introduction to microbiology untan

Author: gama-natakusumawati

Post on 07-Jul-2018

224 views

Category:

Documents


1 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    1/78

    Introduction to

    Microbiology

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    2/78

    Microbiology

    • Study of microscopic (living ) things

    • E.g.

    viruses, bacteria, algae, protists, fungi

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    3/78

    History of Microbiology

    • 159 ! "irst compound light microscope

    #acharias $anssen

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    4/78

    History

    • 1%&% !first observation of bacteria'animalcules

     nton *on +eeuenhoe-

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    5/78

    History

    • 1&9% ! "irst vaccine (smallpo)

    Edard $enner 

    http://www.digitalcentury.com/ebcyclo/update/comp.html

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    6/78

    History

    • 1/5& ! 0erm heory of 2isease+ouis 3asteur 

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    7/78

    History

    • 1/%& ntiseptic Surgery

    $oseph +ister 

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    8/78

    History

    • 1//4 och6s 3ostulates of

    2isease ransmission

    7obert och

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    9/78

    8si postulat och adalah

    • 1. :rganisme (parasit) harus ditemu-an

    dalam hean yang sa-it, tida- pada yangsehat.

    • ;. :rganisme harus diisolasi dari heansa-it dan dibia--an dalam -ultur murni.

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    10/78

    History

    • 1//5 = *accine against

    7abies, +ouis 3asteur 

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    11/78

    History

    • 19;9 2iscovery of 3enicillin  (first antibiotic)

      leander "leming

    http://commtechlab.msu.edu/sites/dlc-me/zoo/microbes/media/penicil.jpg

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    12/78

    History

    • 19

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    13/78

    History

    195< Structure of 2? 7evealed

    @atson A Bric-

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    14/78

    History

    1954 3olio *accine

    $onas Sal-

    http://www.sandiegohistory.org/bio/salk/images/salk2.jpg

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    15/78

    Recent History

    • 0enetic engineering

    • Bloning

    •Cuman 0enome 3roDect

    • iotechnology

    • @ho -nos hat is netF

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    16/78

    Sizes of Microbes

    • *irus = 1 G1 nanometers H

    • acteria = .1 G 5 micrometers HH (Cuman eye ) can see .1 mm (1 1 =

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    17/78

    Tools of Microbiology

    • Bompound light >icroscope

    = live specimens= 1, mag. or less

    • Electron >icroscope

     = non=living specimens

     = I 1, J mag.

    • 8ncubator ! -eep microbes

    arm for groth

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    18/78

    Techniques of

    Microbiology• Staining ! to better see structures• >icrobial Bulture•

    Bontainer for microbe culture  = usually 3etri dish• Bulture media

    = "ood for the microbes

     = E.g. gar ! (from red algae)= :thers such as nutrient broths

     

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    19/78

    Pure Culture Techniques

    1. 8noculation

    ;. 8solation

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    20/78

    • >icroorganisms are organismsthat are too small to be seen ith

    the unaided eye.

    • '0erm refers to a rapidly groingcell.

    >icrobes in :ur +ives

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    21/78

    WHY STUDY

    MICR!I"#Y

    • 3ublic Cealth pplications

    • "ood pplications

    • 8ndustrial pplications• iofuels pplications

    • iopharmaceuticalapplications

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    22/78

    Microorg$nis%s

    • 2ecompose organic aste

    •  re producers in the ecosystem by

      photosynthesis

    • 3roduce industrial chemicals such

    as ethanol and acetone

    • 3roduce fermented foods

    such as vinegar, cheese,and bread

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    23/78

    Microorg$nis%s

    "igure 1.1

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    24/78

    Microorg$nis%s

    • 3roduce products used in

    manufacturing (e.g., cellulase)

    and treatment (e.g., insulin)

    •   fe are pathogenic,

    disease=causing

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    25/78

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    26/78

    • +innaeus established the system of scientific

    nomenclature.

    • Each organism has to names the genusand specific epithet.

    ($%ing $nd Cl$ssifying

    Microorg$nis%s

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    27/78

    Scientific ($%es

    •  re italiciLed or underlined. hegenus is capitaliLed and the specific

    epithet is loer case.

    •  re '+atiniLed and used orldide.• >ay be descriptive or honor a

    scientist.

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    28/78

    Scientific ($%es

    • Staphylococcus aureus

     ! 2escribes the clustered arrangement  of the cells (staphylo=) and the

    golden color of the colonies (aur =).

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    29/78

    Scientific ($%es

    • Escherichia coli 

     ! Conors the discoverer, heodor Escherich, and

    describes the bacterium6s habitat!the large

    intestine or colon.

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    30/78

    Scientific ($%es

    •  fter the first use, scientific names

    may be abbreviated ith the first letter

    of the genus and the specific epithet

     ! Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichiacoli  are found in the human body. S.

    aureus is on s-in and E. coli  in the large

    intestine.

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    31/78

    !$cteri$

    • 3ro-aryotes

    • 3eptidoglycan cell alls

    • inary fission

    • "or energy, use organic

    chemicals, inorganic

    chemicals, or

    photosynthesis

    "igure 1.1a

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    32/78

    )rch$e$

    • 3ro-aryotic

    • +ac- peptidoglycan

    • +ive in etreme environments

    • 8nclude

     !>ethanogens

     ! Etreme halophiles

     ! Etreme thermophiles

    "igure 4.5b

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    33/78

    *ungi• Eu-aryotes

    • Bhitin cell alls

    • Mse organic chemicals for

    energy.• >olds and mushrooms are

    multicellular consisting of

    masses of mycelia, hich arecomposed of filaments called

    hyphae.

    • Neasts are unicellular. "igure 1.1b

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    34/78

    Protozo$

    • Eu-aryotes

    •  bsorb or ingest

    organic chemicals

    • >ay be motile via

    pseudopods, cilia,

    or flagella

    "igure 1.1c

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    35/78

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    36/78

    +iruses

    •  cellular • Bonsist of 2? or  7?

    core

    • Bore is surrounded bya protein coat.

    • Boat may be enclosed

    in a lipid envelope.

    • *iruses are replicated

    only hen they are in a

    living host cell. "igure 1.1e

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    37/78

    "inn$eus,s Cl$ssific$tion

    • Cierarchical system• inomial ?omenclature  ncient 0ree-s

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    38/78

    Cl$ssific$tion ofMicroorg$nis%s

    • hree domains ! acteria

     ! rchaea

     ! Eu-arya

    • 3rotists

    • "ungi

    • 3lants

    •  nimals

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    39/78

    • ncestors of bacteria ere thefirst life on Earth.

    • he first microbes ere observed

    in 1%&

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    40/78

    The *irst bser-$tions

    • 8n 1%%5, 7obert Coo-e reported that living

    things ere composed of little boes or cells.

    • 8n 1/5/, 7udolf *ircho said cells arise from

    preeisting cells.

    • Bell theory ll living things are composed of

    cells and come from preeisting cells.

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    41/78

    "eeu'enhoe.

    • Early :bservations

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    42/78

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    43/78

    The Deb$te -er

    S/ont$neous #ener$tion• he hypothesis that living organisms arise

    from nonliving matter is called spontaneous

    generation. ccording to spontaneousgeneration, a 'vital force forms life.

    • he alternative hypothesis, that the living

    organisms arise from preeisting life, iscalled biogenesis.

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    44/78

    • 1&%5 +aLLaro SpallanLani boiled nutrient

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    45/78

    0-idence Pro $nd Con

    1&%5 +aLLaro SpallanLani boiled nutrient

    solutions in flas-s.

    Bonditions 7esults

    ?utrient broth placed in flas-,

    heated, then sealed

    ?o microbial groth

    S pontaneous generation or biogenesis?

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    46/78

    0-idence Pro $nd Con

    Bonditions 7esults

    ?utrient broth placed in flas-,

    heated, not sealed

    >icrobial groth

    ?utrient broth placed in flas-,

    heated, then sealed

    ?o microbial groth

    S pontaneous generation or biogenesis?

    • 3asteur6s S=shaped flas- -ept microbes out

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    47/78

    The Theory of!iogenesis

    3asteur s S shaped flas- -ept microbes out

    but let air in.

    "igure 1.<

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    48/78

    • 1/5&=1914

    • eginning ith 3asteur6s or-,discoveries included the

    relationship beteen microbesand disease, immunity, andantimicrobial drugs

    The #olden )ge of Microbiology

    *er%ent$tion $nd

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    49/78

    *er%ent$tion $nd

    P$steuriz$tion

    • 3asteur shoed that microbes are

    responsible for fermentation.

    • "ermentation is the conversion of sugar to

    alcohol to ma-e beer and ine.

    • >icrobial groth is also responsible for

    spoilage of food.

    • acteria that use alcohol and produce acetic

    acid spoil ine by turning it to vinegar (acetic

    acid).

    *er%ent$tion $nd

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    50/78

    *er%ent$tion $nd

    P$steuriz$tion• 3asteur demonstrated that

    these spoilage bacteria

    could be -illed by heat that

    as not hot enough to

    evaporate the alcohol inine.

    • 3asteruiLation is the

    application of a high heat for

    a short time.

    "igure 1.4 (1 of

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    51/78

    The #er% Theory of

    Dise$se

    • 1/

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    52/78

    P$steur 

    • Spontaneous generation vs. biogenesis

    • 0erm heory

    • "ather of aseptic techniKues

    • 3asteuriLation

    • "ermentation research

    • *accination (rabies)

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    53/78

    &och

    • och6s 3ostulates• 3ure Bulture Boncept

    • uberculosis

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    54/78

    M$gic !ullets

    • Bhemotherapy ith chemicals !

    synthetic drugs and antibiotics

    • Ehrlich and salversan

    • Sulfonamides

    • "leming and penicillin

    • 2rug resistance issues today

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    55/78

    +$ccin$tion

    • 1&9% Edard $enner inoculated a person ith copo virus.

    he person

    as then protected from smallpo.• *accination is derived from

    vacca for co. he protection

      is called immunity.

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    56/78

    The !irth of Modern

    Che%other$/y

    • reatment ith chemicals is chemotherapy.

    • Bhemotherapeutic agents used to treat

    infectious disease can be synthetic drugs or

    antibiotics.•  ntibiotics are chemicals produced by

    bacteria and fungi that inhibit or -ill other

    microbes.

    The !irth of Modern

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    57/78

    The !irth of Modern

    Che%other$/y• 19;/ leander "leming

    discovered the first antibiotic.

    • Ce observed that Penicillium 

    fungus made an antibiotic,penicillin, that -illed S.

    aureus.

    • 194s 3enicillin as tested

    clinically and mass

    produced.

    "igure 1.5

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    58/78

    Modern De-elo/%ents

    in Microbiology

    • acteriology is the study of bacteria.

    • >ycology is the study of fungi.

    • 3arasitology is the study of protoLoa andparasitic orms.

    • 7ecent advances in genomics, the study of

    an organism6s genes, have provided ne

    tools for classifying microorganisms.

    Modern De-elo/%ents

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    59/78

    Modern De-elo/%ents

    in Microbiology• 8mmunology is the study of

    immunity. *accines and

    interferons are being

    investigated to prevent and

    cure viral diseases.• he use of immunology to

    identify some bacteria

    according to serotypes(variants ithin a species)

    as proposed by 7ebecca

    +ancefield in 19

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    60/78

    Modern De-elo/%ents

    in Microbiology• *irology is the study of viruses.

    • 7ecombinant 2? is 2? made from to

    different sources. 8n the 19%s, 3aul erginserted animal 2? into bacterial 2? and

    the bacteria produced an animal protein.

    • 7ecombinant 2? technology, or geneticengineering, involves microbial genetics and

    molecular biology.

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    61/78

    Modern De-elo/%ents

    in Microbiology• Msing microbes ! 0eorge eadle and Edard atum shoed that

    genes encode a cell6s enLymes (194;).

     ! :sald very, Bolin >ac+eod, and >aclyn

    >cBarty shoed that 2? as the hereditary

    material (1944).

     ! "rancois $acob and $acKues >onod discoveredthe role of m7? in protein synthesis (19%1).

    Mi b d H W lf

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    62/78

    • >icrobial ecology

    • acteria recycle carbon, nutrients, sulfur, and

    phosphorus that can be used by plants and animals.

    Microbes $nd Hu%$n Welf$re

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    63/78

    !iore%edi$tion

    • acteria degrade

    organic matter inseage.

    • acteria degrade or

    detoify pollutants such

    as oil and mercury.

    M? ;.1

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    64/78

    !iologic$l Insecticides

    • >icrobes that are pathogenic to insects are

    alternatives to chemical pesticides in

    preventing insect damage to agricultural

    crops and disease transmission.

    • Bacillus thuringiensis infections are fatal in

    many insects but harmless to other animals,including humans, and to plants.

    Modern !iotechnology $nd

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    65/78

    Modern !iotechnology $nd

    #enetic 0ngineering

    • iotechnology, the use of microbes toproduce foods and chemicals, is centuries

    old.

    • 0enetic engineering is a ne techniKue forbiotechnology. hrough genetic engineering,

    bacteria and fungi can produce a variety of

    proteins including vaccines and enLymes.

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    66/78

    Modern !iotechnology $nd

    #enetic 0ngineering1continued2• >issing or defective genes in human cells

    can be replaced in gene therapy.• 0enetically modified bacteria are used to

    protect crops from insects and from freeLing.

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    67/78

    Microbes $nd Hu%$n

    Dise$se

    • acteria ere once classified as plants

    giving rise to use of the term flora for

    microbes.

    • his term has been replaced by

    microbiota.

    • >icrobes normally present in and on thehuman body are called normal microbiota.

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    68/78

    (or%$l Microbiot$

    • ?ormal microbiota prevent groth of pathogens.

    • ?ormal microbiota produce groth factors such as

    folic acid and vitamin .

    • 7esistance is the ability of the body to ard offdisease.

    • 7esistance factors include s-in, stomach acid, and

    antimicrobial chemicals.

    • iofilms are etremely important in microbial

    ecology

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    69/78

    Infectious Dise$ses

    • @hen a pathogen overcomes the host6s

    resistance, disease results.

    • Emerging infectious diseases (E82) ?e

    diseases and diseases increasing in incidence.

    I f ti Di

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    70/78

    Infectious Dise$se

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    71/78

    0%erging Infectious Dise$ses

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    72/78

    0%erging Infectious Dise$ses

    •  vian 8nfluenLa C5?1

    • Severe acute respiratorysyndrome (S7S)

    • @est ?ile encephalitis (@?E)

    • ovine spongiform encephalitis(SE)

    • BreutLfeld=$acob disease (B$2)• 15&C& E. coli

    • "lesh eating bacteria

    • Ebola

    • >arburg

    • Bryptosporidiosis•  82S

    • C8* virus

    0 i I f ti

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    73/78

    0%erging Infectious

    Dise$ses

    • ovine spongiform encephalopathy

     ! 3rion

     ! lso causes BreutLfeldt=$a-ob disease

    (B$2)

     ! ?e variant B$2 in humans is related to

    cattle fed sheep offal for protein

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    74/78

    0%erging InfectiousDise$ses

    • Escherichia coli  :5&C& ! oin=producing strain of E. coli 

     ! "irst seen in 19/;

     ! +eading cause of diarrhea orldide

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    75/78

    0%erging InfectiousDise$ses

    • 8nvasive group Streptococcus ! 7apidly groing bacteria that cause etensive

    tissue damage

     !8ncreased incidence since 1995

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    76/78

    0%erging Infectious

    Dise$ses• Ebola hemorrhagic fever  ! Ebola virus

     ! Bauses fever, hemorrhaging, andblood clotting

     ! "irst identified near Ebola 7iver, Bongo

     ! :utbrea-s every fe years

    !IT0RRRISM

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    77/78

    !IT0RRRISM•  ?C7J

    • S>++3:J• M+7E>8

    • 3+0ME

    • :CE7 0E?S

  • 8/18/2019 Introduction to Microbiology UNTAN

    78/78

    TH)(&YU