Instant Grammar Lessons

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<p>INSTAilT GRAIIIIAR LESS0ilSPHOTOCOPIABLE LESSONS FOR INTERMEDIATECLASSESAlan Battersbv</p> <p>STRAIGHTTORWARD, ]'IATERIAL TTACHERS EASY-TO-USE TOR BUSY</p> <p>I 1</p> <p>I I I I I I I I 1 I I l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ILil0ur tt</p> <p>Instant Gra,mma,r LessonsAlan Battersby</p> <p>I.IT-rr</p> <p>JL</p> <p>IN</p> <p>Teaching Publications Languagell{a ChurchRoad,Hove,BN3 2EB, England ISBN r 89939640 3 @ LTP 1996 Reprinted 1997, 2000 1998,</p> <p>uI'f</p> <p>I</p> <p>CopyrightThis book is fully protected by copvright. All rights reserved.No part of this publicaton may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior permission of the copyright owner.</p> <p>Permissionto PhotocopyAll of the students'material in this book is intended for photocopying. Permissionis hereby given to photocopy all such pagesfor use by individual teachersin their classes. private or No institutional copying which could be construed as re-publication is allowed without the permissionof the copyright owner.</p> <p>The AuthorAlan Batrersby is a reacher at the Studio School in Cambridge where one of his responsibilities has been building up a resourcebank of teaching materials.Many of the ideas in this book originated from these materials. He has taught English in Italy and is a past chair of the Association.He is an oral examinerfor the Cambridge CambridgeEnglish LanguageTeachers' examinationsand is activelyinvolved with the Materials DevelopmentAssociation(MATSDA). r{</p> <p>AcknowledgementsThe author wishesto thank the Studio School,Cambridge,for permissionto publish materials originally developedfor the Studio School Teachers'ResourceFile. Cover design by Anna Macleod Printed in England by Commercial Colour PressPlc, London E7.</p> <p>rt</p> <p>I</p> <p>LL.</p> <p>fl</p> <p>Contentslfeachers'NotesIntroduction Lesson by Lesson Notes</p> <p>=l</p> <p>b]1L-</p> <p>=a</p> <p>SectionLesson1</p> <p>1</p> <p>Sequencing</p> <p>Activities</p> <p>b= = :</p> <p>b</p> <p>;a</p> <p>Lesson2</p> <p>Lesson 3</p> <p>u:</p> <p>:t: :</p> <p>Lesson4</p> <p>Lesson 5</p> <p>:t :t :t :t2 </p> <p>Lesson 6</p> <p>Lesson7</p> <p>Linking Phrases 1 1.1 Narrative- Joe'sTrip to york 1.2 Narrative- Anna'sTrip to London 1.3 Follow-up LinkingPhrases 2 2.1 Essay A Good Book v. Television 2.2 Essay A HolidayAbroador at Home? 2.3 Follow-up ImportantExpressions 3.1 InformalLetter1 3.2 Informal Lener 2 3 .3 F o l l o w -u p AddingGrammar1 4.1 DearJulia 4.2 Follow-up AddingGrammar2 5 .I D e a rS a l l y 5.2 Follow-up AddingGrammar 3 6.1 DearRobinand Sarah 6.2 Follow-up Adding Grammar4 7.1 DearMrs Harlock 7.2 Follow-up</p> <p>SectionI-esson8</p> <p>2</p> <p>lV[atching</p> <p>Activities</p> <p>t</p> <p>I</p> <p>Lesson9</p> <p>tI tLesson10</p> <p>atII-ssm 11</p> <p>Adiective+ Preposition 8.1 Sentence Cards1 8.2 Sentence Cards2 8.3 Follow-up \trb + Preposition 9. I Senrence Cards1 9.2 Senrence Cards2 9.3 Follow-up Noun + Preposition 10.I Sentcnce CardsI 10.2Sentence Cards 2 1 0 .3F o l l o w -u pNoun Collocarions 1 11.1 S entence Cards 1 11.2 S entence Cards2 1 1.3 Follow-up</p> <p>t</p> <p>I</p> <p>.l</p> <p>Lesson12</p> <p>Lesson 13</p> <p>Lesson14</p> <p>Lesson15</p> <p>Lesson 16</p> <p>Noun Collocations 2 12.1Sentence CardsL 12.2 Sentence Cards2 12.3Follow-up Conditionals Type 1 13.1 Sentence Cards 13.2Follow-up Conditionals Type 2 14.1Sentence Cards 14.2Follow-up Conditionals Type 3 15.1Sentence Cards 15.2Follow-up Conditionals Mixed 16.1Sentence Cards 16.2Follow-up</p> <p>..4*</p> <p>:,</p> <p>SectionLesson 1.7</p> <p>3</p> <p>Rephrasing</p> <p>Activities</p> <p>I</p> <p>Lesson18</p> <p>Lesson19</p> <p>:t</p> <p>Lesson 20</p> <p>Lesson 21</p> <p>Lesson 22</p> <p>tt_</p> <p>Lesson 23</p> <p>Modal Verbs 1 17.1 Sentence Cards1 '1,7.2 Sentence Cards 2 17.3 Sentence Cards3 17.4Follow-up Modal Verbs2 L8.LSentence Cards1 18.2Sentence Cards2 18.3Sentence Cards3 18.4Follow-up ReportedSpeech 19.1Sentence Cards1 19.2 Sentence Cards2 19.3Follow-up ReportingVerbs 20.1Sentence Cards1 20.2 Sentence Cards2 20.3 Follow-up Transformations Sentence 1 21.1 Sentence CardsL 21.2 Sentence Cards2 2l .3 Follow-up tansformations 2 Sentence 22.1. Sentence Cards1 22.2 Sentence Cards 2 22.3 Follow-up Transformations3 Sentence 23.L Sentence Cards1 23.2 Sentence Cards2 23.3 Follow-uo</p> <p>I</p> <p>I I</p> <p>I Il</p> <p>'i: ': l</p> <p>I I I I I</p> <p>{</p> <p>Section=</p> <p>4</p> <p>Cornpletion</p> <p>Activities</p> <p>:a :e :a :a= =</p> <p>Lesson24</p> <p>Lesson 25</p> <p>Lesson 26</p> <p>:t</p> <p>:e: :'</p> <p>Isson 27</p> <p>Sentence Completion 1 24.1 Sentence Cards 24.2 Follow-up Sentence Completion 2 25.1 Sentence Cards 25.2 Follow-up Gerundor Infinitive 26.1 Sentence Cards1 26.2 Sentence Cards2 26.3 Sentence Card 3 26.4 Follow-up ClauseCompletion 27.1 Sentence Cards1 27.2 Sentence Cards2 27.3 Follow-up</p> <p>:l=</p> <p>SectionLesson28</p> <p>5</p> <p>Dictation</p> <p>Activities</p> <p>Fr F</p> <p>F trlF' I:t</p> <p>Lesson 29</p> <p>Fr F:</p> <p>Lesson 30</p> <p>Lesson31</p> <p>:t :t= :</p> <p>Lesson32</p> <p>:r u:t 2</p> <p>Make and Do 28.1 DictationSentences 28.2 AnswerSheet 28.3 Follow-up Give and Take 29.1 DictaionSentences 29.2 AnswerSheet 29.3 Follow-up Have and Get 30.1 DictationSentences 30.2 AnswerSheet 30.3 Follow-up Prepositional Phrases 31.1 DictationSentences 31.2Answer Sheet 31.3 Follow-up Phrasal Verbs 32.1 Dictation Texts 32.2 AnswerSheet 32.3Follow-up</p> <p>Ansrver</p> <p>I(.y</p> <p>z2,</p> <p>il-lAI</p> <p>T e a chers'Not esIntroduction</p> <p>Ipfq Ed</p> <p>1. A BasicInstantLessonThis book is called Instant Grammar Lessonsand it can be used in exactly that way. Here is a very simple, straightforward way to create immediate lessons:</p> <p>T..cc:L&gt;:</p> <p>l. Copy a page of the book (1 copy per student).</p> <p>2. Give out the pages. 3. Let the students complete exercise. the</p> <p>I lGN</p> <p>4. Correctthe work in class. 5. If you wish, copy and distributefor homeworkor extra practicethe follow-up exercise which is available eachunit. for</p> <p>-JIn'- !</p> <p>Lrl</p> <p>hd I.csl</p> <p>That's it - an instant grammar lesson.But lnstant Grammar Lessonshas been designedto be usedmuch more imaginativelythan the above absolutelyinstant lesson.Each unit has been carefully designed provide classroompracticewhich is: to interactive spontaneous lively learner-centred Used in this wa it will be much more effectivein helping learnersuse,practiseand, most importantl retain the target language.To get these additional benefits, teachersneed to spend a short time preparingthe worksheetsand explaining to the classthe basicinteractive methodologywhich will ensurelearnersget mlximumbenefit from their classtirne. This is developedin Section4 of thesenotes.</p> <p>2. The Contents IT" ! .jlnstant Grammar Lessons contains: 32 units of photocopiableclassroommaterialsto activateessential grammar Follow-up grammar homework for each lessonto consolidate rarget structures Full teachers'instructionsand answerkey</p> <p>II</p> <p>,-. ,.r</p> <p>The lessonsare grouped into five sections:</p> <p>Section1: Sequencing ActivitiesLearners work together to reconstruct narratives, compositions and letters, using link words and phrasesto help them. In some casesthey also have to make choices of tense and grammaticalisethe sentences before they put them in order.</p> <p>Section2: Matching ActivitiesLearners read out sentenceheads and tails to each other and try to reach agreementon possibleand probable matches. Learnerspractisecombining words into word partnerships and clauses into sentences.</p> <p>Section3: Rephrasing ActivitiesLearners reformulate sentences using important grammar patterns such as modal and reporting verbs.</p> <p>Section4: Completion ActivitiesLearners use both real-world knowledge and structural awarenessto complete sentences logically and grammatically. Acceptabilityof the completedsentences negotiatedwithin the is gr o up .</p> <p>Section5: Dictation ActivitiesLearners listen to the teacher or a partner reading out sentences which contain important word partnerships.They note down important partnerships. Areas coveredinclude common verbs such as do, haue, and take, phrasalverbs and prepositionalphrases.</p> <p>3. A Broader Viewof GrammarInstant Grammar Lessonscovers all the essentialareas of grammar at an intermediate and post-intermediatelevel. This makes it the ideal supplement to a Cambridge First Certificate or similar course. Target structures include: past &amp; present tenses future forms modal verbs con d iti onals reported speech th e p a ssive But not all the grammar an intermediate learner needsis about sentenceformation. \Word grammar,the ability to build natural phrases and expressions from known words, is also extremely important. So too is discoursegrammar, an awarenessof how sentences linked are together into paragraphs and whole texts. \lord and discoursegrammar focused on in Instant Grammar Lessonsinclude: : word partnerships or collocations: balanced diet, fatal accident common verbs used in many word partnerships: have and get, give and take contextualized phrasal verbs: look forward to (an event),get over (a bad experience) reporting verbs and their grammar: agree that, d,oubt uhether, ask about prepositionalphrases: at first, in particular,on purpose sequencingand linking expressions: after a while, a few weeks before, on the whole</p> <p>Lesson 4. An lnteractiveThe materials in Instant Grammar Lessonsare designedto be used in class so that the grammar practiceis basedon livel spontaneous, oral activities.In every case,this is then consolidated by extra written practice with new examples of the same grammar point. This extra practice providesinstant homework. It also ensures that learnershave a permanent record and clear idea of what they have learnedin each lesson. Most of these 1. Make copiesof the photocopiablepageswith the target language. pagesare designedto be cut up into strips, cards etc. 2. Preparea suitablenumber of strips or cards for your class. sometimes 3. Put learnersinto small groups of 2-5 learners; the number of groups (for exarnplean even number of groups) is important. The LessonNotes give detailed suggestions. 4. Explain that, in most cases, the learnersare given strips or cards which contain part and so on. Their task is to reconstruct, of something-part of a letter,a sentence, match or completea whole, using the languageon their strip or card and their knowledgeof grarnmar. individual learnersread out what is on their card and others respond 5. In most cases, Thesesuggestions basedon are spontlneously orally by contributing suggestions. for either their own card, or suggestions appropriatelanguagebasedon their knowledge of grammar.The most important part of the practiceis the processof guessing, and revisingthe suggestions take account of other suggestions. to suggesting, (right and wrong), and revisionsof the suggestions guesses are Thesesuggestions, learnersthan the more obvious target of "getting the right more valuableto the answer". The teachermonitors the activit without helping or correctingat this stage. 6. Learnersagreeon a "best suggestion"--the most likely order, the best completionsor whatever. These are reviewed as a whole class activity. 7. The teachergivesfeedbackand any extra information. as 8. The follow-up worksheetcan be copied and distributed,one per student,, written consolidation,a permanentrecord, or homework.</p> <p>l:C:l</p> <p>:t</p> <p>Tips 5. PracticalWorking Groups inInstant Grammar Lessonsworks best with learnerswho are used to working independently in groups. If yclur classis not used to working in this way, start by doing one of the activities '$lhen with a small group yourself in front of the rest of the class. they have got the idea, let them all try the sameactivity themselves. The more people there are in each group the more discussionthere will be. Three to five people per group is ideal. More than five in a group may make reaching a consensusdifficult.</p> <p>Timing</p> <p>IT tt t t tl</p> <p>tI</p> <p>tr</p> <p>This depends the ability and levelof the students. Settingup the activity,the activity itself on if and any follow-up shouldtake about 30-45 mins.The activity will be most effective it is interactive lively- so try to maintaina briskpace. spontaneous, and</p> <p>CorrectionThe Instant Lessonsactivities are designedto be learner-corrected. Some teachersmay want to intervenein group work if learnersare going badly astra but, as a rule, correction and</p> <p>reformulation of errors is best done as feedback after the activity. Put some of the incorrect languageyou heard when you were monitoring on the board. Can anyoneremembersaying it? Can they seewhat is wrong with it now? Can anyone else?</p> <p>RevisionSomeof the activitiescan be used more than once so learnersgain confidenceand a real degreeof fluency with the grammar being practised. You may like to repeat an activity later in a course to give learners a chance to recycle the languagethey have had difficulty with. An activity repeated like this may only take a few minutes.</p> <p>Variations Therearedetailed notes Lesson Lesson by whichinclude suggestions alternative forprocedures and follow-up work.</p> <p>CopiesIf you can photocopy the materialsonto card and laminate the cards or strips,this will significantly prolong the life of the materials.</p> <p>Re-using stripsWhen you collect the jumbled texts, give each group a paper clip to put round their set of strips so that you can use the strips again.</p> <p>Lesson Lesson by Notes</p> <p>The basicidea of the interactivemethodologyis ro meke the practices more lively and involving by encouraging students to listen and respond .poni"n.ourly. Explain clearly that studentsshould nor "cheat" by putting strips or.".d, on the table and simply doing the -expl"in activity as if it was a written exercise. that if the activitiesare basedon listeningand responding, they will be more fun and more effectiv. i" r'r.ipirg^rr,r.r,t, really remember the grammar.</p> <p>fn.t</p> <p>r:I!l m'-t</p> <p>h{ t4d</p> <p>I</p> <p>i</p> <p>Lesson 1 This lesson needs evennumberof smalrgroupsof 2/5 peopre an - 3 or 4 in eachgroup is probablybest'The groupsmay haveclifferent numbers in-th. Half the groupswork on 1.1, the otherson 1'2. The task is to put the texts.bact. rog.ri., b;-iir,.rrl.rg,particularlyfor linking words suchas arthoughir despite. Te[ them r"h",;i. il; numberedI is the beginning the text. of Eachmemberof eachgroup has 2/3 strips.Members read their stripsaloud one by one to the rest of dreir own group' As all the members the of group rg..., itt.y put their stripson the tablein the correctorder.Seta time limit - p.rh"pr-s for this part ofthelesson. Checkthat groupshavereconstructed text correctly. -rnur".t- wanr to highlight you may the the words, and perhapsoffer extra explanarron examples. or lj:.kitg \whenall groupshavethe correcttext in front of rh.-, to wrire the linking words on a pieceof paperin the right order.Ask them ".tu;;;.". to turn over the stripsand as a group try to remember original text - usingthe linking the words to h.tp them. Iinec.rr"'. Jh", .". turn overoneor morestrips. collect in the jumbledtexts.Make new groups, so that eachgroup contains one or two people who workedon eachtext. Let them surnmarise their t.*t fo. thosewho workedon the other text. The follow-up, for usein classor as homework,provides extra practiceof the linking words and a gappedtexr similar to the onesi...</p>

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