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  • Slide 1
  • INTERTIDAL ZONATION Robert Perry
  • Slide 2
  • Copyrights: All Rights Reserved Robert Perry zalophus@ucla.edu All the images in this presentation are copyrighted and are protected under United States and international copyright laws. They are the exclusive property of Robert Perry unless otherwise noted. The images are used here by exclusive arrangement with UCLA as part of this presentation only. The photographs may not be downloaded, reproduced, copied, stored, used or altered in any way without the express written permission of Robert Perry (or other sources as indicated). No images are within the Public Domain. The purpose of this presentation is non-profit education. Any other unauthorized use of this show is a violation of copyright law.
  • Slide 3
  • PREVIEW OUTLINE: A. THE INTERTIDAL ZONE & ZONATION B. FACTORS CONTROLLING ZONATION 1. Tides a. Activity cycles & inter-specific competition b. Desiccation c. Temperature d. Terrestrial & atmospheric forces 2. Waves a. Wave shock b. Increased submergence 3. Slope of the shore 4. Substrate type a. Attachment of larvae b. Porosity of substrate c. Movement of substrate
  • Slide 4
  • THE INTERTIDAL ZONE: High Tide Line Low Tide Line THE INTERTIDAL ZONE A zone of life between the high tide line and the low tide line on any beach.
  • Slide 5
  • High tide line Low tide line Illustration: Stephenson & Stephenson (1972) Distinct bands of life consisting of separate communities of organisms distributed from the high tide line to the low tide line. INTERTIDAL ZONATION
  • Slide 6
  • (more ocean water = more ocean life) Increase in abundance and diversity of life as you move seaward. INTERTIDAL ZONATION Illustration: Stephenson & Stephenson (1972) High tide line Low tide line
  • Slide 7
  • Major environmental factors controlling intertidal zonation: MAJOR FACTORS 1. Tides 2. Waves 3. Slope of the shore 4. Substrate type
  • Slide 8
  • Among all of the factors that control intertidal zonation, one common point stands out: Organisms differ in their ability to survive. There is a normal curve that represents the range of tolerance of organisms to each environmental factor. very high tolerance very low tolerance
  • Slide 9
  • What are TIDES ? Tides are the regular and predictable variations in sea level...that are caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun. MAJOR FACTOR 1. TIDES
  • Slide 10
  • MAJOR FACTOR
  • Slide 11
  • Q. What type of tide do we have here in southern California ? (Calendar courtesy of Tidelines, Inc) A. mixed semidiurnal tide.
  • Slide 12
  • Two unequal HIGH tides, and (Calendar courtesy of Tidelines, Inc) Two unequal LOW tides a day.
  • Slide 13
  • IntertidalTotal Exposure to Air Zone Hours per Year ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Zone 1High Intertidal 7,200 - 8,760 Zone 2Upper-Middle 3,200 - 7,200 Zone 3Lower-Middle 400 - 3,200 Zone 4Low Intertidal 0 - 400 Exposure to air causes bands or zones of life along the beach. Data modified from Hedgepeth, Ricketts and Calvin (1968). 1. TIDES MAJOR FACTOR
  • Slide 14
  • MAJOR FACTOR 1. TIDES
  • Slide 15
  • Southern California hard substrate indicator species for each zone: Zone:Name:Species: 1Splash snails 2Upper-midbarnacles 3Low-middle mussels 4Lowalgae MAJOR FACTOR 1. TIDES
  • Slide 16
  • Intertidal Zones at La Jolla, California Stephenson & Stephenson (1972) snails barnacles mussels algae
  • Slide 17
  • Alternate exposure to air and water caused by the TIDES results in intertidal organisms occupying specific zones according to their range of tolerance to dryness, temperature, predation, feeding, respiration and reproduction. This pattern can be observed world wide. MAJOR FACTOR 1. TIDES
  • Slide 18
  • SUB- FACTORS a. Activity cycles & inter-specific competition b. Desiccation c. Temperature d. Terrestrial & atmospheric forces Sub-factors that are related to TIDES : MAJOR FACTOR 1. TIDES
  • Slide 19
  • Sub-factors that are related to TIDES : a. Activity cycles & inter-specific competition Most intertidal activities are carried out during HIGH TIDE periods. (Life functions occur better under water). MAJOR FACTOR 1. TIDES
  • Slide 20
  • Sub-factors that are related to TIDES : a. Activity cycles & inter-specific competition Predators have a range of tolerance. Beyond this range their prey survive. Example: distribution of mussels. MAJOR FACTOR 1. TIDES
  • Slide 21
  • Low tide line High tide line Intertidal zonation on a pier piling Snail zone Barnacle zone Mussel zone Algae zone young, little mussels old, large mussels
  • Slide 22
  • Low tide line High tide line range of Pisaster - determined by the tides - it cannot move up farther or it cannot get back down to the water line at low tide. young, little mussels - above the range of Pisaster old mussels - too large to be eaten by Pisaster Pisaster
  • Slide 23
  • Sub-factors that are related to TIDES : b. Desiccation. The term desiccation means to lose vital body fluids and dry up due to exposure to the atmosphere. MAJOR FACTOR 1. TIDES
  • Slide 24
  • Sub-factors that are related to TIDES : b. Desiccation. There is a range of tolerance to desiccation among intertidal organisms. Those that lose fluids fast live in lower zones. MAJOR FACTOR 1. TIDES
  • Slide 25
  • Barnacles, Balanus sp., can close up tight to prevent water loss. Thus they survive in the intertidal zones. survive in the upper intertidal zones.
  • Slide 26
  • Algae, and the sea star, Pisaster sp., tend to dry out easily. Thus they survive in the intertidal zones. survive in the low intertidal zones.
  • Slide 27
  • The sea anemone, Anthopleura, closes up tight and has bits of rocks and shells glued to its body. It also lives in moist crevices in the intertidal. low intertidal.
  • Slide 28
  • Sub-factors that are related to TIDES : c. Temperature. One of the most significant features of the sea is its high heat capacity, its resistance to temperature change. MAJOR FACTOR 1. TIDES
  • Slide 29
  • Sub-factors that are related to TIDES : c. Temperature. During high tide periods, temperatures are uniform and stable. But during low tide periods temperatures can fluctuate widely. MAJOR FACTOR 1. TIDES
  • Slide 30
  • Sub-factors that are related to TIDES : c. Temperature. There is a range of tolerance to temperature among intertidal organisms. Organisms with a wide range of temperature tolerance tend to live in upper zones. MAJOR FACTOR 1. TIDES
  • Slide 31
  • HIGH TIDE Organisms covered by water of uniform and stable temperature. LOW TIDE Organisms exposed to extreme ranges of dry air, sun, wind, etc.
  • Slide 32
  • Sub-factors that are related to TIDES : d. Terrestrial & atmospheric forces. There is a range of tolerance to Terrestrial & atmospheric forces among intertidal organisms. MAJOR FACTOR 1. TIDES
  • Slide 33
  • Sub-factors that are related to TIDES : d. Terrestrial & atmospheric forces. Exposure at LOW tide to such forces as hot sun, snow, wind, rain, as well as surviving terrestrial predators such as racoons, crows, coyotes and humans may effect the distribution of organisms. MAJOR FACTOR 1. TIDES
  • Slide 34
  • SUB- FACTORS a. Activity cycles & inter-specific competition b. Desiccation c. Temperature d. Terrestrial & atmospheric forces Sub-factors that are related to TIDES : MAJOR FACTOR 1. TIDES R E V I E W !
  • Slide 35
  • MAJOR FACTOR 2. WAVES
  • Slide 36
  • SUB- FACTORS a. Wave shock b. Increased submergence Sub-factors that are caused by WAVES: MAJOR FACTOR 2. WAVES
  • Slide 37
  • Sub-factors that are caused by WAVES: a. Wave shock Wave shock is the pounding and shearing force of the water as it rushes across the intertidal organisms. MAJOR FACTOR 2. WAVES
  • Slide 38
  • HERE ! Imagine you were an intertidal organism living. a. Wave shock
  • Slide 39
  • Sub-factors that are caused by WAVES: b. Increased submergence Waves move water farther up the beach and expand the intertidal zone. MAJOR FACTOR 2. WAVES
  • Slide 40
  • MAJOR FACTOR 2. WAVES Zones are expanded and shifted landward. Left side = protected beach Right side = exposed beach
  • Slide 41
  • Sub-factors that are caused by WAVES: b. Increased submergence Intertidal zones are expanded and shifted upward on beaches exposed to waves as compared to beaches protected from waves. MAJOR FACTOR 2. WAVES
  • Slide 42
  • SUB- FACTORS a. Wave shock b. Increased submergence Sub-factors that are caused by WAVES: MAJOR FACTOR 2. WAVES R E V I E W !
  • Slide 43
  • MAJOR FACTOR 3. SLOPE of the beach. The term slope refers to the angle at which the sea meets the substrate. The intertidal zone may vary from shear vertical cliffs, rock faces and pier pilings with an effective slope of 90 O, to broad sand or mud

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