interviewing and interrogation techniques

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Techniques used to detect deception and conduct a dishonesty interview.

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Effective Interviewing and Interrogation TechniquesCJ 397 Introduction to Security

Truth and LiesOperating definition of the truth: the deliberate, complete and objective communication (verbal, written, or by gesture) of the recollection of a person, place, thing and/or event, which the communicator believes to exist, have existed, or occurred. Untruth (a lie) the deliberate communication to another, either verbally, written or by gesture, of something that the communicator knows or suspects is not the case: or, the presentation or omission of information, with the deliberate intent to deceive, and mislead someone who is requesting the truth.

Why Do People Lie?First category of lies-white lies or ethically necessary lies -harmless lies that are necessary to our social interaction with others -they reduce interpersonal fiction and foster goodwill The intentional harmful or self serving lie -one most open to detection -conditioned to feel guilty, fear detection and punishment, which produces observable psycho-physiological reactions -in telling a lie, the liar is attempting to evade responsibility for an unethical, immoral, and/or illegal act

The Decision to LieTwo primary ways to proceed once a person decides to lie: -lying by omission -lying by commission

-generally the method of choice

Lying by Omission

-it is tacit, easier, and involves less risk since no intervention is required -the liar chooses the path that offers the least risk of detection--the path of passive deception -no commitment to fabricated information -contains some element of fabrication of missing information --knowledgeable interviewer can detect and expose

Lying by CommissionCan be viewed as active deceit

-involves commitment, invention and defense-high risk of contradicting prior information that can later proven to be false -two choices when asked a question--tell the truth or lie -the truth--free-flowing and requires no other mental energy -lie--presented numerous choices and concerns -the size of the lie -what to put in -what to leave out -the majority of what a deceptive suspect says is true

Interviewers ObservationsA good interviewer must be able to sift through whatever truth there is in a clever liars story -dont be mislead by a superficial reaction to the intervieweess affect or tone -focus on the components of the statement that indicate possible deception or deliberate omission of information -understand non-verbal behavior and the assessment of unwitting verbal cues Everyone interviewed is a little apprehensive and nervous Truthful people are afraid that they will be accused of a crime that they did not commit Deceptive people are afraid that the interviewer will find out that the interviewee bears all or some of the responsibility for the matter under investigation

Elements of Interviews and InterrogationsInterview Purpose is to gather information Non-accusatory Free flowing Interviewer speaks 5% Suspect speaks 95% of the time Varied locations Distance between chairs is personal/social Zone Statement may be taken Miranda is not required Time limit Interrogation Purpose is to get a confession Accusatory Structured Interrogator speaks 95% Suspect speaks 5% Interrogator has home field Distance between chairs starts at personal and goes to Intimate Zone Statement is taken Miranda may be required May have time limit

Preparation for the Interview/Interrogation Interview/interrogation room-should not be a small, threatening space -should be private -all distractions should be cleared from desk, table, walls -unplug/turn off telephones, intercoms or pagers -room should not have windows or the blinds should be drawn -lighting should be adequate -minimum number of chairs should be available (one for interviewer/interrogator, one for interviewee/suspect, one for witness)

Analysis of Verbal CluesTruthful Wants truth known talkative Tries to narrow or assist investigation Uses appropriate and strong terms Expresses real feelings Admits the opportunity Deceptive Wants truth hidden/not talkative Has no information Uses mild/evasive terms Detached/distant Denies opportunity/makes sweeping declarations to exclude self Argues legal innocence

Argues actual innocence

Nonverbal Behavioral AssessmentHe that has no eyes to see, and ears to hear, may convince himself that no mortal can keep a secret. If his lips are silent, he chatters with his fingertips; betrayal oozes out of him from every pore. -Sigmund Freud

Non verbal behavior usually falls into one of three categories: Emblems Illustrators Adapters

Nonverbal Behavioral Assessment

Emblems -express the entire communication -accurate descriptors of a suspects true feelings and communication -do not have the same meaning in all cultures -the interviewer must be cautious so as not to misread emblems as related to specific cultural and societal backgrounds

Nonverbal Behavioral Assessment

Illustrators -nonverbal behaviors which help the listener better understand the verbal communication -indicate consistency between verbal and nonverbal communication -often occur as hand gestures and body position

Nonverbal Behavioral Assessment

Adapters -subconscious nonverbal behaviors that serve no purpose in helping the verbal communication -frequently distract from the communication -indicators of deception -often occur as hand gestures and body position -include any type of rubbing, picking, or touching of the leg or face

Nonverbal Behavioral Assessment

Nonverbal Behavioral AssessmentGeneral Posture Truthful people -use body position as an illustrator and have an open, settled, upright position -will lean slightly forward, indicating interest in what is being said -shoulder tend to remain squared and their body is aligned with the interviewer Deceptive people -show very closed and defensive positions (arms or legs crossed) -often lean back and stretch out their legs (perceptually increase the distance between themselves and the interviewer) -may assume a position of defeat (shoulders forward, chin on their chest)

Head -tilting of head to the side (illustrator) suggests cooperation, interest and belief in what is being said -jaw jutted forward, not tilted, indicates anger or aggression -chin on the chest, indicates defeat, depression, and/or boredom Face -most common part of the body to observe, but the most difficult to interpret -facial expressions are easy to produce, which can become automatic after time -masking (the attempt to conceal the truth through facial expression) is common -the interviewer can usually identify the underlying emotion -masking frequently occurs out of context, is held too long, and repeated too often

Nonverbal Behavioral Assessment

Nonverbal Behavioral Assessment-masks are usually distorted, exaggerated or incomplete -smile is the easiest facial expression to use in an attempt to mask a genuine emotion, such as fear Eyes -breaks in eye contact at the appropriate time can be indicative of deception -exaggerated eye contact may be considered an indicator of deceptionattempts to simulate sincerity or to dominate the interviewer -a preconception is that a liar cannot look the interviewer directly in the eyes -interviewer may be caught in a staring contest. -staring contests may be ended by pointing the interviewees attention to something else -pupil dilation is a good corollary indication of emotional change -eyes dilate when the individual is aroused or excited

Nonverbal Behavioral Assessment-Closed eyes may indicate trying to mentally escape and block visual sensory input -Sudden increase in eye blinking indicates and increase in tension -squinting indicates distrust -Licking the lips due to dry mouth condition is a sign of stress -No moisture in the mouth causes the lips to stick together, providing a clicking sound as the person speaks -Physiologically during fight/flight the throat muscles expand to allow more air to be inhaled into the lungs -May be responsible for the lump in the throat-experienced with emotional states such as fear -A clearing the throat emotional defense may result -Increased incidents of swallowing or a bobbing Adams apple de to increased salivation may occur

Arms and Hands -When experiencing an increase in tension, some men may finger their the collars of their shirts--women tend to put their hands to their throats -A suspects whose elbows are close to their body may may be under severe tension -Arms across the chest act a barrier or suggest defiance -If the suspect is pointing away from his body when he is talking, he may be trying to misdirect your attention from the topic of himself -A suspect who is touching his chest while talking is directing the interviewer to look at him -If a suspect has his crossed tightly in front of him, it may indicate fear, and the probability that he is being deceptive -Steepled hands indicate confidence and truthfulness

Nonverbal Behavioral Assessment

Sense arousal gestures -Under times of stress, the bodys senses are enhanced by sympathetic arousal -Olfactory, aural, visual, and tactile senses are increased -Touching or scratching of the nose is a good indicator of deception, when the suspect is asked a critical question, or explains something -Suspect holds his nose, or touches it as he speaks, he does not believe what he is saying -If he touches it while he listens, he does not believe the interviewer -Touching the ear may indicate stress -Covering the eyes and looking away may indicate that the suspect is trying to hide or escape from the situation -Rubbing the eye is an indicator of disbelief -People will often rock back and forth, tap, swing their legs in rhythm with their heart rate

Nonverbal Behavioral Assessment

Feet and Legs -Truthful people generally use open a

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