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Explicit systematic intense

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  • 1. Explicitsystematic intense

2. teacher influenceThe teachers influence on student achievement scores is twenty times greater than any other variable, including class size and student poverty. Fallon , 2003 3. explicit vs. systematic New skills introduced in direct manner Corrective feedback procedures Teacher controls use of language 4. explicit vs. systematicMoves from explicit to implicit over time connected series of lesson plans over time cumulative review instructional set: from simple to complex 5. Features of explicit instruction scaffolding student learning immediate error correction many examples for practice/instruction clear presentation of strategies 6. instruction scaffoldtemporary devices and procedures teachers use to support students as they learn strategies I do we do you do 7. instructionscaffold Application Teacher modeling Guided practice Independent practiceI do we do you do 8. instruction scaffold Correction cant happen without feedback Feedback cant happen without monitoring responses through active engagement anticipate / precorrect for student errors teacher guided practice immediate feedback when to gradually release or retain scaffolds Model /lead through guided practice Scaffold with inferential questions 9. instructiontypes of scaffoldprompts think aloud 10. systematicelements of carefully chosen examples carefully planned introduction of skills simple to complex teach critical skills daily cumulative practice & review practice to facilitate mastery practice to facilitate automaticity new skills introduced incrementally confusing items need separation 11. systematic elements ofmaintenanceFluency accuracySkill unknown 12. systematicelements of review until no hesitation distributed over time. cumulative & integrated in complex tasks. Varied to show wide application massed practice vs. distributed practice How much review is needed? Reitsma, P. 1983 13. systematic elements ofReview must follow initial instruction Type of Learner Number of RepetitionsMost Able Less Average3-8Least AbleMore Reitsma, P. 1983 14. intensity of instruction Intensity of instruction is the number of positiveinstructional interactions (piis) per day. The greater thenumber of piis per day, the greater the intensity ofinstruction. If the quality or effectiveness of the instruction is high, then thetwo main ways to increase intensity of instruction are to:1) increase the amount of instructional time and2) decrease the size of the instructional group Torgesen, 2006 15. intensity of instruction teacher-directed approach high student/teacher interactionpacing opportunities to respond 16. intensity of instruction AlterableLevel of Specific Enhancement Variable 1.2. 3.4. Options Observe to see ifChange person Professional develop-Coaching to teacher is teaching ment to improveImprove teachers Instructional implementing allteachers skills atskills at explicit parts of the Deliveryexplicit instruction,instruction, error Comprehensive error correction, andcorrection, and Learning System opportunities to opportunities to respondrespond Schedule & deliverIncrease reading block Schedule twoSchedule before 90 minutes of daily time, e.g., to 120 min., intervention sessions school, after school,Time reading instruction and/or add interventiondaily (a double doseand summer school during protectedperiod daily of 90 min. + 90 min.) instruction sessions reading block Check group Check for groupCheck further for Provide individualGrouping placement & homogeneity andgroup homogeneity instruction if needed for provide whole & reduce size of small and further reduce small group Instruction groupsize of small group instruction Change placementAdd scaffolding to Add additionalChange program(s) in programprogramintervention Instructionalprogram(s) Materials Kameenui, Simmons, Coyne, & Harn, 2003