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  • Introduction to Judaism Judaism was the first monotheistic religion Both Christianity and Islam have their roots in Judaism
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  • Introduction to Judaism As of 2010, there were nearly 13.5 million Jews worldwide: Israel: 5.7 million U.S. : 5.2 million Europe: just under 1 million Russia and Ukraine: 272,000 Jews are both an ethnic group and a religion. However: according to the Jewish faith, anyone may be considered to be a Jew if: 1. they were born to a Jewish mother 2. they are a convert to Judaism
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  • Origins The founder of Judaism was Abraham Abraham was born in the Sumerian city of Ur around 1900 B.C. God called out to Abraham, offering to make him the father of a great nation, if he would leave his home and settle in the land which God promised to him. This promised land was called Canaan. It was located in present day Israel and Jordan
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  • Origins Route Abraham took to Canaan
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  • Origins Abraham entered into a covenant with God: Abraham had to keep Gods laws. In return, God granted Abraham and his wife Sarah a son, who they named Isaac. What was the most important of Gods laws? That Abraham and his people worship no other gods but the one God
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  • Origins All of the Jewish people are descended through Abrahams son Isaac Isaacs grandson Joseph led the Hebrews out of Canaan to the land of Egypt.
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  • The Exodus The Hebrews were eventually enslaved by the Egyptians Were led out of Egypt by Moses. This was known as the Exodus (around 1200 B.C.) Moses led his people back to the land of Canaan. They were given the Ten Commandments by God as their rule of law.
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  • The Ten Commandments The Ten Commandments are the most important and best- known Jewish laws. They require people to respect and honor God. They also tell people how they should treat each other: do not lie, steal, commit adultery, or murder
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  • Kingdom of Israel Under their great king David, the Hebrew people created a kingdom in Canaan, which was located in modern day Israel and Jordan (around 1000 B.C.) Established Jerusalem as the religious and political capital This kingdom grew wealthy and powerful under Davids son, King Solomon
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  • Kingdom of Israel Solomon built a magnificent temple to house the Ark of the Covenant, which is said to have contained the Ten Commandments
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  • The Temple This Temple was eventually destroyed and rebuilt many times. It was destroyed once and for all by the Romans in 70 A.D. The only remaining part of the Temple is the Western or Wailing Wall It is an important place of pilgrimage to the Jewish people
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  • The Temple Wailing Wall in Jerusalem
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  • The Diaspora The Romans forced the Jewish people out of Palestine. The Jews scattered throughout the known world. This scattering was known as the Diaspora
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  • The Torah The Torah is the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, and is considered their most sacred text It provides the Jews with their early history, as well as moral and religious laws
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  • The Prophets A prophet is a person who speaks or acts on behalf of God Moses, who gave the Jews the Ten Commandments, is considered their most important prophet
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  • Key Teachings of Judaism 1.There is only one God and God provides standards of right and wrong that people should follow. Judaism introduced this belief, called ethical monotheism, to the world. Judaism teaches that there is such a thing as right and wrong and that people have an obligation to do what is right. 2.Ethical World View. Since the Hebrew Bible states that all people are created in the image of God, Jews believe that every individual is important and deserves to be treated with respect. 3. Honor the Sabbath. Judaism teaches that Jews should spend one day a week, the Sabbath, focusing on things other than work and material concerns. This is the origin of the idea of a weekly day of rest that is part of many religions and is widely followed in many parts of the world.
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  • Key Teachings of Judaism 4.Live According to Gods Laws 5.Study. Judaism teaches that studying the Hebrew Bible, especially the Torah, leads to wisdom and good deeds, so Jewish culture emphasizes the importance of learning. 6.Dietary Laws
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  • Sects of Judaism Orthodox most traditional branch; emphasizes observance of moral and ritual obligations Reform not as strict on ritual laws Conservative middle ground; emphasizes the study of traditional Jewish texts
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  • Christianity
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  • Christianity in the Middle East As of 2010, there were 2.18 billion Christians in the world This religion has many denominations, or sects: 1. Roman Catholic 2. Protestant 3. Eastern Orthodox Christianity has its roots in the beliefs and traditions of Judaism 1.
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  • Origins The religion of Christianity is based upon the life and teachings of a Jewish man known as Jesus of Nazareth Other religions, such as Judaism and Islam, believe Jesus to be a Prophet 2
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  • Christianity in the Middle East Unlike other religions, such as Judaism and Islam, Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah, which means Annointed One, and the Son of God Jesus came down to earth in human form in order to bring God and humanity back together 2
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  • The Christian Bible The Christian Bible is divided into two parts: the Old Testament, which contains the witness of God originally to the Jews, and the New Testament, which is an account of those who knew or were closely associated with Jesus 3
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  • The Holy Bible The four Gospels written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, together with three other books, form the New Testament of the Bible, which is the basis of Christianity
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  • The Apostles Creed The Roman Emperor Constantine promoted the spread of Christianity throughout the Empire In A.D. 325, he convened a council of bishops at Nicaea, in modern day Turkey, to come to an agreement about Church doctrine They came up with a formal expression of Christian faith, known as The Apostles Creed Christianity would become the official religion of the Roman Empire 4
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  • Resurrection and Ascension Jesus was executed by the Romans because his teachings were viewed as a threat, both to the Empire as well as the Jewish Elders According to Christian beliefs, Jesus was resurrected from the dead and ascended to heaven 5.
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  • Resurrection and Ascension Through his death and resurrection, Jesus forgives all sins and offers people the opportunity to gain eternal life 5.
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  • Christianity in the Middle East After Jesuss death, his disciples resumed his work, and spread his teachings throughout the Roman world All Christians believe that Jesus was resurrected and ascended into heaven Jesus reconciled humanity with God through this death and resurrection 5.
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  • Christianity in the Middle East These early Christian communities were met with suspicion by the Roman authorities Roman authorities viewed the Christians as dangerous to the state, since they would not sacrifice to the pagan gods, nor recognize the divinity of their emperor By the middle of the 1 st century, Christians came under intense persecution by Rome 6.
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  • Christian Persecution in the Roman Empire
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  • Extent of Christianity by 5 th century A.D. Despite this persecution, Christian communities began to grow
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  • Appeal and Spread of Christianity Christianity appealed to many people, both rich and poor, because it offered the hope of salvation and eternal life Jesus also preached that ALL people were EQUAL, regardless of social class or wealth
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  • Reasons for Spread of Christianity 1.Jesuss message of the universality of humankind: all people are the same, and should be treated with respect 2.Promise of an afterlife appealed to those whose daily existence was difficult
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  • Appeal and Spread of Chrisianity Christianity was able to spread for the following reasons: 1.Appeal of Jesuss message 2.Infrastructure of the Roman Empire 3.Early missionary activities of the Apostles, especially Peter and Paul 4.The Second Jewish Diaspora 7.
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  • Eastern Orthodox Church The Roman Empire eventually split into two halves: East and West. The Christian Church had two main centers: Rome and Constantinople The Eastern Empire (Byzantine) eventually refused to recognize the Pope as the head of the Christian Church. This sectarian split became formal in 1054 A.D.
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  • Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Church (centered in Constantinople)
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  • Similarities of Judaism & Christianity All religions: A way to rejoice and give thanks moral code Give to needy Golden rule: do unto others Supreme power C and J: Monotheism Old Testamen


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