Integrarea economico europeana

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Integrarea econimco europeana.Cartea-engleza


Free International University of Moldova

1. Understanding the European Union

1.1 The development of the European Community1.2 Treaties establishing the European Union

1.3 The Community legal system

1.4 The Community finances

1.1 The development of the European Community

The history of modern European integration was launched in the late 1940s in the wake of the second World War. Six years of conflict had left a demand for politic and economic reconstruction as a devastated Western Europe sought ways to rebuild its economy and to prevent future wars. Much of Europe lay in ruins, communications were broken, food and fuel were in short supply and industry was geared to the needs of war. The continent also faced a future between the superpowers, a developing Cold War creating a dividing line between Europes war-ravaged nations. It took the complete collapse of Europe and its political economic decline to create the conditions for and give a new impetus to the idea of a new European order. The method of construction chosen, namely the voluntary integration of different nations, had never before been tested in human history. It involves (in its conception), by means of instruments voluntarily adapted by all, the gradual creation of imperceptible, but innumerable, links between the nations taking part in the experiment.

In overall terms, moves towards unification in Europe since the Second World war have created a confusing mixture of numerous and complex organizations that are difficult to keep track off. For example, the Central and Eastern European countries and the Soviet Union (with Cuba, Mongolia, and Vietnam had been integrated through the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA, often called COMECON). This was a markedly different form of economic integration from the other types of integration. The CMEA was begun in 1949 to promote economic cooperation among the member countries as a Soviet counterpart to the Marshall Plan. There are many other organizations appeared at that time, such as OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), WEU (Western European Union), NATO ( North Atlantic Treaty Organization), the Council of Europe, the European Union (which started life as the European Coal and Steel Community, the European Atomic Energy Community and European Community) coexist without any real links between them. The number of member countries in these various organizations ranges from 19 (WEU) to 40 (Council of Europe).

This variety of institutions only acquires a logical structure if we look at the specific aims of these organizations, these can be divided into three main aims:

The Euro-Atlantic organizations

The Euro-Atlantic organizations came into being as a result of the alliance between the United States of America and Europe after the Second World War. It was no coincidence that the first European organizations of the post-war period, the OEEC (Organization for European Economic Cooperation), founded in 1948, was created at the initiative of the United States. The US Secretary of State at the time, George Marshall, called on the countries of Europe in 1947 to join forces in rebuilding their economies and promised American help. This came in the form of the Marshall Plan, which provided the foundation for the rapid reconstruction of Western Europe. At first, the main aim of the OEEC was to liberalize trade between countries. In 1960, when the United States and Canada became members, a further objective was added, namely to promote economic progress in the this World through development aid. The OEEC then became the OECD.

In 1949, NATO was founded as a military alliance with the United States and Canada. In 1954, the Western European Union (WEU) was created to strengthen security cooperation between the countries of Europe. It brought together the countries that had concluded the Brussels Treaty (United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) with the addition of the Federal Republic of Germany and Italy. Portugal, Spain and Greece are now members of the WEU. The organization offers its members a platform for close cooperation on security and defence, and thus serves both to strengthen Europes political weight in the Atlantic alliance and to establish a European identity in security and defence policy.

The Council of Europe and OSCE

The future common to the second group of European organizations is that they are structured to enable as many countries as possible to participate. At the same time, there was an awareness that these organizations would not go beyond customary international cooperation.

These organizations include the Council of Europe, which was founded as a political institution on 5 May 1949. Its Statute does not make any reference to moves towards a federation or union, nor does it provide for the transfer or merging of sovereign rights. Decisions on all important questions require unanimity, which means that every country has a power of veto, the same set/up is to be found in the United Nations (UN) Security Council. The Council of Europe is therefore designed only with international cooperation in mind. Numerous conventions have been concluded by the Council in the fields of economics, culture, social policy and law. The most important and best known of these is the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR) of 4 November 1950. The Convention not only enabled a minimum standard for the safeguarding of human rights to be laid down for the member countries, it also established a system of legal protection which enables the bodies established in Strasbourg under the Convention under the Convention (the European Commission on Human Rights and the European Court of Human Rights) to condemn violations of human rights in the member countries.

This group also includes the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), founded in 1994 at the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. The OSCE is bound by the principles and aims set out in the 1975 Helsinki Final Act and the 1990 Charter of Paris. Alongside measures to build up trust between the countries of Europe, these aims also include the creation of a safety net to enable disputed to be settled by peaceful means. As events of the recent past have shown, Europe, still has a long way to go in this respect.

The European Union

The third group of European organizations comprises the European Union, which itself has grown out of the European Coal and Steel Community, the European Atomic Energy Community and the European Community.

The feature that is completely new in the EU and distinguishes it from the usual type of international association of States is that the Member States have ceded some of their sovereign rights to the EC at the center an have conferred on it powers to act independently. In exercising these powers, the EC is able to issue sovereign acts which have the same force as laws in individual States.

The foundation stone of a European Community was laid by the French Foreign Minister, Robert Schuman, in his declaration of 9 May 1950, in which he put forward the plan he had worked out with Jean Monnet to pool Europes coal and steel industries. He made history by putting to the Federal Republic of Germany, and to other European countries who so wished, the idea of creating a community of pacific interests. In so doing he extended a hand to yesterdays enemies and erased the bitterness of war and the burden of the past. In addition, he set completely new process in international relations by proposing to old nations together to recover, by exercising jointly their sovereignty, the influence which each of them was incapable by exercising alone.

Schuman, thus, opted for the functional method of European Integration, rather than for the constitutional method, which would be based on the constitution of a federation. That meant that the European States, which had just regained their national sovereignty following the Second World War, did not need to give it up immediately and its entirety for the benefit of a federal European State. They merely needed to renounce the dogma of the indivisibility of sovereignty and therefore certain parts of sovereignty in certain clearly defined areas. In return they would gain the right of inspection of those affairs of their partners which were placed under common management and would to that extent enlarge their own sovereignty.

It was therefore a question of progressively reducing the existing contradiction between European integration and national independence.

In his declaration of 1950, Robert Schuman proposed the creation of a common market in two important economic sectors which had until then been used for military purposes, namely the coal and steel sectors; it would be a matter of integrating Germany economically and politically into a European Coal and Steel Community with France an other willing countries. He advocated some transfer of sovereignty to an independent High Authority which would exercise the powers previously held by the States in those sectors and the decisions of which would bind those States. That was to say that the cooperation of the Member States in those sectors should be completely different from that already existing within the traditional international organizations. The choice of coal and steel was not fortuitous. The Strategy was to reconcile German economic recovery and French national security, the plan was designed to overhaul the French economy, which had shown signs of serious sickness well before the damage and dislocation of World War II. In the early 1950s those sectors were the basis of a country's power. In addition to the economic benefits to be gained, the pooling of French a