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Download Internal Herd Growth and Heifer Programs: Keep Them Alive and Get Them Pregnant on Time Mike Van Amburgh, Jerry Bertoldo, John Conway, Tom Overton, Bill

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  • Internal Herd Growth and Heifer Programs: Keep Them Alive and Get Them Pregnant on Time

    Mike Van Amburgh, Jerry Bertoldo, John Conway, Tom Overton, Bill Stone and a large cast of other characters.Department of Animal ScienceCornell University

  • A 24 Month Age at First Calving Heiferhood - Mature Weight 1400 Lbs. First 6 HoursWeaningPubertyBreeding WindowGestationGrowing2415122

  • A 24 Month Age at First Calving Heiferhood - Mature Weight 1400 Lbs. First 6 HoursWeaningPubertyBreeding WindowGestationGrowing241512290 Lbs.

  • A 24 Month Age at First Calving Heiferhood - Mature Weight 1400 Lbs. First 6 HoursWeaningPubertyBreeding WindowGestationGrowing241512290 Lbs.Costs per Pound Of Gain

  • A 24 Month Age at First Calving Heiferhood - Mature Weight 1400 Lbs. First 6 HoursWeaningPubertyBreeding WindowGestationGrowing241512290 Lbs.0.650.660.50$1.81Feed - 0.42Labor - 0.15Other - 0.24$0.81Feed - 0.78Labor - 0.18Other - 0.48$1.460.500.170.37$1.04Costs per Pound Of Gain14%8%29%38%11%12%46%35% % of Total Cost % of Total Gain

  • Body ProteinBody FatTimeTissue DepositionPre-pubertalPost-pubertalRelationship of Fat and Protein Tissue Deposition to Time, Whole Body Growth and Stage of Maturity in the Growing Heifer

  • A 24 Month Age at First Calving Heiferhood - Mature Weight 1400 Lbs. First 6 HoursWeaningPubertyBreeding WindowGestationGrowing2415122A Replacement Heifer Ready and able to Milk her Heart out Needs: Clean place to start life Passive Immunity Limited exposure to pathogens throughout Nutrition keyed to ADG/Environment interaction The costs involved in getting her there are depends upon: Interaction of Labor and Environment (Labor Efficiency) Interaction of Nutrition and Environment (Feed Efficiency) Relative costs of inputs, fixed costs, capital

  • Characteristics of a Sound Calf Program

  • Calf program growth goal:Double birth weight by 56 days (~ 180 lb)

    Why do this?

    Makes it easier to hit breeding weight at an earlier age reduce AFC increase potential for IHG, reduce costs.

  • The Foundations of a Sound Calf Management ProgramTransfer of adequate passive immunityneed great colostrum and need it in a hurry Management to minimize stressHousing to isolate calves and provide a comfortable, stable environmentHygiene to minimize transfer of pathogensSound nutritional program to promote both growth and rumen development

  • Starts with the following objectives: 1) To equip the calf with adequate antibodies, primarily in the form of colostrum, to fight infections 2) To minimize the calfs exposure to infectious organisms

  • Management for Great ColostrumGood dry cow vaccination programWork with your veterinarianRemove quickly after birth First milk only; hopefully within 4 to 6 hrs. of parturitionCheck for specific gravity or Ig contentClean udder and feeding equipmentMinimize pathogenic bacteriaThink the 3 Qs of Colostrum Management: Quality Quantity Quickness

  • Colostrum is Richer in Nutrients Than Whole MilkQuality

  • Mother Natures Best

    The average Holstein first milking colostrum compares to normal milk as follows:Colostrum contains:2times the solids (24%)4times the protein (14%)2times the fat (7%)65times the IgG (3.2%)2times the calcium (.26%)10times the Vitamin A3times the Vitamin D10times the iron

  • Passive Transfer Target for Newborn Calf HealthWant to target 10 mg/ml in calf serum IgG following colostrum ingestion

    Calves with levels less than 10 mg/ml have Failure of Passive Transfer (FPT)Quality Quantity Quickness

  • National Dairy Heifer Evaluation Project, NAHMS, 2002Calves surviving (%)Age (days)Failure of Passive Transfer Increases Calf Death Losses4 x increase in death rate Quality Quantity Quickness

  • Failure of Passive Transfer Reduces Long Term PerformanceDairy calves:Decreased average daily gain to 180 days (J. Dairy Sci., 1988, 71:1283)Decreased milk and fat production at first lactation (J.Dairy Sci., 1989, 72:552)Delayed time to first calving (Can Vet J., 1986, 50:314) Beef Calves:Higher pre-weaning morbidity and mortality (AABP Proceedings 2002, 35:168)Decreased weaning weight at 180 days (Am. J. Vet. Res. 1995, 56:1149)

  • Effect of Disinfecting Versus Not Disinfecting the Navel on Calf Mortality and Incidence of Scours and Pneumonia

  • Distribution of IgG1 in Colostrum from Cows of a Single DairyNumber of cowsIgG Concentration in Colostrum (mg/ml)N = 919 calvingsAvg IgG1 = 48+22 mg/mlAvg milk yield 8.5+4.8 L

    Quality

  • Milking Number and Immunoglobulin Mass in Dairy Cows and HeifersModified from Can. Vet. J. 34:407-412, 1993 IgG g/milkingQuality

  • Age of the Calf at First Colostrum FeedingModified from: The Compendium 15:335, 1993.**Only calves fed colostrum before 6 hrs had serum IgG levels > 10 mg/ml6IgG Absorption Declines Rapidly After Birth

    Quickness

  • Quantity of Immunoglobulin Fed to the Calf(Modified from J. Dairy Sci. 1998:81:2779-2790)Calves must consume 80-100 g IgG to achieve >10 mg/ml in serum

  • Grams IgG absorbed = volume x concentration90 lb calf needs 36 grams IgGAverage absorption rate = 35%

    Good colostrum = 50g/L50g/L x 0.35 x 2 L = 35 grams

    Fair colostrum = 25g/L25g/L x 0.35 x 4 L = 35 grams

    Quantity

  • Fat and Lactose Provide EnergyCalves are born with low energy reservesFat and lactose are important as immediate sources of energy to maintain body temperatureColostrumWhole Milk1.16 kcal/g0.69 kcal/gFrom: Davis and Drackley; 1998

  • Comparison of Calf Performance, Morbidity and Mortality of Purchased Holstein CalvesBased Upon Immunoglobulin Status

  • Four Week Calf Performance and Health by Calves (2,016 Calves) in Each Relative Immunoglobulin Status GroupData from Land OLakes Research Farm

  • Summary--4 Week Calf Performance and Health of Calves (Total 633 Calves) in Each Relative Immunoglobulin Status Group (Includes Total Antibiotic and Electrolyte Costs)

  • Potential Economic Benefit of High Ig Status versus Low Ig Status CalvesCalculated Weighted AverageAssumptions Used:Weight Gain -- $2.00/lb.Feed -- Half calf milk replacer and half calf starterFeed Cost Calf Milk Replacer -- $40 per 50 lb. bag Calf Starter -- $15 per 100 lbs.Initial Calf Value -- $250

  • Potential Economic Benefit to High Ig Status CalvesVersus Low Ig Status Calves Over Initial 4-Weeks of Life

  • Time Calves Remain With Cows After Birth and Heifer Calf Mortality

  • Colostrum Fed During the First 12 HoursAfter Birth and Heifer Calf Mortality*

  • Objectives of Calf Management from After Colostrum to Weaning

    To meet the calfs nutrient requirements for maintenance and growth with milk or milk replacer. To stimulate appetite, begin rumen development, and meet the calfs nutrient requirements for growth with a high quality calf starter and water. To prevent scours which can cause dehydration, diminish growth rates and possibly cause death.

  • Environmental and Stress Effects onMaintenance RequirementsThe thermoneutral zone for young lightweight calves is in the range of 15 to 28C (Gonzalez-Jimenez and Blaxter, 1962; Scibilia et al., 1987; Shrama et al., 1992, 1993; Arieli et al., 1995)

    The additional heat increment required to maintaincore body temperature below 15 C (59 F) isApproximately 0.022 Mcal/kg0.75/C, especially for calves < 21 d.

    For calves > 21 days of age the LCT is ~ 5 C (42 F).

  • Cold Stress Experienced Through Entire TrialLower Critical Temperature, 30 days of age, 6C (42 F)

  • Maintenance RequirementsaLower critical temp. calves less than 21 d age.

    Temp. F59a5032145Body weight, lbMcal ME/d65881.271.651.712.032.142.462.572.892.783.081101.892.322.743.183.391322.172.583.013.443.661502.432.873.273.703.921802.683.113.533.964.18

  • Amount of Milk or Milk Replacer Needed to MeetMaintenance RequirementsaLower critical temp. calves less than 21 d age.

    Temp. F59a325Body weight, lbLb milk or milk replacer/d110 (MR)1.001.351.77

    110 (milk)0.91 (7.3)1.20 (9.6)1.51 (12.1)

  • Environmental and Stress Effects on Maintenance RequirementsBased on Arieli et al. (1995) an additional adjustment of 0.03 Mcal ME/kg0.75 might be warranted for wet calves that have been transported or are adapting to other stressors for at least 14 days after the initial stress.

    Stress can be defined as transportation, significantalteration in temperature or a social and dietary change

    Equivalent to 0.5 to 0.6 Mcal ME/d for the average calf (~ 0.12 kg of DM/d (0.25 lb DM/d))

  • Updated Nutrient Requirements of a 110 lb Calf Under Thermoneutral Conditionsa0.6 efficiency of use of ME and 0.72 for BV of protein

    Rate of gain,lb/dMEa, mcal/dDMI,kg/dADP,g/dCP, g/dCP, % DM0.442.350.51879418.50.882.890.6714015022.31.323.480.7719320726.01.764.130.9523525326.82.204.801.1528630727.5

  • Just what are we Replacing!

    Holstein Milk (on Average)As Fed BasisDry Matter Basis% Butterfat3.628.8% Crude Protein3.225.6% Lactose4.939.2% Ash0.86.4% Total Solids12.5100

  • Calf program growth goal:Double birth weight by 56 days (~ 180 lb)

    Why do this?

    Makes it easier to hit breeding weight at an earlier age reduce AFC increase potential for IHG, reduce costs.

  • ConclusionsReducing AFC to ~22 months is likely to result in a ~4% reduction in first lactation milk yield; later lactations are not affected.Cow health and stayability is not affected by reduced AFC if she calves in at adequate BW, stature.Conce