Introduction to the Emacs Editor - Wellesley CScs. anderson/writing/emacs/emacs- Notepad or the Macintosh program called Simple-Text. 2 Overview of Emacs Emacs is an editor available on most UNIX systems; in-deed, there are implementations for Windows 95 and the ...
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Introduction to the Emacs EditorScott D. AndersonWellesley CollegeScott.Anderson@acm.orgcFall 20041 What is Emacs?Emacs is an editor: a program that allows you to modifyfiles. Many of you have already used an editor, so it maybe easier to think of it as similar to, but different from, edi-tors such as vi, Microsoft WORD, or Corel WordPerfect.The latter two are intended to create typeset documents,so they include commands to manage fonts, margins andother word processing features. For that reason, they arepretty different from Emacs. Emacs is not a word proces-sor; its similar only in that you use them to modify thecontents of files (as opposed to, say, playing Solitaire).Emacs is an editor of ASCII (plain text) files. In this,they are more similar to the Windows program calledNotepad or the Macintosh program called Simple-Text.2 Overview of EmacsEmacs is an editor available on most UNIX systems; in-deed, there are implementations for Windows 95 and theMacintosh, too. Its pretty simple to use: just type intothe file. Many commands are available via menus, justas in MS Word. Still more commands are available viakeyboard shortcuts and named functions. As with Word,you can become a power user, by learning the keyboardshortcuts. This document is primarily for those who wantto become power users.By default, any character you type is put into the fileat that point. (The point is usually marked by a rectan-gular block on the screen.) Since normal characters likea or $ are inserted into the file, you have to use ab-normal characters to give commands to Emacs. There areessentially five ways to give commands to Emacs: Menus. I wont tell you more about this, becauseyou already know how. One thing to keep in mind,though, is that Emacs often creates special menusMy thanks to J. Ross Beveridge of Colorado State University, whosent me an Emacs primer that became the core of this document.and menu items for different kinds of files (Java ver-sus LATEX for example), so the menus many change. Control characters. This is when you hold down thecontrol key, which is usually at the left side of yourkeyboard, near the shift key, and type a letter. Forexample, hold down control and type b and youvetyped a control-b1 In Emacs documentation, a con-trol letter like control-b is written as C-b. Thatmeans to hold down the control key and type anbdont type the hyphen. By the way, C-bmovesthe cursor backward one character. Prefix characters. This is where the command is ac-tually a sequence of keystrokes, the first of which iscalled the prefix. For example, you can save your fileby typing C-x C-s. The C-x is the prefix. Lotsof commands start with C-x. Another is C-x u,which is the undo command. Modified characters. On certain keyboards, there areextra modifier keys. A modifier key is like the shiftkey: it changes the character when held down as thecharacter is typed. Shift turns b into B. Controlturns b into control b. Similarly, the meta keyturns b into meta b. On some keyboards, themeta key is actually marked, just like the control key.On other keyboards, one of the existing keys is as-signed to be the meta key, such as the Alt key. Hereat Wellesley, the Alt key is the meta key. So, forexample, to use the meta b command, hold downthe Alt key and type a b. That command would bedocumented as M-b (analogously to C-b). The M-bcommand backs the cursor up by one word.What if your keyboard doesnt have a meta key, noteven one that is assigned? (This often happens ifyou are using Emacs via a modem and a terminalemulator; for example, youre logged into a Linux1This is actually a ASCII character. Its number 2 in the ASCII code,while an B is number 66 and b is number 98. Do man ascii to seea table of the whole ASCII character set. All the control codes are in thebeginning, so control-a is number 1, control-b is number 2 and soforth.1machine using telnet or SSH.) You can always usethe Escape key (marked ESC) as a prefix characterto mean meta. Note that ESC is not a modifier key,so you first type ESC, release the key, and then typeb. Meta keys are not in the 7-bit ASCII characterset, but the ESC character is (its number 27).By the way, sometimes these modifier keys are com-bined. If you hold down both meta and control andtype a b you get the C-M-b command, which goesbackward by one parenthesized expression. If youdont have a meta key, type ESC followed by C-b. Extended commands. Emacs has so many com-mands that there are not enough keystrokes (or menuitems) for them all, so you have to specify theirnames. This is done with the less commonly usedcommands, so you wont need this much until youbecome more experienced. First, you have to type aprefix, which is M-x and then Emacs prompts youfor the name of the command in the minibuffer2 Af-ter you type the name of the command,3 you pressthe return key, which is documented as RET, justas if this were the unix command line. An example isM-x man RET which prompts you for some inputand runs the UNIX man command on that inputand puts the result into a buffer for you, which thenallows you to search it, edit it, save pieces, and soforth.Note that you can get any command via M-x; itsjust that the more common commands are boundto keys. When the documentation talks about keybindings, theyre talking about the connection be-tween keystrokes and commands. You can modifythose key bindings if you want to.Finally, when you start Emacs youll notice some menusand icons, so you can also issue commands by using themouse. Power users spend most of their time using key-board commands, so thats what Ill describe in this doc-ument.Emacs allows you to edit several files at once. Thewindow for Emacs can be divided into several windowseach of which contains a view into a buffer. Furthermore,on a windowing system, you can start up multiple win-dows (Emacs calls them frames) each of which seems2The minibuffer is a line at the very bottom of the Emacs window,right below the status line, (which is the one that tells you what fileyoure editing and information like that). The minibuffer is used anytimeEmacs needs more information from you in order to execute a command;and its used whenever Emacs to tell you something short in response toa command.3Emacs has what is called completion, meaning that as you type in acommand, you can type a space or tab at any time and Emacs will eitherfill out the rest (if there is only one possible completion) or it will list thepossible completions. This tremendously reduces the amount of typingand prevents mistakes.to have Emacs running in it, but theres really only oneEmacs process behind all of it. Each Emacs buffer typ-ically corresponds to a different file. Many of the com-mands listed below are for reading files into new buffersand moving between buffers. This ability to edit severalfiles means that you should typically start Emacs onlyonce. If you start it more than once, you run the risk ofediting a file in two different Emacsen and accidentallyoverwriting your changes.Most Emacs users start up Emacs once when they loginand only exit it when they logout. Instead, they just savebuffers and switch to another window where they run thecompiler or whatever. Consequently, very little effort hasgone into make Emacs start quickly.3 Using Emacs, Getting StartedIf youre logged into the console, so you have a windowmanager available, the easiest way to start Emacs is fromthe menu. Under Gnome, the default window managerhere are Wellesley, you can find Emacs under by clickingon the Red Hat, then programming, then Emacs. Itwill come up and have a bunch of information about get-ting help and running the tutorial. I highly recommend thetutorial. The initial buffer will be *scratch*. You canthen use commands to read in files as necessary.Alternatively, you can start Emacs from the commandline. This is useful when youre logged in remotelyvia telnet or SSH. To use Emacs on a file, type emacsfilename. Note that, if youre running in a windowingenvironment, this will typically start up Emacs in a sepa-rate window, so you should follow the command with anampersand:% emacs filename &If you prefer that Emacs run in the current window,rather than starting its own window, do the following:% emacs -nw filenameThe -nw switch means no window. Not that theresno ampersand.If the file exists, then the first screens worth of the filewill be displayed; if it doesnt exist, a help message willbe displayed. Alternatively, you can start up Emacs fromthe command line without mentioning a file, in which caseit comes up just as described in the previous paragraph.To give you a head start, the following lists some basiccommands you will need to know to use Emacs to edit afile. An exclamation point to the left of the commandsindicate those to learn immediately.23.1 Help CommandsAll the help commands, and there are a lot of them, are or-ganized under C-h, so type C-h followed by a single let-ter or control letter to learn more about Emacs. I stronglyrecommend the tutorial. Others can probably wait.C-h help-command, prefix character for lots of usefulhelp commandsC-h t help-with-tutorial, command to run the tutorialC-h i info describes most of the emacs commands inman style pagesC-h k describe-key tells you what a particular keystrokedoesC-h a command-apropos, prompts for a string and thensearches for all emacs commands that contain thatstringC-h ? help-for-help, describes how to use the help fa-cilities3.2 File Reading and Writing CommandsC-x C-f find-file, first prompts for a filename4 and thenloads that file into a editor buffer of the same name.If the file doesnt exist, Emacs creates it, so this com-mand is like the File/New and File/Open menuitems you find in applications like MS Word.C-x C-s save-buffer, saves the buffer into the associ-ated filename. Do this a lot, to save your changes todisk. This is like Save in MS Word.C-x C-w Write named file, prompts for a new filenameand writes the buffer into it. This is like the SaveAs menu item from MS Word.3.3 Movement CommandsEach Emacs buffer has a location called point, which iswhere new input will go. There are zillions of commandsto move the point. In addition, the arrow keys and clickingwith the mouse work too. You can change the window(but not the point) by using the scroll bars.However, Id like to encourage you to learn some ofthese movement keyboard commands. First of all, thereare circumstances (some sshconnections), when the arrowkeys and the mouse wont work. Secondly, the movementcommands can be more efficient. Using the arrow keys4Recall that Emacs has completion, meaning that as you type in afilename, you can type a space or tab at any time and Emacs will eitherfill out the rest (if there is only one possible completion) or it will list thepossible completions. This tremendously reduces the amount of typingand prevents mistakes.takes no effort to learn, but you pay for that every timeyou have to move a long way. Some users dont seem tomind holding down an arrow key for 10 seconds when afew C-v commands would have the same effect, but youwont know you have a choice unless you try to learn C-vand other such commands.C-a put cursor at beginning-of-lineC-e put cursor at end-of-lineC-b go backward one charC-f go forward one charC-n go to next lineC-p go to previous-lineC-v scroll-up by one screenfulM-v scroll back by one screenfulM-< go to beginning-of-bufferM-> go to end-of-bufferM-b go backward one wordM-f go forward one word3.4 Copy, Kill and Yank CommandsWord processing programs refer to copy and paste, butEmacs calls them copy and yank. (You might arguethat Emacs should change, but Emacs has been callingit yank for over twenty years and its a hard habit tobreak.) Anything that is deleted (killed) is remembered(in the kill-buffer) and can be yanked back at any lo-cation.C-d delete-charM-d delete from cursor to end of word immediatelyahead of the cursorC-k kill-line, delete the rest of the current lineC-@ set-mark-command, the mark is used to indicatethe beginning of an area of text to be killed, copiedor whateverC-w kill-region, delete the area of text between themark and the current cursor positionM-w copy-region-as-kill, copy area between mark andcursor into kill-buffer so that it can be yanked intosomeplace elseC-y yank, insert at the point whatever was most re-cently killed or copiedM-y yank-pop, insert at the point whatever was killedor copied previous to the last yank or yank-pop33.5 Search CommandsEmacs uses something called incremental search, whichI think is much better than search commands on other ed-itors. Say you want to search for administration. Ratherthan prompt you for the entire search string, Emacs letsyou type it one letter at a time. Each letter you type causesEmacs to show you the next occurrence. So, you type C-s(incremental search) and the letter a, and Emacs showsyou the next a in the file. Then you type d and Emacsshows you the next occurrence of ad. Then you typem and emacs shows you the next occurrence of adm.By the time youve typed admin, youve probably al-ready found the occurrence of administration that youwere looking for, and you had to type only a fraction ofthe search string. If you get to the end of the search string,just keep typing C-s and it shows you the next occurrence.C-s isearch-forward, incremental search prompts for astring and searches forward in the buffer for it. Itstarts searching immediatelyC-r isearch-backward, like isearch-forward, but goesbackwardsM-% query-replace, prompts for a search string and astring with which to replace the search string3.6 Window and Buffer CommandsEmacs can divide up the window you see into subwin-dows. This can be useful for viewing two buffers at once,or getting help while editing a buffer. The help systemwill automatically throw you into two-window mode, soit can be useful to know a little about this right away.C-x 0 deletes current windowC-x 1 deletes other windowC-x 2 splits current window into two parts, so you canedit at two different locations in the same file or sothat you can view two different files at the same timeC-x b switch-to-buffer, display a different buffer onthe screenC-x o move the cursor to the other window (assumingthat you have two windows/buffers open at once)C-x C-b list-buffers, shows the buffers currentlyloaded into emacs3.7 Exiting Emacs, Fixing Mistakes andOther Important StuffHere are some miscellaneous but very useful commands.C-x C-c save-buffers-kill-emacs, when you are fin-ished editting, it offers to save editted but unsavedbuffers and then exitsC-g keyboard-quit, if while typing a command youmake a mistake and want to stop, this aborts com-mands in progress. If Emacs ends up in some stateyou dont understand, try typing this a few times.C-u universal-argument, if you want to do a commandseveral times type this command followed by a num-ber (for the number of times) followed by the com-mand you wish repeated. For example, to go for-ward 300 lines, you could type C-n 300 times orC-u 300 C-n. Its also used to modify the behav-ior of some commands. Youll see that in the docu-mentation as with prefix argument..., in which caseyou know to press C-u before the command to getthat behavior.C-x u (also C-/ and C-_): undoes the last change, incase you made a mistake. You can undo multiple ed-its; Ive never really found the end of Emacss undomemory.M-x execute-extended-command,prompts for the nameof an Emacs command, allows you to execute com-mands if you know roughly what it is called but can-not remember the key strokes for it. I mentioned thisat the beginning of the document.4 Customizing EmacsPerhaps the biggest difference between Emacs and othereditors, is that Emacs is designed to be customizable. Ithas a built-in way to run programs written by users (ina programming language called Emacs-lisp or elisp forshort) and loaded into Emacs. Many, many people havewritten extensions to Emacs to do all kinds of things.When youre more experienced, perhaps youll be one ofthem.There are simpler ways to customize Emacs than writ-ing code. Often its as simple as setting the value of avariable. For example, suppose you would like Emacs tosave backup versions of your files. You would set somevariables to true by doing the following:(setq make-backup-files t)(setq version-control t)Where do you put these variable settings? You put theminto a file called /.emacs. When Emacs starts up, itreads in and evaluates all the code in that file. Your ac-count should already have a .emacs file; check it outsometime.45 Backspace versus DeleteOn PCs, the convention is that the Backspace key deletesthe character to the left of the insertion point (the previ-ous character), and the Delete key deletes the character tothe right of the insertion point (the next character). OnUNIX systems and other older operating systems (Mul-tics, TOPS-20, . . . ), its typically the case that the Deletekey deletes the previous character and the Backspace keydoes something else, such as backing up but not deletingthe character.5 Consequently, the Backspace key wasntused very often. Note, by the way, that Backspace andDelete are both ordinary ASCII characters: Backspace isthe same as C-h, which is character 8; Delete is character127.Early in Emacss history, the implementors decidedthat since Backspace wasnt used much, and that C-hwould be mnemonic for help, they assigned C-h to bethe prefix character for all of the built-in help facilities.Of course, this meant that the Backspace key also wasa prefix character for help, since (at the time) the com-puter couldnt tell the difference between backspace andC-h. Since most people didnt use the Backspace key,this wasnt a problem.Modern computer keyboards can tell the difference be-tween C-h, Backspace and Delete. Most Linux ma-chines make the Backspace and Delete keys act the sameway, deleting the previous character. If you want to deletethe next character (PC-style Delete), try to get used to typ-ing C-d, the Emacs command to delete forward. This willbe more efficient than using the arrow key to go forwardand then pressing the Delete key. (When you get moreadvanced, you can re-bind the Delete key to be the sameas C-d.)6 XEmacs versus EmacsThere have been many implementations of Emacs overthe years (the editor is over twenty years old) and so theword Emacs often means, generically, any one of thoseimplementations. They are quite similar, although manyfeatures have been added over the years.Currently, there are two major implementations: GNUEmacs, written by the Free Software Foundation (FSF)and XEmacs, written by the XEmacs organization. Theyare both free, both very good, and very similar. Thousandsof organizations all over the world use one or the other,and sometimes both.5This makes it possible to actually underline something, by typing itand then backing up and typing underline characters.7 Parting WordsEmacs has many, many other useful commands. A par-tial listing, more compact than this document, is in theemacs-refcard-letter files that are in the sameplace where you got this file. As you get more proficientat it, try listing the key bindings (C-h b) to find othercommands. There is also an enormous amount of on-linedocumentation, either via C-h m (help with this mode),C-h F (the FAQ), or C-h i (the info pages, which arehyperlinked manual pages).5
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