Introduction to Outdoor Lighting

Download Introduction to Outdoor Lighting

Post on 11-Jan-2017

214 views

Category:

Documents

1 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

<ul><li><p>Introduction to Outdoor LightingAnd How it Affects Light PollutionIDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>*</p></li><li><p>Scope of LessonWe will discuss the history of outdoor lightingIts purposeTypes of LampsFundamentals of DesignWhy too much light at night is harmfulActivities to demonstrate good lighting.</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>*</p></li><li><p>NighttimeIDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p></li><li><p>Define NightscapeFor many centuries the nightscape was the moon and stars. During a full moon it would be relatively bright and during a new moon, rather dark.For urban dwellers over the last 100 years it has come to be described as lighting buildings, streets, and open spaces.Could there be a compromise?</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness During a full moon it would be relatively bright and during a new moon, it is very dark. The picture on the top shows us what night used to be and the picture on the bottom shows us what some urban areas have become.*</p></li><li><p>HistoryStreet lighting as we know it began approximately 300 years ago.These were oil lamps placed on wooden polesBy the early 18th century oil lamps were still used but the poles and lamps were made of cast-iron fixtures.The beginning of the 19th saw gas lamps come into use.By the 20th century electric lamps were in wide use.</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness Yes, there has been a long history of lighting streets and homes at night. However, for much of that time it was lighting that was much softer than todays lighting. The term candlepower comes from this history. Candlepower is a measure of luminous intensity of a light source in a specific direction measured in candelas.*</p></li><li><p>What is outdoor lighting now?Street lightingRoadway lightingParksStadiumsParking lotsLandscapingResidentialBuildingsPedestrian and Bicycling Pathways</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness This photo illustrates most of the types of lighting that we see everyday. Both the good and the bad. Which takes us to..*</p></li><li><p>Purpose of outdoor lightingProvide a safe and secure environment at night.Extend the use of parks and walkways into the night.To enhance historic/notable featuresTo enhance travel on the roads and at intersections.</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness All of these purposes show an excellent reason for having light at night, but perhaps we could look at the design of these outdoor lights to determine if there is a better way to light. Why is design important?*</p></li><li><p>What is light pollution?It is wasted light that performs no function or taskSuch as sky glowGlareIt is artificial light that goes where its not supposed to goNeighbors windowInto the sky</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness Without proper lighting design you get light pollution. Light pollution is one of those rare pollutions that actually costs less to solve than it does to continue as it is. Lets look at what lighting engineers should consider when they design a lighting scheme.*</p></li><li><p>Outdoor LightingIDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p></li><li><p>Outdoor lighting shouldEnhance visibility, not impede itNot produce glareBe a part of the total nightscape, not all of itNot allow light trespass on others propertyHave a master plan</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness Glare is defined as excessive brightness from a source of light in the line of sight, usually horizontal. Trespass is light that goes where it was not intended to go, wanted or needed. A master plan begins with an audit of your surroundings and what is the task that each light will take.*</p></li><li><p>Outdoor lighting shouldProvide a safe and secure environment Create safe routes for traffic, cyclists and pedestriansFacilitate the extended use of outdoor spaces</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness Safety means that light is not glaring in your face, does not cause blindness when you look at it. Good lighting is shielded and points to the ground below. No light above the 90 degree angle (or the horizontal), this is also know as full cut-off. Notice the light on the ball field above. See how it lights just the field and not the surrounding area. If you look closely you will see the lights from the window of a house at the 10 oclock position behind the field. No light trespass is annoying this homeowner.*</p></li><li><p>Shielded LuminairesIDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p></li><li><p>Importance of Shielding LightUnshielded lights produce Sky Glow Glare</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness If we dont consider the above elements we negatively impact our whole environment.Sky glow is that orange haze that sits over a city and can be seen up to 200 miles away. Sky glow is exacerbated by particulates in the air: pollution, water vapor, aerosols, and cloud cover. The photo to the left is Los Angles in 1988 from the Griffith Observatory. As you can see there are no stars visible. The photo on the right shows the unsafe glare an unshielded light can produce. Do you see the man hiding on the other side of the van? The irony is, this lighting was installed to make people safe, however, now they are less safe.*</p></li><li><p>The IssuesIDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p></li><li><p>Unshielded Luminaires Waste EnergyLight that spills out, away from the task it needs to be used for is wasted energy, and wasted money.Environmentally responsible outdoor lighting reduces this waste and costs no more than earlier manufactured light fixtures. Below- the Escondido Education Center before on the left and after on the right. Unnecessary lights on the roof only added to their light bill, not to the safety of the parking lot.</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness Why should any of us be concerned that there is too much light at night and poor outdoor lighting design? Well there are 5 very good reasons for trying to reduce light pollution and the first one is the waste of energy is causes.*</p></li><li><p>Non-shielded lights are unsafeThe glaring lamp to the right of the path was installed to protect students at night.</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness Here is an excellent example of a poorly designed lighting scheme and how it does not contribute to campus safety. Notice the glare in the trees? Well the students dont walk there, but on the ground where they do walk there are lots of shadows.*</p></li><li><p>Where did the student go?IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness Can you detect where the student is now? This light was meant to make the campus safer, but the lighting has only made the shadows easier to hide in. The student is now directly under the lamp, great place for a shadow isnt it. Now we have created the shadows in which to lurk.*</p></li><li><p>Negative Impact on WildlifeAnimals and plants live by a rhythm based on a 24 hour cycle. Wildlife and fish can become disoriented by too much artificial light at night.It interferes with migration, mating, foraging for food, and sleep.</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness There is more and more research being done about the effects of light pollution on animals, but there is a lot we dont know yet. This is what we do know. In addition no one spectrum of light is the best for all species. Yellow lights do not attract insects, however, red lights do not attract sea turtles. Good lighting design takes into consideration all aspects of the area to be lit.*</p></li><li><p>Negative Impact on Human HealthLight trespass into bedrooms disrupts sleep patterns.Glare in our eyes can be blinding and reduce our night vision.New research is being done to discover the impact to our biological clocks.</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness The research being done on our biological clocks is going to be very interesting. Our bodies naturally produce many hormones, including melatonin when they are in total darkness. Melatonin is found in practically all species, and acts as an anti-oxidant for the body. If you have light trespass into your bedroom, this biological rhythm may become disturbed. How much light does it take and for how long? These are questions that they are studying, and when we have more information about correlations between light and health we will publish them.*</p></li><li><p>Negative Impact on AstronomyLight pollution negatively affects one of our greatest natural laboratories, the night skies.This is an important industry that has given usCell phone technologyX-rays, MRIs, and medical imagingSatellite communications</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness Astronomy is often a gateway to other sciences because the laboratory is just outside. The optics perfected in telescopes has been used in satellite technology for weather and communications. Optics designs have also been modified for ophthalmic applications and diagnosis. Radio astronomers have led the way in advances to increase bandwidth for television, satellite, and radio communications. Astrophysics has been the major impetus behind super computer construction for over 50 years. Sensors and detectors have been developed and improved because of the science of Astronomy. These include x-rays used in healthcare, luggage scanners, energy research and biomedical research. Astronomical studies provide information on climate change, weather patterns, and solar observations affecting our planet. So you see, its to our mutual benefit to continue to provide clear skies for this research.*</p></li><li><p>SolutionsIDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p></li><li><p>SolutionsOutdoor lights should be full cut-off or fully shielded. That means no light above the 90 degree angle.Fully shielded lighting can be purchased or retrofitted Use timers, dimmers, and motions sensors. Motion sensors in a parking lot or on a house provide an alert to after hours activity that a dusk to dawn sensor does not. </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness Promoting fully shielded lighting is the backbone of reducing wasted light and energy. These luminaires cost no more than un-shielded light fixtures. We understand that people need some lighting at night, lets just look at it in a different way. Better lighting that does not spread the light upward where it is not needed. This photo is a perfect example for using shielded lighting to reduce glare, reduce upward light, and perhaps using a timer to dim the lights or turn them off at night. While its possible that someone wants to look for a car at 1:00 a.m., it is not probable.*</p></li><li><p>LampsIDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p></li><li><p>Types of LampsThere are four basic types:IncandescentFluorescentHigh-intensity dischargeIncluding: Mercury Vapor, Metal Halide, High Pressure Sodium and Low Pressure sodiumLight Emitting Diode (LED)LED technology is still relatively new</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness CFLHigh-Pressure SodiumLow-Pressure Sodium</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness Lets look at the types of lamps we will see on our campus or in our neighborhood. Lamp is a lighting industry term for an electric light bulb, tube, or other lighting device.LED technology is still relatively new and has not been installed on a wide basis yet. Therefore we will not be getting into details about this type of lamp in this lesson.*</p></li><li><p>IncandescentMost common in homesIt uses electric current to heat a tiny coil of tungsten metal inside a glass bulb to produce light.Have short livesConvert most of their energy into heat rather than light</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness An incandescent lamp produces visible radiant energy by electrical heating of a filament.*</p></li><li><p>FluorescentUsed mostly in commercial settingsIt produces light when electric current is conducted through mercury an inert gases. 3 to 4 times more efficient than incandescent, and lasts 10 times longerProduces up to 100/lumens per watt (approximately)</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness A fluorescent lamp contains mercury that is ionized by an electric arc, producing ultraviolet energy which, in turn, causes a phosphor coating inside the lamp to fluoresce.Yes, fluorescent lighting needs to be disposed of properly when it is no longer in use. Most cities have a recycling program where people can safely dispose of the burned out bulbs.*</p></li><li><p>High-Intensity DischargeUsed mainly for large area applicationsProvide higher efficacy and longer service lifeMost common types are mercury vapor (MV), metal halide (MH), and high-pressure sodium (HPS)Metal Halide 100/lumens per watt HPS up to 150/lumens per wattMV being phased out</p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness </p><p>IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness A high intensity discharge lamp (HID): produces light directly from an arc discharge under high pressure. Metal halide, high pressure sodium and mercury vapor are types of HID lamps.*</p></li><li><p>HID continuedLow-Pressure SodiumAlso considered a high intensity discharge lamp, but it has some unique characteristics.Used in outdoor applications Most efficient form of artificial lighting Maintain their light output bet...</p></li></ul>

Recommended

View more >