi

    modem

    DSRC

    modem

    Features:

    A 32 bit/64 bit Application Processor with multitasking Real Time Kernel.

    CAN, FlexRay, MOST and LIN communication interfaces for linking to ECUs .

    Digital and Analog I/O for interfacing with sensors and actuators on vehicle.

    GPS receiver for position information using satellite based navigation.

    GSM modem for long range global communications.

    Near field communications using Wi-Fi, ZigBee and Bluetooth modems.

  • Wireless Networks For Automotive Applications

    Wi-Fi Bluetooth ZigBee

    Frequencies 2.4 GHz & 5 GHz 2.45 GHz 915 MHz ,

    868 MHz,

    2.4 GHz

    Channels 16@2.4 GHz

    80@5 GHz

    79 10@915 MHz

    26@2.4GHz

    Data rate 12 Mbits/sec 3 Mbits/sec 250 Kbits/sec

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Data rate 12 Mbits/sec

    typical

    3 Mbits/sec 250 Kbits/sec

    Range (outdoor) 160 meters 100 meters 100 meters

    Transmission

    scheme

    Digital spread

    spectrum

    Frequency

    hopping spread

    spectrum

    Digital spread

    spectrum

  • Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC)

    Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) is IEEE

    802.11p standard for wireless communication in 5.9 GHz

    band. It is based on another standard IEEE 1609.

    Features of DSRC:

    Dedicated licensed bandwidth at 5.9 GHz for secure &

    reliable communications.

    Fast Network acquisition for Active Safety applications.

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Fast Network acquisition for Active Safety applications.

    Low latency of the order of milliseconds for Active

    Safety applications.

    Works reliably in extreme weather conditions(rain, fog)

    and also under high vehicle speed conditions.

    Safety messages are transmitted with higher priority.

    Supports both V2V and V2I communications.

    Provides message authentication and privacy.

  • Internet of Things Inside Vehicles

    Electronic Controls on modern vehicles:

    A modern vehicle uses more than 50 Electronic controls for efficient operation

    of its subsystems like Engine, Transmission, Braking, Climate control, Air Bag,

    Suspension control, Infotainment, comfort systems etc; These Electronic

    Control units have following characteristics:

    Based on Microprocessor Control.

    Use of Electromechanical Sensors for inputs about vehicle condition.

    Use of Electromechanical Actuators (Valves, relays, solenoids) as a

    means to control vehicle components.

    Software program to execute Control algorithm.

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Software program to execute Control algorithm.

    Network interface to communicate with other ECUs and sensors.

    Internet of Things inside a vehicle:

    The ECUs are connected in a network. A Gateway ECU controls communication

    between the ECUs as well with the outside world. Functions like Anti-skid

    braking will need co-ordination between several ECUs viz. Braking, Steering

    and Engine systems. The Gateway ECU can provide information on weather,

    terrain etc; from outside world for effective execution of the function. The

    overall configuration works like a segment of Internet of Things.

  • IoT Applications For Connected Vehicles And ITS

    1. Using Smart Phone for remote control of vehicles.

    2. Monitoring driving habits using Smart Phone.

    3. GPS based vehicle tracking and fleet management.

    4. Assisted GPS for intra-city navigation.

    5. Emergency help and E-Call system for vehicles.

    6. Remote Vehicle Diagnostics.

    7. Remote Engine Monitoring in Real time.

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    7. Remote Engine Monitoring in Real time.

    8. Electronic Toll Collection systems.

    9. BRTS and Smart Signals.

    10.Parking space management.

    11.Collision avoidance.

    These applications are normally implemented using Internet of Things

    solution architecture having distinct layers for sensing, Fog /Edge

    computing, Device management and Applications.

  • Using Smart Phone For Remote Control Of Vehicle

    Bluetooth link

    Application on Smart Phone and Gateway ECU in Vehicle

    communicate using Bluetooth link to provide remote control

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    communicate using Bluetooth link to provide remote control

    functions for vehicle:

    Lock/unlock doors.

    Roll windows up/down.

    AC temperature +/-

    Following alerts can be shown on phone:

    Lights ON

    Handbrake ON

    Doors OPEN

  • Monitoring Driving Habits Using Smart Phone

    Telematics

    Cloud

    Smart Phone a link between Driver monitoring system and Cloud Server.

    GPRS used for communication with Cloud and Bluetooth for linking to

    GSM

    Bluetooth

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    GPRS used for communication with Cloud and Bluetooth for linking to

    vehicle.

    Information acquired from vehicle: Sudden acceleration, sharp turn, abrupt

    braking, driver alertness as detected by infrared camera.

    Driver profile created by analyzing the data can be used by Insurance

    companies for Pay-As-You-Drive schemes.

    Logged data useful to police for analysis in case of accidents.

    Useful feedback to driver for improving own skills.

  • Use Case: GPS based Vehicle Tracking

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Telematics Server to track several vehicles simultaneously using GPS data from them.Content Server provides weather & traffic Info, digital Maps using location of vehicle. GPRS/GSM network acting as communication link between vehicle & stakeholders.

  • Example: Vehicle Tracking And Fleet Management

    Services for commercial vehicles:

    Geo-fencing and route violation

    reports for vehicles.

    Fuel consumption and theft

    monitoring.

    Driver monitoring for fatigue and

    improper driving style for Use Based

    Insurance applications.

    Hazard and accident reporting.

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Hazard and accident reporting.

    Vehicle health monitoring and

    predictive maintenance.

    Vehicle location and expected time

    of arrival based on Real Time

    location and speed information from

    vehicle.

    Management of large fleets of commercial vehicle is more efficient using

    GPS based vehicle tracking techniques.

  • Use Case: Assisted GPS Service

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    GSM Service providers offer Assisted GPS (A-GPS) service to overcome

    limitations of GPS in urban areas with high rise buildings and poor accuracy of

    GPS under adverse weather conditions. A-GPS is useful for Navigation and

    Route Guidance.

  • Details: Assisted GPS

    Features of Assisted GPS:

    1. GSM Service provider installs special infrastructure consisting of Access

    points and an Assistance Server in the field for its subscribers.

    2. Users wishing to use A-GPS have their mobile devices fitted with special

    GPS receiver which processes both satellite signals and inputs from A-

    GPS service.

    3. Use of GPRS allows faster communication between all blocks of A-GPS.

    4. Access Point is a high sensitivity & accurate GPS receiver ; several such

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    4. Access Point is a high sensitivity & accurate GPS receiver ; several such

    Access Points are installed at various precisely known positions in field.

    5. A-GPS is supported by a network of Access Points and Assistance Server

    which calculates correction values for estimating location from

    information from Access Points and sends it back to them.

    6. Assisted GPS receiver uses GPS signals from satellites as well correction

    signals received from Access Points to calculate position accurately.

  • Use Case: Emergency Help and e-Call System

    Emergency Help System/ E-CALL is a GPRS based ITS application aimed to

    provide help to crash victims and prevent loss of human lives. It uses systems

    in vehicle and traffic infrastructure to facilitate fast communication & co-

    ordination during the critical period after the crash.

    Requirements:

    Help must be given to accident victims in first golden hour.

    Automatic detection of crash and activation of safety features like Air Bag,

    unlocking doors.

    Automatic connection of help centre with victims through voice call

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Automatic connection of help centre with victims through voice call

    Information required to be sent to help centre for effective help:

    No of passengers in vehicle, speed of vehicle, type of crash viz frontal,

    rear, side.

    Exact location of vehicle, landmarks, traffic information.

  • Use Case: E-Call System Components

    Crash and

    Rollover

    Detection Unit

    Left

    Right

    Front

    Rear

    Accelerometers

    Rollover

    Detection

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Telematics

    Control Unit

    Engine Control

    Unit

    Anti-Lock

    Braking

    Control Unit

    Body Control

    Unit

    Accelerometers

    Door Locks Gyroscope Tacho

  • Event Diagram for e-Call System

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

  • Details Of E-Call System

    Functioning of E-CALL System

    Crash detection ECU receives information from other ECUs & sensors

    and sets trigger in case of crash.

    Telematics ECU communicates with outside world after crash

    detection and handles emergency data transmission & voice call.

    Engine ECU switches off fuel & engine.

    Body control module activates safety features like un-locking of doors.

    Interaction with other agencies:

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Interaction with other agencies:

    Accident data sent to all agencies involved using GPRS communication for

    co-ordination.

    Vehicles carrying help and maintenance teams move faster with route

    guidance & traffic control instructions generated by the system to give

    preference to help to victims.

    Other vehicular traffic can be diverted effectively by traffic control centre

    as per instruction of emergency help centre.

    Records of action reports can be used for future planning and

    improvements.

  • Use Case: Remote Diagnostics of Vehicle

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

  • Details: Remote Vehicle Diagnostics

    Details of operation:

    1. Smart phone is used as Diagnostics Tester and runs Tester Software as an

    application. Diagnostics Trouble Code (DTC) stored in ECUs is read by Tester

    using Diagnostics Communication protocols.

    2. DTC is used as a key by the tester software in Smart Phone to decide area of

    fault and corrective action for repair.

    3. Bluetooth communication between vehicle and Smart Phone enables

    Diagnostic communication with all ECUs connected to the In-vehicle

    Network and Gateway.

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Network and Gateway.

    4. GPRS communication between Smart Phone and central Expert System

    Server enables download of required Diagnostics information to Smart

    Phone and enables it to handle different vehicle models.

    5. Expert System stores ECU data for different ECUs & vehicles in standard ODX

    format for supporting different vehicle models with single application

    program on Smart Phone.

    6. Remote Diagnostics can be used for Real Time Engine monitoring during

    development phase or for special vehicles like racing cars.

  • Sample Diagnostics Information

    S.r DTC Problem area Corrective/remedial action

    1 P0300 Random Engine

    misfire

    Check for vacuum leaks, low fuel pressure,

    leaky EGR valve, dirty fuel injector

    2 P0301 to

    P0304

    Cylinder specific

    misfire

    Check worn spark plug, dead injector, leaky

    head gasket

    3 P0420 and

    P0430

    Catalytic converter

    efficiency

    Replace catalytic converter

    4 P0133 ,

    P0135and

    Exhaust Gas

    Oxygen sensor

    Check for heater circuit of O2 sensor, O2

    sensor voltage and for vacuum leak.

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    P0135and

    P0141

    Oxygen sensor sensor voltage and for vacuum leak.

    5 P0401 Exhaust Gas

    Recirculation Valve

    Clean the EGR valve and recheck; else

    replace the valve.

    6 P0128 Engine coolant

    thermostat faulty

    Check and replace faulty component

    7 P0411,

    P0440,P04

    42

    Evaporative

    Emission Control

    System

    Check for loose gas cap, purge valve.

  • Remote Engine Monitoring In Real Time

    Sr. No Parameter Frequency

    1 Vehicle speed

    2 to 5 times per

    second

    2 Air/fuel ratio

    3 Intake airflow

    4 Engine RPM

    5 Engine load

    6 Accelerator Pedal position

    7 Lambda sensor voltage

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    7 Lambda sensor voltage

    8 Catalyst temperature

    9 Intake air pressure

    10 EGR and ignition advance

    11 Intake air temperature

    Once in 30

    seconds

    12 Coolant temperature

    13 Ambient temperature and pressure

    13 Tank fuel level

    14 Battery voltage

  • Use Case: Electronic Toll Collection

    Read

    RF ID

    Valid?

    Debit

    Start

    YesNo

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Sensors used:

    RF ID for vehicle & TAG reader on Toll gate

    Number plate on vehicle & Camera on Toll gate

    Debit

    user A/c

    Collect

    cash

    Open

    gate

    Read veh reg. no. & save

    End

  • Use Case: BRTS and Smart Signals

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    1. Special sensors embedded in road detect presence of passing vehicles in different

    lanes and send information to local data server through serial ports.

    2. The local server analyses data about vehicles in different lanes and gives GREEN signal

    to public transport buses (BRTS) on priority.

    3. The central database server stores such logged data from all local servers and provides

    information to traffic controllers, pedestrians and vehicles through Web.

  • Use Case: Parking Space Allocation

    Parking Space with controller

    Compact

    Car

    Space

    Sedan Car

    Space

    SUV /VAN

    space

    Parking Space Display

    Compact space No.

    Sedan space No.

    SUV space No.

    Parking space system uses ZigBee network for communication

    with sensors and actuators for handling vehicles.

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    with sensors and actuators for handling vehicles.

    Vehicle is identified by RF tag attached to it at the entrance.

    Communication between vehicle & parking space controller

    uses RF tag to inform vehicle model and time for which facility

    is required.

    Controller allocates free space with matching requirement and

    information is displayed both on large display as well the On-

    board display of vehicle.

    RF tag is removed & read at exit to decide and to print bill for

    parking.

  • Blind Spot Detection

    Use Case: Collision Avoidance Systems

    Video cameras fitted on rear view mirrors cover

    vehicles approaching the blind spot areas from rear.

    On-vehicle processor uses image processing technology

    to detect presence and speed of approaching vehicles

    and generates warning signals for driver

    Front Crash Avoidance

    Radars fitted on front and rear windshields

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Radars fitted on front and rear windshields

    detect vehicles and their speeds and measure

    their distance.

    The processor on vehicle sends messages to

    vehicles critically near to it using V2V

    communications.

    The brakes on vehicle are automatically

    applied to reduce the speed if necessary

  • Future Directions: Vehicular Cloud Computing

    In conventional ITS approach, several Roadside Units(RSUs) like Signals, toll

    gates, fuel pumps are used which provide storage and computing resources

    to form local clouds and enable ITS applications like Smart Signals, Electronic

    Toll collection, Fuel bill payment etc;

    On highways, in parking spaces etc; it is not practical to install the large no.

    of RSUs for enabling required functions like finding parking space, locating

    parked vehicle, collision avoidance, accident and road closed information etc;

    also direct access to cloud may be costly and slow.

    A novel approach which uses computing power and storage capacity of

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    A novel approach which uses computing power and storage capacity of

    vehicles on road is receiving attention of all concerned. It is called as Vehicular

    Cloud Computing(VCC) which forms a cloud by using the idle computing power

    and storage of the vehicles participating in the formation of the cloud.

    Typical scenarios in which VCC can be used with advantage are:

    Airport parking space.

    Collision and accident warning on highways.

    Traffic control at intersections & in traffic jam conditions.

  • Concluding Remarks

    The effective implementation of ITS is hampered in many cases due to lack of

    connectivity between various stakeholders and systems in transport domain

    and also due to lack of communication with other domains.

    Internet of Things aims to bring all gadgets, systems, smart objects of all

    domains under one umbrella of communication to provide a Common

    Operating Picture for easier visualization of new services to benefit individuals

    and to protect the environment.

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    As new developments for eco-friendly, energy efficient and safer mobility

    solutions lead to growth of smart transport systems and increasingly

    autonomous vehicles, the concepts of Internet of Things will help to find

    innovative approaches to meet the challenges.

    The developments in the field of Information Technology and

    Microelectronics will act as catalyst to implement reliable solutions for ITS and

    Automotive domain, based on Internet of Things at an affordable cost.

  • Thank you!

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Thank you!

  • List Of Acronyms

    Acronym

    BT Bluetooth

    CAN Control Area Network

    DSRC Direct Short Range

    communication

    DTC Diagnostic trouble code

    ECU Electronic Control Unit

    Acronym

    LIDAR Light detection and ranging

    MOST Media oriented system

    transport

    ODX Open Diagnostics Data

    Exchange

    RSU Roadside unit

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    ECU Electronic Control Unit

    EGR Exhaust Gas Recirculation

    GSM Global System Mobile

    GPS Global Positioning System

    GPRS General Packet Radio Service

    IoT Internet of Things

    ITS Intelligent Transport System

    LIN Local Interconnect Network

    TCP/IP Transport Control Internet

    Protocol

    VCC Vehicular Cloud Computing

    V2V Vehicle to vehicle

    V2I Vehicle to infrastructure

    Wi-Fi Trademark for IEEE 802.11x

    Wi-Max Worldwide Interoperability

    for Microwave Access

  • LIN(Local Interconnect Network) Bus Specifications

    Specifications:

    A low cost solution for networking of sensors, actuators

    and simple ECUs.

    A broadcast serial network with one master and up to 16

    slaves.

    Single wire communication at data rates up to 19.2 k

    bits/sec at 40 meters length.

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    bits/sec at 40 meters length.

    Variable data length of 2, 4 and 8 bytes.

    Data checksum and error detection.

    Detection of defective nodes.

    Guaranteed latency times.

    Multicast reception with time synchronization.

    Flexible configuration.

  • MOST(Media Oriented System Transport) Bus

    Specifications:

    High speed multimedia network technology for Automotive

    applications.

    Based on OSI 7 layer communication model.

    Handles Video, Audio, Voice and Data transmission.

    Can transfer 15 stereo audio channels or 15 MPEG1 compatible

    audio/video channels.

    Data/messages can be sent through control channel.

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Data/messages can be sent through control channel.

    Uses Ring topology and can accommodate up to 64 MOST

    devices.

    One device is Timing Master and rest are Timing followers.

    As per bandwidth/no. of channels, three different versions of

    MOST bus

    Uses Plastic Optical Fiber cables as media.

    Generates no interference due to radiation.

  • Control Area Network (CAN)

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Introduced by Bosch in 1987 for Automotive applications.

    Multi-master serial bus using two wire cable for Electronic Control Units

    with Low Speed and High Speed versions.

    Message ID defines content type and priority of message on the bus.

    Message filters on CPU can be programmed to selectively receive

    messages on bus.

  • Basics of Global Positioning SystemNAVSTAR GPS: Navigation System with Timing and Ranging Global Positioning System

    Facts:

    1. An initiative from US Dept of Defense for military & civil applications.

    2. A navigation system made up of 28 satellites orbiting earth at 20,000 Km

    in 12 hours time period.

    3. Six different orbits with four to six satellites in each orbit.

    4. At least four satellites visible at any point on earth at all time.

    5. Satellites controlled and maintained by Ground Control Stations.

    6. Each satellite sends its position & time stamp based on Atomic clock .

    7. A special RF receiver detects the extremely weak (-160dBm) signal from at

    GPS Constellation

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    7. A special RF receiver detects the extremely weak (-160dBm) signal from at

    least four satellites to calculate its own position.

    Position Calculation Methodology:

    1. All satellite clocks & clock on GPS receiver synchronized.

    2. Time difference Td = current time of receiver time stamp of

    satellite signal received.

    3. Distance of GPS receiver from satellite = Td x speed of light

    4. Location of receiver in XY plane = lower intersection of circles with

    radii as distances and centers as position of satellites.

    5. Use of two more satellites allows calculation of position in 3D and

    eliminates errors due to drift of Atomic clocks used.

  • Typical Sensors Used On Vehicle Control Systems

    Technology Measurement

    Function

    Examples

    Thermistors Temperature Temp. of coolant, air & air

    Thermocouple Temperature Exhaust gas and turbocharger

    temperature

    Magnetic Speed Vehicle speed and wheel speed

    Variable resistance Position Throttle position sensor

    IoT Applications for Connected Vehicle and Intelligent Transport Systems

    Variable resistance Position Throttle position sensor

    MEMS

    (micromechanics

    with piezo resistive)

    Air Pressure Atmospheric pressure

    Piezo Electric Vibration Knock sensor for Engine

    Capacitive Acceleration ABS, Air Bag

    Hot wire Air Flow Engine control

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