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INORGANIC CHEMISTRY[Type the document subtitle][Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.]

Meiliza Ekayanti [Type the company name] [Pick the date]

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PREFACE

Bismillahirrahmanirrahim. Assalamualaikum Wr. Wb. Alhamdulillahirabbilalamin, praise and our thanks gives presence of God who is praised and most high. that has gave us enjoy islam, enjoy faith and enjoy healthy that no predicted. Shalawat and greeting not forgets us submit to our big prophet, Mohammad saw that has brought us from stupidity era to science era. We render thanks to the whole party that has supported and helped us until we can finish this paper. Especially to both our old fellow, our lecturer Drs. Agung Purwanto, M.Si., friends and other parties that can not we mention one by one. Nothing are perfect except God.. Maybe that words that can depict this paper. Until we open our liver door to accept criticism and suggestion from all parties, in order to later, in paper hereinafter can be better next. And we apologize if existed insuffiency and mistake in this paper making. Because all that correctness is only God property, and all wrong ones is ours person. Akhirul kalam. Wassalamualaikum Wr. Wb.

Jakarta, October 2010 Chemistry 2009

COMPILERS Atomic Theory and Elements Periodic System 1. Ratna Purnama Sari 2. Sri Astriani 3. Endah Dianty Chemica Bonding and Molecular Geometry 1. Ulfah Choiriyah 2. Sandra Masduroh 3. Aditya Agam Hybridization 1. Fitri Hartanti 2. Sarah Yane Irene 3. Selline Yansu Groups IA and IB 1. Reni Andriani 2. Putriningtias Imansari Groups IIA and IIB 1. Sifa Fauziah Dwidara 2. Ranie Pujiastuti Groups IIIA and IIIB 1. Indah Budiarti 2. Fenty Kanisateja 3. Nurain Tri Rahayu Groups IVA and IVB 1. Fitri Hartanti 2. Sarah Yane Irene

3. Selline Yansu Groups VA and VB 1. Rully Putera S 2. Lilis Septiarini 3. Siti Lili A Groups VIA and VIB 1. Rizqi Meidani F 2. Mita Rahayu Groups VIIA and VIIB 1. Mega Puspita S 2. Christiandi Cahyo 3. Syarifah Nabilah F Groups VIIIA and VIIIB 1. Yulinar Eka P 2. Apriyanti Lantanide and Actinide 1. Taufik Triadi 2. Zenith Tarra F 3. Kartika Diah A

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LIST OF CONTENTS

Preface...................................................................................................... Compiler..................................................................................................... List of Contents.......................................................................................... Contents Atomic Theory and Elements Periodic System..................................1 Chemical Bonidng and Geometry Molecular...................................42 Hybridization...................................................................................80 Groups IA and IB...........................................................................107 Groups IIA and IIB.........................................................................147 Groups IIIA and IIIB.......................................................................167 Groups IVA and IVB.......................................................................207 Groups VA and VB.........................................................................245 Groups VIA and VIB............................................................................. Groups VIIA and VIIB........................................................................... Groups VIIIA and VIIIB......................................................................... Groups Lantanide and Actinide...........................................................

1. CHAPTER 1 SOME FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS Chemistry is the science that deals with the composition and properties of substance and the transformations they undergo. DIVISIONS OF CHEMISTRY General Chemistry is a broad survey of chemistry as a whole, with special emphasis on its basic principles and laws. It includes the properties and reactions of some of the most common elements and compounds. Organic Chemistry is the study of compounds of carbon, either as they are produced in plants and animals or as they are formed synthetically. Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry of living processes. All the chemical reactions taking place in the body are more specifically referred to as physiological chemistry. Analytical chemistry is concerned with the methods of determining the various constituents of matter as to what they are (qualitative analysis), or how much they are (quantitative analysis). Physical chemistry deals with the principles and laws that underlie chemical changes. Nuclear chemistry is the study of changes that take place in the nucleus of the atom. 1.1 Matter Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. In ordinary chemical reactions, matter can neither be created nor destroyed (law of conservation of matter). In nuclear reaction, however, matter can be converted into energy, or vice versa.

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Physical States of Matter, matter exists in three physical states: solid, liquid, and gaseous, depending on temperature and pressure. Solids are rigid and have a definite volume and a definite form. Liquids have a definite volume but no definite form. They flow and assume the shape of the vessel which holds them. Gases have neither a definite volume nor a definite form. They diffuse into every part of the container in which they are placed. Classification of Matter. Matter can be in the form of an element, a compound, or mixture. Elements. An element is a substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substance by ordinary chemical means. It may also be defined as a substance whose properties give it a definite place in the periodic table. There are 103 known chemical elements at the present time. They may be classified into metals and nonmetals. Examples of metals are iron, silver, and gold. Sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen are nonmetals. Compounds. A compounds is made up of two or more elements chemically combine in definite proportions by weight. Thus, the compound water is composed of 11.11 percent hydrogen and 88.89 percent oxygen by weight. A compound is homogeneous. Its properties are quite different from those of its constituent elements, and its constituent elements can be separated to oxygen in water illustrates the law of definite proportions, or the law of definite composition.

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Mixture. A mixture is made up of two or more substance that are not combined chemically. Its component parts retain their own properties and can be separated by mechanical means. For examples, cream of tartar baking powder is a mixture of sodium bicarbonate, cream of tartar, and starch. Changes in Matter. Matter undergoes changes, some of which are physical and others of which are chemical. Physical changes. A physical change is an alteration in the condition or state of substance. The chemical composition of the substance is not changed. Examples of physical changes are the chopping of wood, the breaking of glass, and the melting of ice. Chemical Changes. A chemical change is one in which a new substance is formed having a composition and properties different from those of the original substance. For example, iron on exposure to moist air becomes rust; sulfur, on burning, becomes sulfur dioxide. Properties of Matter. The distinguishing characteristics of a substance are referred to as its properties. There are two types of properties: physical chemical. Physical Properties. The physical properties of a substance are those associated with physical changes. They include characteristics such as color, odor, taste, density, crystalline form, boiling point, and melting point.

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Chemical Properties. Chemical properties are characteristics of elements and compounds which describe the manner in which these substance react with other substance. For example, sodium reacts readily with water to liberate hydrogen; water is decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis. 1.2 Energy Energy may be defined as the ability to do work. Matter always possesses energy in one form or another. All transformations of matter are accompanied by transformations of energy. Forms of Energy and Transformations. Energy can take many forms; heat, light, electrical, kinetic, chemical, and nuclear or atomic energy. Energy can be changed from one form to another but cannot be created or destroyed in reactions other than nuclear reactions (law of conservation of energy). For example, electricity is changed into light in a light bulb; heat from steam is changed into electricity in an electric generator.

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CHAPTER 2 ATOMIC THEORY Birth of Atomic Theory Modern chemistry is based on atomic theory. To understand the atomic theory, first you must learn the fundamental laws including the law of conservation of mass, comparative law remains, and the law of multiple comparisons. These laws are basic atomic theory and at the same time represent the conclusions drawn from the theory of atoms. However, the atomic theory itself is incomplete. Chemistry can be a consistent system since the atomic theory combined with the concept of molecule. In the past, the existence of an atom is only a hypothesis. In the early 20th century atomic theory finally proved. It also became clear that the atom consists of particles smaller. Current atomic theory is slowly growing in line with this development and become a skeleton material world.2.1 Birth of chemical

Modern chemistry initiated by the French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794). He discovered the law of conservation of mass in chemical reactions, and reveal the role of oxygen in combustion. Based on this principle, the chemistry developed in the right direction.