introduction to personal networks summer course “the measurement of personal networks” uab 2011

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  • Slide 1
  • Introduction to Personal networks Summer course The Measurement of Personal Networks UAB 2011
  • Slide 2
  • The plan for this week Introduction to personal network analysis Name generators Name interpreters Reliability and validity of network data Mixed methods designs Workshops with software for collecting, visualizing and analyzing personal network data: EgoNet (Jos Luis Molina) E-Net (Steve Borgatti) Vennmaker (Markus Gamper) (not specifically for personal networks) visone (Jrgen Lerner)
  • Slide 3
  • The plan for this morning 1. Introduction to personal networks. A bit of history Distinction between sociocentric, egocentric and personal networks A definition of personal networks. An overview of research in the area. 2. Types of personal network data 3. Designing a personal network study (goals, design, and sampling).
  • Slide 4
  • 1. Introduction to Personal Networks.
  • Slide 5
  • History and difference with sociocentric networks
  • Slide 6
  • A bit of History The Manchester School, led first by Max Gluckman and later by Clyde Mitchell, explored the personal networks of tribal people in the new cities of the Cooperbelt (but also in the India, Malta, Norway) Faced with culture change, mobility and multiculturalism they used social networks as an alternative to Structural-Functionalist Theory in anthropology
  • Slide 7
  • Radcliffe Brown A. R. Radcliffe Brown, a structural-functionalist, became disillusioned with the concept of culture and anthropological approaches using an institutional framework As an alternative he suggested focusing on social relations, which, unlike culture, could be observed and measured directly But direct observation does reveal to us that these human beings are connected by a complex network of social relations. I use the term social structure to denote this network of actually existing relations. (A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, "On Social Structure," Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute: 70 (1940): 1-12.)
  • Slide 8
  • Two branches in the development of social network analysis Moreno INSNA Radcliffe-Brown, Nadel Gluckman, Mitchell, Bott, Barnes, Kapferer, Epstein, Boissevain, Warner, Chappel For a complete review of the history of SNA read: Freeman, L. C. (2004). The Development of Social Network Analysis: A Study in the Sociology of Science. Empirical Press. Romney, Bernard, Wolfe, Johnson, Schweizer, D. White Coleman, H. White, Harary, Freeman, Rogers, Davis, Lorraine Granovetter, Burt, Wellman, Snijders, Frank, Doreian, Richards, Valente, Laumann, Kadushin, Bonacich, SociologyAnthropology
  • Slide 9
  • For instance Gossip network (Epstein, 1957)
  • Slide 10
  • East York (Wellman, 1984, 1999)
  • Slide 11
  • Two kinds of social network analysis Personal (Egocentric) Network Analysis Effects of social context on individual attitudes, behaviors Collect data from respondent (ego) about interactions with network members (alters) in all social settings. Whole (Complete or Sociocentric) Network Analysis Interaction within a socially or geographically bounded group Collect data from group members about their ties to other group members in a selected social setting.
  • Slide 12
  • Not a Simple Dichotomy The world is one large (un-measurable) whole network Personal and whole networks are part of a spectrum of social observations Different objectives require different network lenses
  • Slide 13
  • Personal Networks: Unbounded Social Phenomena Social or geographic space Social influence crosses social domains Network variables are treated as attributes of respondents These are used to predict outcomes (or as outcomes) Example: Predict depression among seniors using the cohesiveness of their personal network
  • Slide 14
  • Social or geographic space Whole networks: Bounded Social Phenomena Example: Predict depression among seniors using social position in a Retirement Home Focus on social position within the space
  • Slide 15
  • Social or geographic space Overlapping personal networks: Bounded and Unbounded Social Phenomena Example: Predict depression among seniors based on social position within a Retirement Home and contacts with alters outside the home Use overlapping networks as a proxy for whole network structure, and identify mutually shared peripheral alters
  • Slide 16
  • A note on the term Egocentric Egocentric means focused on Ego. You can do an egocentric analysis within a whole network See much of Ron Burts work on structural holes See the Ego Networks option in UCInet Personal networks are egocentric networks within the whole network of the World (but not within a typical whole network).
  • Slide 17
  • Summary so far When to use whole networks If the phenomenon of interest occurs within a socially or geographically bounded space. If the members of the population are not independent and tend to interact. When to use personal networks If the phenomena of interest affects people irrespective of a particular bounded space. If the members of the population are independent of one another. When to use both When the members of the population are not independent and tend to interact, but influences from outside the space may also be important.
  • Slide 18
  • Definition of personal networks
  • Slide 19
  • Personal network The set of social relationships surrounding an individual, which stem from different contexts (family, work, neighbourhood, associations, religious community, school, online community). Ego: the focal individual Alter: a network member
  • Slide 20
  • Personal network The set of social relationships surrounding an individual, which stem from different contexts (family, work, neighbourhood, associations, religious community, school, online community). Ego: an informant Alter: a network member
  • Slide 21
  • Personal network The set of social relationships surrounding an individual, which stem from different contexts (family, work, neighbourhood, associations, religious community, school, online community). Ego: an informant Alter: a network member
  • Slide 22
  • Personal network The set of social relationships surrounding an individual, which stem from different contexts. Ego: an informant Alter: a network member
  • Slide 23
  • Robin Dunbar: Hierarchically inclusive levels of acquaintanceship 500 1500 ego Support clique 5 Sympathy group 15 Active or close network 50 Personal network 150 Boundary specification
  • Slide 24
  • Dunbars number http://www.cabdyn.ox.ac.uk/complexity_PDFs/CABDyN%20Seminars%202007_2008/ CABDyN%20Seminar%20Slides%20RIMDunbar.pdf
  • Slide 25
  • How many people does a person know? Year-long observation of two individuals (Boissevain, 1973): Contact diaries: Pool & Kochens (1978) 1 person experiment: Gurevitch (1961) 18 persons: Fu (2007): 54 persons, 3 months: Telephone Book Studies (Freeman & Thompson, 1989): Estimate based on the number of names informants recognize from a random sample of surnames from a telephone book, extrapolated to match the total number of names in the phonebook. Reversed Small World experiment (e.g., Killworth & Bernard, 1978/79): Informants are asked who is the most appropriate first intermediary to send a package to each of 1267 (originally) or 500 persons in the world, each equipped with a location and an occupation. Extrapolation based on distribution. Known population method (Bernard et al., 1991): Estimate based on the size of the population, the size of 20-30 known subpopulations, and the number of persons one knows in each of the subpopulations. Various studies. Summation method (McCarty et al., 2001): Sum of respondents estimates of the number of people they know in each of 16 relationship categories Extrapolation on the basis of the relation between neocortex size and average group size of primates (Dunbar, 1993) 1750 500-1500 2130 227 5520 2025 250 290 611 290 150 Christmas cards (Hill & Dunbar, 2003)125
  • Slide 26
  • How many people does a person know? Year-long observation of two individuals (Boissevain, 1973): Contact diaries: Pool & Kochens (1978) 1 person experiment: Gurevitch (1961) 18 persons: Fu (2007): 54 persons, 3 months: Telephone Book Studies (Freeman & Thompson, 1989): Estimate based on the number of names informants recognize from a random sample of surnames from a telephone book, extrapolated to match the total number of names in the phonebook. Revised by Killworth et al. at Reversed Small World experiment (e.g., Killworth & Bernard, 1978/79): Informants are asked who is the most appropriate first intermediary to send a package to each of 1267 (originally) or 500 persons in the world, each equipped with a location and an occupation. Extrapolation based on distribution. Known population method (Bernard et al., 1991): Estimate based on the size of the population, the size of 20-30 known subpopulations, and the number of persons one knows in each of the subpopulations. Various studies. Revised by McCormick et al. (2010) at Summation method (McCarty et al., 2001): Sum of respondents estimates of the number of people they know in each of 16 relationship categories Extrapolation on the basis of the relation between neocortex size and average group s