insoluble fibres

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<ul><li>1.# KNOWING FIBRE # Carbohydrate that body cannot digest , it cannot be broken down into sugars Soluble fibre Insoluble fibre Known for benefits on serum lipids, lowering cholesterol and glucose levels. Popularly known for its laxation effect. Helps food to move through our digestive system. 1. Cellulose 2. Hemicellulose 3. Lignin 4. Resistant starch 5. xanthan </li></ul> <p>2. Sources of insoluble fibres Bran : Wheat bran and oat bran have the most insoluble fibre. Beans : kidney beans best source. Breads and Cereals : Whole grain breads, rye wafers and popcorn all provide at least two grams of insoluble fibre per serving. Cocoa Powder : Nuts and Seeds : Vegetables : potatoes, broccoli, corn Fruits : Blackberries, Apples, pears, plums and strawberries. Age (years) Women (grams a day) Men (grams a day) 13 19 19 48 25 25 913 26 31 1418 26 38 1950 25 38 51 and older 21 30 Pregnant, age 19 and older 28 Breast-feeding, age 19 and older 29 3. EXTRACTION OF FIBRE FROM CEREALS Cereals cleaners Steeping Milling Germ Separator Grinding Mill Washing Screens Fiber 4. Fibre components of interest : Cellulose linear chain of (14) linked glucose monomers and is the structural component of cell walls in green plants and vegetables water insoluble and inert to digestive enzymes in the small intestine. intra and intermolecular non covalent hydrogen bonds, make cellulose insoluble in water. can go through microbial fermentation to a certain degree in the large intestine in turn producing SCFA. Cellulose helps to nourish the blood vessels so it is beneficial for veins, colitis , , ,constipation and haemorrhoids. It has ability to get rid of carcinogenic substances in colon and increases fecal weight. Sources of cellulose: Wheat bran, beets, peas, broccoli, carrots, lima beans, pears, apples, Brazil nuts, whole grains and green beans. 5. Resistant starch Any starch not digested in the small intestine is resistant starch. Resistant starches from high amylose corn indicates benefits in intestinal/colonic health as well as metabolic benefits in glycemic management, satiety and hunger and eye health. Type 1 is found in grains, seeds and legumes and resists digestion because it is bound within the fibrous cell walls. Type 2 is found in some starchy foods, including raw potatoes and green (unripe) bananas Type 3 is formed when certain starchy foods, including potatoes and rice, are cooked and then cooled.The cooling turns some of the digestible starches into resistant starches via a process called retrogradation. Type 4 is man-made and formed via a chemical process. 4 Types of resistant starch 6. Hemicellulose Non digestible and complex carbohydrate. Hemicellulose has a remarkable ability to retain water. recommended for weight loss, colon cancer , constipation and for removing cancer causing substances which can inhabit the bowel. Sources of hemicellulose: Psyllium seeds, oat ,bran, apples, pears, bananas, beans, corn, cabbage, whole grains, peppers, and green vegetables. Lignin Lignin is a non- carbohydrate cell wall material that is made up of chemical polymers and aromatic alcohols It inhibits cell wall digestion by intestinal bacteria. It helps in lowering blood serum cholesterol level. Lignin is recommended for anyone with diabetes, breast cancer or colon cancer it helps in inhibiting the action of estrogen. Sources of lignin: Flax seed, wheat , potatoes, apples, cabbage, peaches, tomatoes, strawberries, Brazil nuts, carrots, peas and green beans. 7. GENERAL MECHANISM OF ACTION FOR BENEFITS OF FIBRE Bulking fibres like cellulose and many carbohydrates reach large intestine and contributes to numerous health benefits easy excretion , prevents constipation. Viscosity delays digestion of lipids and carbohydrates delayed stomach emptying, satiety. Some fibres are fermented by bacteria in large intestine.The short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by fermentation maintains are key for colon health and metabolism benefits. increased immunity, insulin sensitivity, fat burning, increased satiety and increased minerals bioavailability. Insoluble fibres are minimally fermented but may induce bulking and viscosity mechanism effectively. 8. Insoluble fibre materials provide benefits beyond traditional fibre concepts of basic digestive health.These includes CVD, Immune system support, antioxidant effect, weight management and satiety. It is a condition that is characterized by inflammation and infection of pouches in the intestinal walls. Development of diverticular disease is normally associated with a low-fibre diet. Fibre softens and adds bulk to stools, helping them pass more easily through the colon It also reduces pressure in the digestive tract. Recommendation of diet 9. fibre is important for normal laxation primarily to the ability of fibre to increase stool weight. The increased weight is due to the physical presence of the fibre, water held by the fibre, and increased bacterial mass from fermentation. Larger and softer stools increase the ease of defecation and reduce transit time through the intestinal tract, which may help to prevent or relieve constipation. water retaining quality of insoluble fibre permits some of the moisture to be retained in the stool while it is being formed.This gives the stool volume and weight. Wheat bran is the most effective insoluble fibre when it comes to fecal bulking. 10. Fibre Increase in grams Wheat 5.4 g Fruits andVegetables 4.7 g Psyllium 4.0 g Cellulose 3.5 g Oats 3.4 g Corn 3.3 g Legumes 2.2 g Pectin 1.2 g 11. a strong inverse relationship between insoluble fibre and the risk of type two diabetes. Food pyramid of diabetics consuming fibre has the potential to attenuate glucose absorption rate, prevent weight gain, and increase the load of beneficial nutrients and antioxidants in diet. It increases the passage rate of foodstuff through the GI tract thus resulting in a decreased absorption rate. Mechanism of action First, an accelerated secretion of glucose-dependent insulintropic polypeptide (GIP) was observed directly after the ingestion of an insoluble fibre .GIP is an incretin hormone which stimulates postprandial insulin release. Second, insoluble fibre can result in a reduced appetite and food intake.This may lead to a decreased caloric intake and BMI. Third, short chain fatty acids, via fermentation, have been shown to reduce postprandial glucose response 12. Greater satiation may be a product of the increased time required to chew certain fibre-rich foods. Increased time chewing promotes saliva and gastric acid production, which may increase gastric distention. Slow, steady post-prandial glucose and insulin responses are sometimes correlated with satiation and satiety. signals of satiation induced is related to bulking effects of dietary fibre as well as viscosity-producing effects of certain fibres may enhance satiety . 13. fibres may also play a role in improving immune function via production of SCFAs. SCFA stimulate production ofT helper cells, antibodies, leukocytes, cytokines, and lymph. The three most abundant SCFAs are acetate, propionate, and butyrate butyrate is considered the most beneficial in terms of colonic health and is the preferred energy source for colonic epithelial cells, and promotes normal cell differentiation and proliferation reduce the risk of haemorrhoids and colon cancer. SCFAs act to lower colonic pH, which can inhibit growth of potential pathogens and promote the growth of beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. 14. FIBRE AS FUNCTIONAL FOOD Fibre supplements are usually made from functional fibers, which is fiber that is isolated or extracted from plants or animals, with health benefits in humans.They come in a wide variety of forms and flavours -- from powders, oils, and wafers to capsules and chewable tablets . consumer comfort with the taste of added fibre in products is increasing. consumers are actively reading food labels specifically for fibre consumers are becoming more informed about the foods they eat. New Product Developments Using new fibre sources, or increasing fibre levels in foods, must not come at the expense of taste, colour, aroma or mouth feel. Along these lines, companies are moving toward developing invisible fibre that food and beverage manufacturers can easily add into their recipes without much reformulation. reason for the increasing trend 15. using functional cellulose in bakery products to increase specific volume and improve the sponginess of chemically leavened items new horizon to food scientists at low levels fibres are used as a binder (water and fat), volume enhancer (sweet baked goods), rheological modifier (sauces), fat reducer (fried foods). A potential high-growth niche is bran-enriched products Cereal-based brans are high in dietary fibre and represent a natural source. Many cereal grain-based products offer opportunities for bran fortification, including crackers, tortillas, baked snacks, pasta and sweet goods. Consumers will become more enlightened about the many functional effects of fibres as a result of heavy marketing of benefits to consumers. Products with added fibre claim are also sporting weight control claim good demand as we will see a satiety and weight management boom in the coming years. 16. if you take too much, they can cause some uncomfortable side effects and interfere with your bodys intake of important nutrients. Getting too much fiber can cause loose stools, abdominal discomfort, gas, and bloating. resistant starch, and psyllium, have been found to cause abdominal cramping, bloating, gas, and diarrhoea Excess fiber can bind to iron, zinc, calcium, and magnesium and decrease their absorption Psyllium has the potential to reduce absorption of digoxin,Coumadin, lithium, and carbamazepine. 17. Designed to decrease fat and calories and increase healthy insoluble fibre in variety of products --- NESTLE--- patented corn-based ingredient developed at USDA. To increase the nutritional value of their products and reduce fat in response to global obesity epidemic. Pea Fibre IG , new insoluble fibre comes from inside the dry pea ( pisum sativus ) applications well suited are bakery products and meat . New fibre is wall of cells of pea made of cellulose, hemicellulose a, lignin and pectin. Pea fibre IG is sold for food uses by Roquette as fibre content booster and its emulsifying and gelling properties. </p>