introductory entomology

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Basic EntomologyIdentifying plant damageCommon insect ordersBREAKLabBeneficial insectsHabitat

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Introductory EntomologyMaster Gardener Training February 16, 2010 Linn and Benton Co., OR

Laurel Moulton--Graduate Student --

Oregon State University

The Menu for today: Basic Entomology Identifying plant damage Common insect orders BREAK Lab Beneficial insects Habitat

Goals for today Basic knowledge Questions to ask Resources

Small bodies, BIG impact waste management nutrient cycling crop protection food webs cultural value plant propagation entomophagy disease transmission destroy commodities

Christian Grantham

from Gullen & Cranston, The insects: and outline of entomology

Basic anatomyHead:Sensory Intake Communication

Arthropods: Insects= 6 legs

Thorax: Wing

attachment leg attachment

Non insect Arthropods:

Abdomen:Digestion Respiration Reproduction

Whats inside?

Sensory: VisualGeoff Woodard

Ocelli light vs. dark

Compound eyes Mosaic Movement UV detection

Bjorn Roslett

Photo credits: Univ. of Wisconsin Dept. of Entomology

Chemosensory: Antennae Smell Pheromones

Chemosensory: Antennaefiliform pectinate

aristate

clavate

setacious

serate

flabellate

Sensory: Other Legs/tarsi Vibration Taste

Ovipositor Suitable habitat Egg laying preferenceStanislav Georb

Piercing-sucking

MouthpartsStructure = FunctionVariable Modifiedchewing sponging

siphoning

D.G. MacKeanFrom: A. Imms

Zweibel laboratory

Insect MetamorphosisSIMPLE nymph adult same habitat same resources adult winged reproductive

COMPLETE egg larva pupa - adult different habitats often different diet advantages ? parasitism adults may not feed

Invasive.org

Whats in a name? - Taxonomy Organizational language Family Genus species Classification Latin roots: -ptera,hemi-,holo- Directional dorsal, ventral anterior, posterior basal, apical

Insects & plants

Herbivory Plant experiences: Tissue loss Seed reduction Reduced vitality/vigor Pathogens

Insect receives: Nutrition Growth Habitat

Phytophagy = plant eaterMonophagous Most specific Specialists 1:1

Oligophagous More broad Related genera 1: a few

Polyphagous a.k.a Generalists Unrelated families 1: whatevers in the fridge

Defoliation Chewing Lepidoptera, Coleoptera Symptoms Holes Skeletonizing Defoliation

Univ. of Kentucky D G Mackean

Ravenous plant munching can be a good thing Biocontrol

Peter McEvoy

Ragwort fleabeetle

Peter McEvoy

Peter McEvoy

Cinnabar moth

Plant Mining Chewing Larvae of Diptera LepidopteraUSDA-APHIS

Symptoms Trails, tunnels Frass Secondary infectionsUniv. of Hawaii

Sap Suckers Piercing-Sucking Most life stages: Homoptera HeteropteraAPSnet.org

D G Mackean

Symptoms discoloration reduced vigor wilting, curling spittle

Disease transmission

Gall Formation Piercing-sucking Plant response salivary fluids egg laying not generally harmful

Ohio State Univ

Hymenoptera, Homoptera Symptoms on leaves stems/twigs flowers

Univ. Of Wisc.onsin

Oregon BLM

Common insect orders

Sam Houston 2009

Coleopterasheath-wings Beetle

BEETLES Chewing mouthparts Complete metamorphosis Elytra hardened/leathery front wings

Largest order if insects

James Young 2008

Not all beetles have full elytra

Cabbage seed weevil

Coleoptera: Black vine weevil

Cucumber beetle

Potato flea beetle

James Young 2007

Wire worm Seed weevil Spotted cucumber beetleGround beetle larva NOT wire worm

Mark Gray

Mark Fowler 2005

Black vine weevil

Black vine weevil

Chris Adam 2007

B. Anderson and M. Reding 2009

Box elder bug

Heteropteradifferent-winged TRUE BUGS Piercing-Sucking mouthparts Simple metamorphosis

Front wing is divided thickened at base membranous at tip

Scutellum

Pest Alert:Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

Peter Shear

James LaBonte

Peter Shear

Identification:Brown Marmorated Stink BugCan be confused with: Rough Stink Bug

Identification:Brown Marmorated Stink BugPro thorax Pronotum Shoulders

Can be confused with: Rough Stink Bug

Azalea lace bugDamage: extensive leaf stippling

Identifying character: lacy wings!Photos: Robin Rosetta

Homopterasame-winged APHIDS, WHITEFLIES, SCALES, PLANT HOPPERS, CICADAS

Piercing-Sucking mouthparts - Vector disease Wings with uniform texture - Held tent-like over body Many plant pestsUC IPM

Robin Rosetta

Eric Matthews

Aphids!WSU Whatcom Co. Extension

Blueberry scorch virus

= disease vector!

Cornicles = AphidWSU Whatcom Co. Extension

Barley yellow dwarf virus

Dipteratwo-wings

FLIES Chewing, often modified Sponging (cutting) Piercing-sucking

Complete metamorphosis One pair of wings Hind wings reduced: Halter

NEW PEST ALERT

Apple maggotRed sphere trap+lure

Cal extension

Canadian ministry of Ag.

Crane fly

Beet leaf miner

A. Schattmann

Fungus gnat

Debbie Roos NC extenstion

Goldenrod gall flyW. Abrahamson and P. Heinrich

Spotted Wing Drosop

Spotted winged drosophila

D. Bruck 2009

M. Hauser, CDFA

Mike Reitmajer 2009

Drosophila suzukii locations in Oregon, 2011Confirmed locations from collected fruits or trapping by ODA, APHIS and OSU

Guidelines for Monitoring Adult SWD Presence Clear container with lid, ~10 holes (3/16) around the side of container 1.5-2 inches of solution Real apple cider vinegar + small drop of unscented liquid dish soap Service traps weekly Hang from plant or stake in shade at fruiting level in the canopy, out of wind Place as many traps in your susceptible crops as you can reasonably maintain Pay particular attention to high risk areas Diverse field edges with ample shade

Deploy traps just prior to fruit coloring Count and record the number of male SWD weekly *Watch website for regional detections of SWD

Spotted Winged DrosophilaDrosophila suzukii, an invasive pest of berry and stone fruits

Oregon Non-Commercial Homeowners Backyard Management GuideBACKYARD GARDENER MONITORING

To share your information with OSU researchers, make sure to provide as much of the requested information as possible.

Report any findings of SWD adults and larvae in fruit to your nearest extension office

Fill out the online excel record sheet and email to : SWD.OREGON@GMX.COM Found on SWD website, For Gardeners

http://swd.hort.oregonstate.edu

Orthopteralong-winged GRASSHOPPERS, KATYDIDS, CRICKETS Chewing Simple metamorphosis Characteristic legs - Hind leg= modified for jumping, - thickened femur - sound production Not much of a pest on west sideRed Planet Inc.

Isopterasimilar-winged

TERMITES Chewing Beaded antennae Social castes - colonies - queen, workersphoto: Kevin Hall 2008

Structural pests

Lucas Raptis 2008

Thysanoptera THRIPSfringe-wing

Sucking or rasping-sucking Intermediate development wings develop in 3rd larval stage Go through pupal stageTX A&M extension

4 wings fringed with hair Sample: yellow sticky cardBumblebee.org

Feed on flowers, fruit, leaves, twigs, buds Disease vectors

A.M Varela

Lepidoptera: Butterflies & mothsscale-wings Long proboscus: siphoning Complete metamorphosis 2 pairs of wings Butterfly wings upright at rest Moth wings flat at rest

Butterflies of Singapore

Glen K. Peterson

Cabbage Looper

Peach tree borer

Indian meal moth

Cabbage butterfly

Cabbage looper

OSU IPPCLove Apple Farm 2008

NM extension

TX A&M extension

Cutworms: Black spotted cutworm

Photos: OSU IPPC

Robin Rosetta

Other common cutwormsBlack cutworm NOT a cutworm:What is it? Why?

Glassy cutworm

Other common cutwormsBlack cutworm NOT a cutworm:What is it? Why?

Glassy cutwormNo legs! Ruffly posterior

Coddling Moth

Doug Wilson USDA-ARS

WSU extension

Apple maggot

Be on the lookout for:

Light brown apple moth

D. Williams

Class: Isopodasame foot PILL-BUGS, ROLY-POLYS, SOWBUGS non-insect arthropod Habitat: moist, damp, dark soil macrofauna Scavengers = plant tissue detritus

Garden symphylansSymphyla

Related to millipedes 3-6mm long Feed on fine roots and germinating seeds 7-8 per shovel= pest Sampling with potato

Arachnidaspider

spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions Two body segments 4 pairs of legs

Bio-bee.com

European red mite

Mites

Spruce spider mite

Jack DeAngeles

Canadian ministry ofagriculture

Spider mite

Maple Gall mite

UC Georgia

Ronald S. Kelly

Hobo??

Giant house spider??

D. Hagon

NOT a HoboD. Boe

NOT a HoboDavid Phillips

NOT a Hobo

Maybe a HoboR. Vetter

Black widow Most poisonous spider in Oregon Less than 1% of bites result in death Dark places: wood piles, basements, garages ID characteristic: red hourglass on females False black widow: no red markings

Break time!

Beneficial insects

Lee R. 2007

Dave Ingram

Predatory mites

Denis Crawford

Neuropteranet-wing LACEWING