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  • 1

    1Institute for Horticultural Science

    Institute for Horticultural Science

    Institute for Food Technology

    2Institute for Horticultural Science

    tray

    tray

    film

    film

    closed container

    bundle

    closed container

  • 2

    3Institute for Horticultural Science

    4Institute for Horticultural Science

    oPP-film, 26 m PE-film, 20 m

  • 3

    5Institute for Horticultural Science

    oPP-film, 26 m PE-film, 20 m

    6Institute for Horticultural Science

    Modelling the Gas Atmosphere in MAP-Headspace as a Tool for Optimizing Fruit

    and Vegetable Packages

    F. Lippert,

  • 4

    7Institute for Horticultural Science

    The objective of the presented research is to develop a tool to simulate the dynamics of gas exchange processes within packages for fruit and vegetable

    objective

    8Institute for Horticultural Science

    material & methods model description validation future prospect summary

    outline

  • 5

    9Institute for Horticultural Science

    measuring respiration CO2- production (GC, heat flow -detector) O2- consumption (paramagnetic)

    film transmission rates (flow through system)

    CA-storage (open system)

    packaging trials (defined flow-packs)

    materials & methods

    10Institute for Horticultural Science

    Konz

    entra

    tion

    [%]

    Typischer Verlauf der Konzentrationsnderungen von O2 und CO2- innerhalb von MA-Verpackungen

    steady-state

    model description

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    0 10 20 30 40

    time after packaging [h]

    O2

    / CO

    2 -c

    once

    ntra

    tion

    [%]

    carbon dioxideoxygen

  • 6

    11Institute for Horticultural Science

    respiration rates as a function of temperature

    RCO2 = Ar * EXP

    RCO2...CO2 -production [ml*kg-1*h-1] Ar.......Arrhenius constantEa......activation energy

    [kJ * mol -1]R .......gas constant

    [0.008314 kJ mol-1 K-1] T........temperature [K]

    EaR* T

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30temperature [C]

    resp

    iratio

    n [m

    g C

    O2/

    h/kg

    ]

    carrot

    broccoli

    asparagus

    model description

    12Institute for Horticultural Science

    0

    5000

    10000

    15000

    20000

    0

    25000

    50000

    75000

    100000

    Sauerstoff

    Kohlendioxid

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    0 5 10 15 20 25temperature [C]

    O2-

    trans

    mis

    sion

    [ml*m

    -2*T

    ag-1

    ]tra

    nsm

    issi

    on[m

    mol

    *m-2

    *Tag

    -1] CO

    2-tra

    nsm

    issi

    on [m

    l*m-2

    *Tag

    -1]

    water vapor

    transmission rates of a 20m LDPE-film for O2, CO2and water vapor (Moyls et al.,1998)

    model descriptionoxygen

    carbon dioxide

  • 7

    13Institute for Horticultural Science

    CO2KmnO2

    0

    50

    100

    150

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

    O%

    5%

    10%

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

    O%

    5%

    10%

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

    O%

    5%

    10%

    O2-concentration [%]

    O2-

    cons

    umpt

    ion

    [ml*k

    g-1 *

    h-1 ]

    Brokkoli

    Spargel

    Chicoree

    VO2 = VmO2 * O2

    (KmO2 + O2)*

    VO2........O2 -consumption [ml*kg-1*h-1] VmO2.....max. O2 consumption [ml*kg-1*h-1]KmO2.....Michaelis-constant for

    O2 -consumption [% O2]O2 ........O2 -concentrationCO2 ......CO2 -concentrationKmnO2....Michaelis-constant for CO2 - related

    inhibition of O2 -consumption [% CO2]

    O2-dependent respiration rates at different CO2- concentrations (0, 5, 10 %) Peppelenbos, 1996

    model description

    14Institute for Horticultural Science

    Arrhenius constant, Arpactivation energy ErpMichaelis-Menten constant, KmO2Michaelis-Menten constant,KmCO2respiratory coefficient, RQweight, EStatus of energybiological age

    model inputproduce specifity

    O2-transmission rate, TroCO2-transmission rate, Trcfilm thickness, FDvolume, Vsurface, OArrhenius constant, Arfactivation energy, Eaf

    temperature (fluctuation)atmospheric condition

    exogenous variables

    film

    O2

    O2

    CO2

    CO2diffus

    ion

    resp

    iratio

    n

    diffusion

    diffusion

    package specifity

  • 8

    15Institute for Horticultural Science

    E2

    temperaturefluctuation

    air_O2

    internalatmosphere (O2)

    fresh produce

    Diffusion (O2)

    O2-consumption

    temperature drivenrespiration(Arrhenius)

    temperature

    E1

    temperaturefluctuation

    Diffusion(CO2)

    model design

    packaging

    internalatmosphere

    (CO2)

    CO2-productio

    n

    Michaelis-Mentenkinetic

    air_CO2

    16Institute for Horticultural Science

    Folie: LDPE, 20

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160Stunden

    CO2 -

    / O2 -K

    onze

    ntrati

    on [%

    ]

    broccoli in LDPE (20m), weight 80 g

    validation

    O2-concentration

    CO2-concentration

    hours

    CO

    2-/O

    2co

    ncen

    tratio

    n[%

    ]

  • 9

    17Institute for Horticultural Science

    broccoli in oPP (26 m), weight 80 g

    validation

    Folie: oPP, 26

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160Stunden

    CO2 -

    / O

    2 -Kon

    zent

    ratio

    n [%

    ]

    O2-concentration

    CO2-concentration

    hours

    CO

    2-/O

    2co

    ncen

    tratio

    n[%

    ]

    hours

    18Institute for Horticultural Science

    cherries in LDPE (20 m), weight 100 g

    validation

    Folie: LDPE, 20

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160Stunden

    CO2 /

    O2-K

    onze

    ntrati

    on [%

    ]C

    O2-

    /O2

    conc

    entra

    tion

    [%]

    hourshours

    O2-concentration

    CO2-concentration

  • 10

    19Institute for Horticultural Science

    temperate fluctuation ( 0 C to 20 C after 60 h)

    future prospects

    0.00 50.00 100.00 150.000.00

    5.00

    10.00

    15.00

    20.00

    25.00

    Packung_CO2Packung_O2

    20Institute for Horticultural Science

    active packaging (25 %CO2, 21 % O2)

    0.00 50.00 100.00 150.000.00

    5.00

    10.00

    15.00

    20.00

    25.00

    Packung_CO2Packung_O2

    future prospects

  • 11

    21Institute for Horticultural Science

    summary

    film properties

    To develop and to assess specific packaging for fruits and vegetable based on suitable produce-film-combinations thefollowing input defaults have to be made

    produce properties

    temperature

    other parameters

    The first results of modelling the dynamics of internal CO2 and O2 concentrations within flow packs was presented. It could beshown that the interrelation between all relevant parameters on a theoretical base is possible.

    22Institute for Horticultural Science

    Max Planck:

    Die Naturwissenschaft braucht der Mensch zum Erkennen, die Religionbraucht er zum Handeln, weil wir mit unseren Willensentscheidungen nicht warten knnen, bis die Erkenntnisse vollstndig und wir allwissend geworden sind.

    Pack and PrayArt Cameron:

  • 12

    23Institute for Horticultural Science

    Sortenabhngige Respirationsraten bei Feldsalat (bei 2 C)

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    Trophy Juvert Vit Eurion Jade Gala Fiesta Rodion Favor Dante Cirilla

    O2-V

    erbr

    auch

    [ml /k

    g/h)

    Validierung

    24Institute for Horticultural Science

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

    Temperatur [C]

    Res

    pira

    tion

    Verb

    rauc

    h/Pr

    oduk

    tion

    [ml/k

    g/h]

    Messung O2 Messung CO2O2_1 CO2_1

    O2 CO2Ar: 5,029 * 1013 1,504 * 1010

    Ea: 63,535 44,512

    Brokkoli, Arrhenius-Diagramm

    Lite

    ratu

    rwer

    te

    Validierung

  • 13

    25Institute for Horticultural Science

    Modellierung von Feldsalat in LDPE, Einwaage 50 g

    Ausblick

    0.00 50.00 100.00 150.000.00

    5.00

    10.00

    15.00

    20.00

    25.00

    Packung_CO2Packung_O2