integrated assessment for air http:// quality in the uk ... ?· quality in the uk. london smog...

Download Integrated Assessment for Air http:// Quality in the UK ... ?· Quality in the UK. London Smog event…

Post on 28-Aug-2018

217 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Stefan Reis, Helen ApSimon, Tim Oxley, Tony Dore, Chris Green, Christopher Conolly, Tom Misselbrook, Mike Holland, Massimo Vieno, Melanie Hobson, Gina Mills, Rachel Beck et al.

    Integrated Assessment for Air Quality in the UK

    Lond

    on S

    mog

    eve

    nt in

    201

    4 -h

    ttp://

    ww

    w.th

    etim

    es.c

    o.uk

    /tto/

    envi

    ronm

    ent/a

    rticl

    e405

    3987

    .ece

    1. Overview2. Key components & data3. Outputs & results

    http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/environment/article4053987.ece

  • OverviewThe UK Integrated Assessment Modelling activities are based on a large-scale collaboration across scientific disciplines

    between academia, research institutes and commercial partners

    involving close links to key policy decision makers

    with strong international relationships, in particular within the context of the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    EMRC

    Oxley T, Dore AJ, ApSimon H, Hall J, Kryza M (2013) Modelling future impacts of air pollution using the multi-scale UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM). Environment International 61,17-35

    Oxley, T, ApSimon, HM, Dore, CJ, Sutton, M, Hall, J, Heywood, E, Gonzales del Campo, T and Warren, Rachel (2004) The UK Integrated Assessment Model, UKIAM: A National Scale Approach to the Analysis of Strategies for Abatement of Atmospheric Pollutants Under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution.Integrated Assessment, 4(4), 236-249

  • Key components and dataUK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory

    Current emissions and future projections of SO2, NOx, NH3, PM10 & PM2.5, VOCs based on UK energy, transport and agricultural data

    Spatial mapping on 1 km x 1 km grid for ~ 100 source categories modelled in UKIAM

    Plus detailed mapping of road transport emissions built up road by road across the UK road network according to vehicle mix and traffic flow (BRUTAL sub-model)

  • Key components and dataAbatement options and Costs:Multi-Pollutant Measures database (MPMD)

    Data base of >600 technical measures to reduce emissions

    Abatement costs and multi-pollutant effects of implementation

    Basis for the generation of scenarios for emission reduction and their cost

    Exploratory scenarios, e.g. What if black C and diesel PM are considered more important in relation to public health than total PM2.5 mass?

  • Key components and dataRegional scale surface concentrations of sulphate particulate

    matter for 2008 (in g m-3)

    SOx dry deposition from point source

    NOy dry deposition from international shipping

    Atmospheric chemistry transport modelsFRAME and EMEP4UK providing source-receptor relationships:

    FRAME is a Lagrangian model that simulates an air column moving along straight-line trajectories

    EMEP4UK simulates atmospheric chemistry transport processes using real meteorology. http://www.emep4uk.ceh.ac.uk/

    Dore, A.J., Carslaw, D.C., Braban, C., et al. 2015. Evaluation of the performance of different atmospheric chemical transport models and inter-comparison of nitrogen and sulphur deposition estimates for the UK. Atmospheric Environment 119, 131-143.

    http://www.emep4uk.ceh.ac.uk/

  • Outputs & ResultsModelling and mapping of pollutant concentrations and deposition:

    Taking into account long-range transport of secondary inorganic aerosols (ammonium sulphates and -nitrates) and S and N deposition

    Local scale NOx/NO2 and primary PM2.5 Using source contributions derived by different

    models (FRAME, EMEP4UK, EMEP) to identify imported contributions from outside the UK, including international shipping

    Local scale: Gaussian PPM and road-side increments (ADMS)

    UKIAM map of background NO2 concentrations to calculate human exposure and health impacts

  • Outputs & ResultsProtection of natural ecosystemse.g. effects of eutrophication on SSSIs/NATURA 2000 sites due to nitrogen deposition

    Distribution of SSSIs and protectability index from green = protected to red at very high risk

    Critical level for ammonia:1 g m-3: lichens & bryophytes3 g m-3: higher plants [2-4]

    Source: FRAME calculations

    Hallsworth, S., Sutton, M.A., Dore, A.J., Dragosits, U., Tang, Y.S., Vieno, M. (2010) The role of indicator choice in quantifying the ammonia threat to the Natura 2000 network. Env.Sci.Policy., 13. 671-687.

    Oxley T, ApSimon H, Hall J (2013) Application of a protectability index to assess habitat eutrophication in designated areas. MODSIM Conference Paper.

  • Outputs & ResultsCalculation of benefits, particularly to human health:

    Reduction in exposure of UK population to ambient PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations

    Incorporating recent evidence from WHO Health Risks of Air Pollution in Europe (HRAPIE) study and Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP) on health effects of NO2(comparable importance with PM2.5)

    Estimating a total of ~40,000-50,000 premature deaths in the UK due to air pollution effects

    Monetised health benefits of reductions in exposure of UK population

  • Case study: EMEP4UK scenario evaluation2010

    2030

    In the analysis for AQEG# of current mitigation scenarios, NH3 and primary PM2.5 emission control were found to be equally effective, but for the 2030 scenario, primary PM2.5 control yields higher reductions due to less SO2 and NOx being available to form secondary inorganic aerosols with ammonia (taking into account population-weighted concentrations):

    Vieno, M., Heal, M. R., Williams, M. L., Carnell, E. J., Nemitz, E., Stedman, J. R., and Reis, S.: The sensitivities of emissions reductions for the mitigation of UK PM2.5, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 265-276, doi:10.5194/acp-16-265-2016, 2016

    #UK Air Quality Expert Group

    Slide Number 1Slide Number 2Slide Number 3Slide Number 4Slide Number 5Slide Number 6Slide Number 7Slide Number 8Slide Number 9