Inorganic Chemistry Review

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<ul><li><p>INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY REVIEW 1 </p><p>INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY </p><p>REVIEWER </p><p>Prepared by Cherry Caroline S. Chua, 11-2012 </p><p>Revised by Joanna J. Orejola, 09-2013 </p><p>GROUP IA (1): ALKALI METALS </p><p> Possess only one valence electron </p><p> Very reactive chemically </p><p> Seldom found free in nature </p><p> Lithium, Sodium, and potassium metals are stored under </p><p>keroseneViolent (exothermic, explosive) reaction with water </p><p> Hydrogen, H (Gk. hydro, water; genes, forming produces water </p><p>when burned with oxygen) </p><p> Lithium, Li (Gk. lithos, rock because it occurs in rocks) </p><p> Sodium, Na (L. sodanum, headache remedy; symbol, L. natrium, </p><p>soda) </p><p> Potassium, K (L. kalium, potash) </p><p> Rubidium, Rb (L. rubidius, dark red discovered with the </p><p>spectroscope, its spectrum shows red lines) </p><p> Cesium, Cs (L. caesium, blue spectral lines are blue) </p><p> Francium, Fr (France) </p><p>HYDROGEN, H </p><p> Inflammable Air </p><p> Lightest element </p><p> Among the alkali metals, only Hydrogen can exist as a monovalent </p><p>ion (H+) or a monovalent anion (H-) </p><p> Isotopes: </p><p>o Protium Most abundant isotope </p><p>o Deuterium Heavy hydrogen </p><p> D2O, heavy water </p><p>o Tritium Radioactive isotope </p><p> Hydrogen, under normal conditions, exist as a diatomic molecule </p><p>(H2), though this form is not very useful pharmaceutically </p><p> Industrial uses: </p><p>o Haber process (production of ammonia) </p><p>o Hydrogenation of oils </p><p>o Inflating balloons </p><p>WATER, H2O </p><p>Natural Water/Mineral Water </p><p> contain dissolved minerals (Ca+2, Mg+2, Fe+3, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO4-2, </p><p>Cl-), varying amounts of suspended matter (clay, sand, </p><p>microorganisms, fragments of plants and animals), and traces of </p><p>dissolved atmospheric gases, ammonia, and metabolic </p><p>decomposition products </p><p> Not fit for drinking </p><p>Example CHARACTERISTICS </p><p>ALKALINE WATER </p><p>o contain appreciable quantities of Na2SO4, MgSO4 and NaHCO3 </p><p>CARBONATED WATER </p><p>o contains CO2 under pressure and usually effervesce on coming to the surface </p><p>o contain calcium and magnesium carbonates in solution as bicarbonate </p><p>o can be natural or artificial </p><p>CHALYBEATE WATER </p><p>o Contains iron in solution or in suspension o Characterized by its ferruginous taste o Forms ferric hydroxide or ferric oxide upon </p><p>exposure to air </p><p>LITHIA WATER o Do not contain appreciable quantities of lithium, either as carbonate or chloride </p><p>SALINE WATER (PURGATIVE WATER) </p><p>o Contain relatively high amounts of MgSO4, Na2SO4 and NaCl </p><p>SULFUR WATER o Contains dissolved H2S and deposit S upon exposure to the atmosphere </p><p>SILICEOUS WATER </p><p>o Water that contain soluble alkali silicates </p><p>Water Hardness due to presence of dissolved minerals in water </p><p> Soft waterWater that does not contain appreciable amounts of </p><p>Ca+2 and Mg+2 ions </p><p> Hard waterWater that contains appreciable quantities of minerals </p><p> Temporary hardness </p><p>o Contains mainly dissolved calcium and magnesium </p><p>bicarbonate </p><p>o Can be removed by boiling (promotes formation of insoluble </p><p>calcium carbonate) or by addition of lime, Ca(OH)2 </p><p>o Permanent hardness </p><p>o Contains mainly dissolved calcium and magnesium sulfate </p><p>and chloride in water </p><p>o Cannot be removed by boiling </p><p>o Water softening is achieved by the use of ion-exchange resins </p><p>Potable Water </p><p> water that is fit to drink </p><p> USP Definition: Water that is obtained by distillation, ion exchange, </p><p>or reverse osmosis </p><p> meets standards for freedom from coliform organisms </p><p> water treated to remove insoluble matter through appropriate </p><p>coagulating, settling, and filtering processes; destruction of </p><p>pathogenic microorganisms by aeration, chlorination, or other </p><p>methods, and improvement of palatability through aeration and </p><p>filtration through charcoal </p><p> water fluoridation </p><p>o Achieved via addition of sodium fluorosilicate </p><p>o For prevention of dental caries </p><p>o Drawback: could cause dental fluorosis (mottling of teeth) </p><p>Purified Water </p><p> Intended for use as an ingredient of official preparations and in tests </p><p>and assays unless otherwise specified </p></li><li><p>INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY REVIEW 2 </p><p> Not for parenteral preparations </p><p>HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, H2O2 </p><p> Agua oxigenada, agua oxenada </p><p> Oxygenated acid, oxygenated water </p><p> Use: treatment for Vincents stomatitis (severe form of gingivitis), as </p><p>mouthwash </p><p> Commercial availability: </p><p>o 10-volume solution (3% w/v) and 20-volume solution (6% w/v) </p><p>o Hydrogen Peroxide Topical Solution, USP </p><p>o 3% w/v stabilized aqueous solution </p><p>o 10-volume solution </p><p>o Stabilizer: acetanilide 0.03% </p><p>LITHIUM, Li Lithos - Earth </p><p> Lightest metal </p><p> Pharmacologic action of lithium compounds: </p><p>o Mood stabilizer (depressant) </p><p>o Diuretic </p><p>LITHIUM BROMIDE, LiBr </p><p> Combined sedative effects of lithium ion and bromide ion </p><p>LITHIUM CARBONATE, Li2CO3 </p><p> Brand names: Eskalith, Lithase, Quilonium-R </p><p> Widely used in the prophylaxis and treatment of bipolar disorders and </p><p>mania and in the maintenance treatment of recurrent depression </p><p> Also used for treatment of mania: </p><p>o Lithium Citrate </p><p>o Lithium Hydroxide </p><p>o Lithium Oral Solution </p><p>SODIUM, Na </p><p> From Latin word natrium </p><p> Principal extracellular ion </p><p> Accumulation of too much sodium in the body causes fluid retention </p><p> Cation of choice for organic medicinals </p><p>CALCIUM DISODIUM EDETATE, C10H12N2Na2 CaO8 </p><p> Used in antidotal therapy for certain heavy metal poisoning </p><p>(particularly for lead) </p><p> Does not precipitate hypocalcemia </p><p>EDETATE DISODIUM, C10H14N2Na2O8.2H2O </p><p> EDTA Disodium salt </p><p> Pharmacologic Use: Chelating agent administered IV in the </p><p>emergency treatment of hypercalcemia </p><p> Hypocalcemia may occur if the drug is administered too rapidly or to </p><p>patients who are not initially hypercalcemicLife threatening </p><p> Not used in treatment of heavy metal poisoning since </p><p>hypocalcemia rapidly develops </p><p>MONOBASIC SODIUM PHOSPHATE, NaH2PO4 </p><p> Component of Fleet enema </p><p> Fleet Enema is composed of Sodium Phosphate and Sodium </p><p>Biphosphate </p><p> Saline laxative </p><p>o Not absorbed from the intestines </p><p> Systemic and urinary acidifier </p><p> With Methenamine, treatment of cystitis (release of formaldehyde) </p><p>o Hairs of corn, as decoction used for cystitis </p><p> Source of phosphorus in hypophosphatemia and TPN </p><p> Indirectly lowers plasma calcium levelsExcess plasma phosphate </p><p>interacts with plasma calcium and is transferred to the bone </p><p> Used in the treatment of hypercalcemia </p><p>DIBASIC SODIUM PHOSPHATE, Na2HPO4 </p><p> Sodium Phosphate, Phosphate of Soda </p><p> Dibasic phosphate ion is the primary anion in the intracellular fluid </p><p> Saline laxative </p><p> Antihypercalcemic, as oral solution </p><p>TRIBASIC SODIUM PHOSPHATE, Na3PO4 </p><p> No pharmacologic use </p><p> Used for cleaning glass apparatus </p><p> Very alkaline reaction with water (corrosive) </p><p>SODIUM ACETATE, NaCH3COO </p><p> Diuretic </p><p> Systemic and urinary alkalizer </p><p> Pharmaceutical necessity used in solutions for hemodialysis and </p><p>peritoneal dialysis </p><p> Alkalinizing agent for Benedicts Solution </p><p>SODIUM ASCORBATE, NaC6H7O6 </p><p> Vitamin C supplement </p><p> Antioxidant </p><p>SODIUM BICARBONATE, NaHCO3 </p><p> Baking Soda </p><p> Solvay process </p><p> Bicarbonate ion is the 2nd major anion in the extracellular fluid </p><p> Systemic alkalizer </p><p> Systemic antacid </p><p>o Readily absorbed by the body </p><p>o Could cause systemic alkalosis </p><p>o Rebound hyperacidity </p><p> Pharmaceutically used as source of carbonation for effervescent </p><p>preparations </p><p>o Organic acid component: tartaric, citric, ascorbic acid </p><p>o CO2 enhances palatability of preparation </p></li><li><p>INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY REVIEW 3 </p><p> Antidote for zinc poisoning (ingestion) </p><p> Enhance elimination of acidic drugs </p><p> 4 commonly used antacids </p><p>o Sodium Bicarbonate </p><p>o Calcium Carbonate </p><p>o Magnesium Hydroxide </p><p>o Aluminum Hydroxide </p><p>SODIUM BORATE, Na2B4O7 </p><p> Borax </p><p> Pharmaceutic necessity: alkalinizing agent </p><p> Externally: as eyewash, bufferWater-softener </p><p>SODIUM CARBONATE, Na2CO3 </p><p> Anhydrous soda ash </p><p> Dihydrate trona </p><p> Decahydrate soda crystals, washing soda, sal soda </p><p> Carbonating agent </p><p>SODIUM CHLORIDE, NaCl </p><p> Table salt, rock salt, sea salt, solar salt, dendritic salt </p><p> Chloride is the major extracellular anion </p><p> Electrolyte replenisher </p><p>o NSS 0.9% w/v NaCl in water </p><p>o Ringers Solution NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 in waterIsotonic </p><p>Solution of Three Chlorides </p><p>o Lactated Ringers NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, sodium lactate </p><p>Hartmanns Solution </p><p>o Oral rehydration saltsNaCl, glucose, KCl, sodium citrate </p><p> Tonicity-adjusting agent </p><p> Condiment </p><p> Preservative </p><p>SODIUM CITRATE, Na3C6H5O7 </p><p> In vitro: anticoagulant, forming complex with Ca++ necessary for </p><p>blood clotting </p><p> In vivo: </p><p>o Systemic and urinary alkalizer </p><p>o Expectorant </p><p>o In vivo (parenteral): blood coagulant </p><p>o Excessive oral administration of citrate salts can have a </p><p>laxative effect </p><p> Best expectorant: water vapor </p><p>SODIUM FLUORIDE, NaF </p><p> Anticariogenic agent (1.1%) in dentifrices </p><p> Excess of fluoride ion causes dental fluorosis (mottling of teeth) </p><p> NaMFP (Sodium Monofluoride Phosphate) also used in </p><p>dentifrices </p><p> Fluoride ion is toxic and should not be ingested in large amounts </p><p>o Precautions for use in children </p><p> Nonpharmaceutical use: </p><p> Rodenticide and insecticide </p><p> Hydrofluoric Acid is used in glass etching and causes slow-healing </p><p>burns (antidote: calcium gluconate) </p><p>SODIUM FORMALDEHYDE SULFOXYLATE </p><p> Best antidote for mercuric chloride poisoning </p><p>SODIUM GLUCONATE, NaC6H11O7 </p><p> Electrolyte replenisher </p><p> Gluconate salts: </p><p>o less irritating </p><p>o water soluble </p><p>o Acceptors of hydrogen ions produced by metabolic processes </p><p>and act as indirect source of bicarbonate ions </p><p>SODIUM HYDROXIDE, NaOH </p><p> Caustic soda, lye, sosa, soda lye </p><p> Very deliquescent readily absorb water from the environment and </p><p>readily dissolve in the water that was absorbed </p><p> Saponifying agent Manufacture of soaps </p><p>o Soft Soap vs. Hard Soap </p><p> Corrosive </p><p> Readily attack glass </p><p> Too alkaline to be of medicinal valuerapidly destroys tissue </p><p>(caustic) </p><p> Pharmaceutical use: </p><p>o alkalinizing agent to form soluble sodium salts of various drugs </p><p>o Pharmaceutical necessity in preparation of Glycerin </p><p>Suppositories </p><p> Ingestion of solutions of sodium hydroxide causes liquefaction </p><p>necrosis/ saponification necrosis </p><p> (vs. strong acids coagulative necrosis) </p><p>SODA LIME, NaOH. Ca(OH)2 </p><p> Calx sodica </p><p> Mixture of calcium hydroxide and sodium or potassium hydroxide or </p><p>both </p><p> Good carbon dioxide absorber for anesthesia machines, oxygen </p><p>therapy, and metabolic tests </p><p>SODIUM HYPOPHOSPHITE, NaHPO2 </p><p> Reducing agent </p><p>SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE, NaOCl </p><p> Household bleach, Chlorox 4-6% w/w NaOCl in water </p><p> Bleaching agent </p><p> Disinfectant (oxidizing property) </p><p> Dakins Solution disinfectant </p><p> Labarraques Solution (~2.5%) disinfectant </p></li><li><p>INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY REVIEW 4 </p><p> Modified Dakins Solution(450-500 mg NaOCl per 100 mL </p><p>solution) antiseptic </p><p>SODIUM IODIDE, NaI </p><p> Iodide is an essential ion necessary for synthesis of triiodothyronine </p><p>and thyroxine </p><p> Source of iodine </p><p>o Lack of iodine simple or colloid goiter Iodides: expectorant </p><p>action (oral administration) </p><p> expectorant </p><p> Pharmaceutical use Solubilizer of iodine in iodine-containing </p><p>preparations such as Iodine Tincture and Iodine Solution </p><p> Protect from moisture and light </p><p>SODIUM METABISULFITE, Na2S2O5 </p><p> Water-soluble antioxidantGood reducing agent </p><p> A combination of sodium bisulfite and sodium metabisulfite in </p><p>varying proportions </p><p> It is the bisulfite of commerce and for all practical purposes </p><p>possesses the same properties as the true bisulfite </p><p> Antioxidant for drugs which contain phenol or catechol nucleus (e.g: </p><p>phenylephrine HCl, epinephrine HCl solutions) to prevent oxidation </p><p>to quinones; also in Vitamin C solutions (usually 0.1%)Solutions </p><p>must be acid in pH </p><p> Antimicrobial property: </p><p>o Fermentation industries </p><p>o Preservative and bleach in food </p><p> To prepare water-soluble analogs of water-insoluble drugs (e.g.: </p><p>menadione sodium bisulfite) </p><p> Drawback of sulfites and SO2 Hypersensitivity reactions in </p><p>susceptible individuals (angioedema, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis) </p><p>SODIUM NITRATE, NaNO3 </p><p> Chile saltpeter, salitre </p><p> Preservative </p><p>SODIUM NITRITE, NaNO2 </p><p> Internally acts as a vasodilator due to relaxation of smooth muscle </p><p>(can cause lowering of blood pressure) </p><p> Antidote for cyanide poisoning </p><p> Used for curing meats and fish </p><p>o Color development </p><p>o Flavor production (with sodium chloride) </p><p>o Preservation against bacteria </p><p> However: carcinogenic </p><p>SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE, Na2[Fe(CN)5NO] . 2H2O </p><p> Hypotensive agent </p><p>SODIUM PERBORATE, NaBO3 </p><p> Mild disinfectant and deodorant </p><p> Readily releases oxygen in contact with oxidizable matter </p><p>SODIUM POLYMETAPHOSPHATE </p><p> Calgon, Grahams salt </p><p> Water-softener </p><p> detergent </p><p>SODIUM POLYSTYRENE SULFONATE </p><p> Brand name: Kayexalate </p><p> Cation-exchange resin for treatment of hyperkalemia resulting from </p><p>kidney failure </p><p>SODIUM POTASSIUM TARTRATE, NaKC4H4O6 . H2O </p><p> Rochelle Salt, Sal Seginette </p><p> Saline laxative poorly absorbed in the intestine </p><p> Sequestering Agent in Fehlings Solution </p><p> Acidity Regulator in food </p><p>SODIUM SACCHARIN </p><p> Artificial sweetener </p><p>SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE </p><p> Brand name: Explotab </p><p> Tablet disintegrant </p><p>SODIUM SULFATE, Na2SO4 . 10H2O </p><p> Glaubers salt </p><p> Saline laxative Sulfate ion poorly absorbed in GIT </p><p>SODIUM TARTRATE, Na2C4H4O6 </p><p> Primary standard for Karl Fischer Reagent used for Water Content </p><p>Determination </p><p> Laxative </p><p> Diuretic </p><p> NOT converted to bicarbonate inside the body </p><p>SODIUM THIOCYANATE, NaSCN </p><p> Hypotensive agent </p><p> Also used in cleaners for contact lenses and as antioxidant </p><p>synergist in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations </p><p>SODIUM THIOSULFATE, NaS3O3 </p><p> Hypochlor, Photographers hypo, hypo </p><p> Sodium hyposulfite (misnomer) </p><p> Antidote for cyanide poisoning, in conjunction with sodium nitrite </p><p> Used as volumetric solution in titration </p><p> Acids decompose thiosulfate to sulfur </p><p> Bases decompose thiosulfate to sulfate </p><p> Prone to bacterial decomposition </p><p> Removal of chlorine from aqueous solutions </p></li><li><p>INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY REVIEW 5 </p><p> MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE (MSG) </p><p> Brand: Ajinomoto </p><p> Flavor enhancer </p><p>o Imparts a meat flavor to foods (flavor enhancer) </p><p>o Sharpens weaker flavors already present in food without </p><p>adding any significant taste of their own </p><p> Causes Chinese Restaurant Syndrome some individuals </p><p>sensitive to glutamate: light-headedness, headache, uncomfortable </p><p>sense of warmth, difficulty in breathing </p><p>POTASSIUM, K </p><p> Kalium </p><p> Principal intracellular cation </p><p> Deficiency state Hypokalemia </p><p>o Due to severe burns, diarrhea, or other causes </p><p>o Signs and symptoms: muscle weakness and muscle paralysis </p><p> Pharmacologic action: </p><p>o Diuretic </p><p>o Involved in muscle contraction </p><p>DIBASIC POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE, K2HPO4 </p><p> Potassium Phosphate </p><p> Treatment of hypercalcemia </p><p>o Favors deposition of calcium and phosphate in the bone </p><p>o A portion is converted to pyrophosphate, a chelator of calcium, </p><p>the complex excreted in the urine </p><p>o High plasma phosphate levels decrease calcitriol levels and </p><p>decrease absorption of calcium </p><p> Used in conjunction with monobasic salt for potassium or phosphate </p><p>deficiency </p><p> Reagent for various buffers and parenteral fluids </p><p> No longer used as laxative </p><p>MONOBASIC POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE, KH2PO4 </p><p> Sorensens Potassium Phosphate </p><p> For treatment of hypercalcemia Used in conjunction with the </p><p>dibasi...</p></li></ul>