influencing : power, politics, networking, negotiation

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POWER, POLITICS, NETWORKING AND NEGOTIATION Group’s Members: Low Ai Choo Abreza Bt. Atan NoorHayati Bt. Yusop ‘Izzat Haizan B. Anuar Mohd Zulhida B. Badarudin

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Human Resource Management


  • 1. POWER, POLITICS, NETWORKINGAND NEGOTIATION Groups Members: Low Ai Choo Abreza Bt. AtanNoorHayati Bt. Yusop Izzat Haizan B. Anuar Mohd Zulhida B. Badarudin

2. INTRODUCTION 3. INFLUENCINGDefinition: The process of affecting / changing othersattitudes and behavior to achieve an objective. Its about being able to move things forward,without pushing, forcing or telling others whatto do. 4. Rational RationalInspirational InspirationalPersuasionPersuasion AppealsAppeals Pressure Pressure ConsultationConsultation99 Influencing Influencing Legitimization LegitimizationTactics TacticsIngratiationIngratiationPersonalPersonal Coalitions CoalitionsAppeals Appeals Exchange ExchangeSource: Adapted from J. French and B.H. Raven. 1959. The Bases of Social Power. In Studies of Social Power. D. Cartwright, ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social 4 5. 1. Rational Persuation Presenting the facts and logical arguments Emphasizing the positive benefits of acourse of action. Most accepted methods of influencingExample: Teacher advise student work hard to getthe better result by telling the outcomewith better score in SPM. Unfortunately, not all people think withlogic all the time. 6. 2. Inspirational Appeals Leader set up their vision for future success and bydoing so, not only gains support, but also sparksenthusiasm for major changes. Modeling behavior and setting an example for othersto follow.Example: Launching of Rakyat 1 Malaysia by Prime minister. 7. 3. Consultation Examining the problem and working with theinfluence toward a solution It works when someone provides input, theybecome more committed to the initiative.They feel involved and are more motivated totake action.Example: Headmaster need your support and assistance ormodify your proposal to certain activity in school. 8. 4. Ingratiation Get you in a good mood before asking you forsomethingExample: Teacher praise student hardworking beforegiving home work.5. Personal Appeals Appeals to your feelings of loyalty andfriendship.Example: Can u be my best Teacher treat student as friends in process of friend and BOSS??influencing their behavior. 9. 6. Exchange Exchanging by giving something of valueto influence in return for something youwant.7. Coalitions Get someone else to persuade you to comply Use someone elses support as reason for youto comply 10. 8. Legitimating Claims to have the authority toget you to do something Verifying its in the policymanual, rules or practices andtraditions9. Pressure Use demands threats or persistent reminders 11. WHAT IS POWER? 12. POWER 13. Power is: ability to bring about change inones psychological environment. Influence is the use of power to bring about change 14. 2 Sources of PowerDerived fromPosition top management Derived from thePersonal follower based on leaders behavior14 15. Legitimate Power Comes from appointed/electedposition Most followers grant this to aleaderExample: 16. Reward Power Control of thingsvalued by followers Based on exchangerelationship The power of give orwith hold rewards,such as bonuses,promotion, salaryincreasing,recommandation. 17. Coercive Power Is based on fear Bases its effectiveness on theability to administerpunishment or give negativereinforcements A leader using often resortsto punishment, reprimandsor dismissal. It is also called the pressureinfluencing tactic. 18. Referent Power An admiration of a leader,which usually producesinfluence and acceptance bysubordinates (French &Raven, 1959 ). Referent poweracts a little like role modelpower. It depends onrespecting, liking and holdinganother individual in highesteem. It usually developsover a long period of time. 19. Information/ResourcesPower on the users data Is baseddesired by others. Information power involvesaccess to vital informationand control over itsdistribution to other. Distortion of informationincludes selective editing topromote only your position,giving a biased interpretationof data and even presentingfalse information. 20. Connection Power Is based on the leaders connections with influential or important persons inside or outside the organization. A leader who demonstrates connection power induces cooperation from others because they wish to gain favour or avoid the disfavour. 21. Expert Power Is based on the leaderspossession of expertise,skill and knowledge, whichthrough respect,influences others. A leaderwith expert power is seenas possessing the expertiseto improve the workbehaviour for others. 22. POLITICS 23. RELATIONSHIPrelationship POWER POLITICSTo increase power 24. INTERPRETATION If the level of Gaining power management higher More Using powerProcessMorePOLITICS politicalAffectsIn largerbehaviororganizationVarydecisionFromorganization to organization 25. POLITICS IS A MEDIUM OF EXCHANGED To get what we wantSystemPOLITICSBuilding Accomplishrelationship Help meet Personal goal objectives Professional goal 26. ANALOGYInherently GOOD nor BADMONEYMONEY POLITICSPOLITICS Medium ofEXCHANGEDIn economy In organizationPolitical behavior Tangible currency 27. ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICAL BEHAVIORNETWORKINGRECIPROCITYCOALITIONS 28. ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICAL BEHAVIORNETWORKINGRECIPROCITYCOALITIONS 29. NETWORKINGManagers engage Developing relationshipCategorized into Activities Process For the purpose of Traditional management socializing communication politickingHuman resourcemanagementnetworking Successful ManagersSpend around twice asmuch time networking as average manager 30. RECIPROCITY Builds TRUST in relationshipTIP to increase chances of getting HELP from othersUse the word FAVOR its persuade people to help you Rote response to a favor requestYeah sure, what it is?Always start with the phraseWill you please do me a favor? 31. COALITIONS*INFLUENCING tactics in political behavior*Each party HELP EACH OTHERS toachieves objectives*Developed for ACHIEVING SPESIFICOBJECTIVE*Getting a person whose support youneed to JOIN your coalition rather thancompete 32. GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING POLITICALSKILLSRECIPROCITYCOALITIONSLearn the organizational culture &power players Develop good working relationships,especially with the managerBe a loyal, honest team player Gain recognition NETWORKING 33. NETWORKING 34. Key to Is about building promotion to professionalhigher relationships and management friendshipsRequires social Most successfulskillsapproach2/3 of all jobsDifficult for women Word of mouthNot called the good old boy Informal referrals network for nothing Results in more new jobs than all other methods combined 35. THENETWORKINGPROCESS Conduct networking interviews Maintain your networking 36. Perform a Self-Assessment and Set Goals Accomplishments Tie accomplishments to the Job Interview- you want to be sure to state your accomplishment that are based on your skill during the job interview. The second step after listing key result you have achieved is to elaborate on a problem that was solved or an opportunity taken and how you achieved it using your skills. Set Networking Goal- after your self-assessment focusing on your accomplishments, you need to clear state your goal. 37. Create Your One-Minute Self-Sell History of your career- start with a career summary, the highlights of your careerto date. Include your most recent career or school historyand a description of the type of work/internship or coursesyou have taken. Also include the industry and type oforganizations. Plans for the future- next, state the target career you are seeking, the industryyou prefer, and a specific function or role. You can alsomention names of organizations you are targeting as well aslet the acquaintance know why you are looking for work. 38. Questions to stimulate conversation- ask a question to encourage two-way communication. The question will vary depending on the person and your goal or the reason you are using the one-minute self-sell. Write and Practice- write out your one-minute self-sell. Be sure to clearly separate your history, plans, and question and customize your question based on the contact with whom you are talking. Practice delivering it with family and friends and get feedback to improve it. 39. Develop Your Network Begin with who you know Expand to people you dont know Referrals Volunteer work Develop ability to remember peoples names- if you want to impress people you never met or hardlyknow, call them by their name.- Ask others who they are, then go up and call them byname and introduce yourself with your one-minute sell.- If you think the person can help you, dont stop withcasual conversation-make an appointment at a later timefor a phone conversation, personal meeting, coffee orlunch, - get their business card. 40. Conducting Interviews Establish rapport- provide a brief introduction and thank the contact for his orher time. Clearly state the purpose of the meeting, be clear thahyou are not asking for a job. Dont start selling yourself, projectan interest in the other person. Deliver your one-minute self-sell- evenif the person has already heard it, say it again. Thisenables you to quickly summarize your background andcareer direction. 41. Ask prepared questions- do your homework before the meeting andcompose a series of questions to ask during theinterview. Your questions should vary dependingon your goal, the contact and how he or she mayhelp you with your job search Get additional contacts for your network- always ask who else you should speak with. Mostpeople can give you three names, so if you are onlyoffered one, ask for other. Leave a business card and/or resume so the person can contact you in casesomething comes up. 42. Ask your contacts how you might help them- offer a copy of a recent journal article or anyadditional information that come up in yourconversation. Remember, its all about buildingrelationships, and making yourself a resource forother people Followup Send thank-you notes Give status reports 43. Maintain Your Network-It is important to keep your network informed ofyour career progress.- if an individual was helpful in finding your job, besure to let him knowthe outcome.- saying thank you to those who helped in yourtransition will encouragethe business relationship 44. NEGOTIATION 45. NEGOTIATION( Perundingan )Kamus Dewan:perhitungan, perkiraan, pertimbangan danperbicaraan (perkiraan) yang sungguh-sungguh lagi mendalam tentang sesuatu hal.Kamus Oxford Advanced LearnersDictionary: discuss aimed at reaching anagreement 46. Definisi (Khusus) Bussmann & Muller (1992) :the communication process of a group ofagents in order to reach a mutually acceptedagreement on some matter. Lewicki, Saunders, dan Minton (1997):Suatu proses formal yang berlaku apabiladua pihak cuba mencari penyelesaian dalamkonflik yang rumit. 47. Definisi (Umum)Perundingan merupakan aplikasi strategi dan taktik untuk mengendalikan konflik secara produktif 48. Proses Perundingan( Negotiation Process )Perancangan awal( PLAN )Proses Perundingan( NEGOTIATIONS ) Tidak Setuju Setuju(DISAGREEMENT) (AGREEMENT) Penangguhan( POSTPONEMENT ) 49. Perancangan awal( PLAN ) Research the other party(ies) Set objectives Lower limit Objective Opening Develop OPTION & TRADEOFFS Be prepared to deal with questions &objections (especially unstated) 50. Proses Perundingan( NEGOTIATIONS ) Develop rapport Keep it professional, never personal Let the other person to make the first offer Listen Ask questions Dont give in too quickly Never give something up for free Ask for something in return 51. Penangguhan ( POSTPONEMENT ) When you are getting what you wantyou may try to create urgency When other party is creating urgencydont be pressure into making a deal If you do want to postponed give a specific time you will be back 52. Setuju (AGREEMENT) Both sides should feel good about theagreement Get it in writing Quit selling Start work on a personal relationship 53. Tidak Setuju( DISAGREEMENT) Accept that agreement isnt possible Learn from the failure Ask the other party what you did right &wrong Analyze and plan for the next time 54. Stop bargaining and fulfill the agreement In the future canAccept the impossiblecreate better prospectcircumstances & and develop new maintain goodstrategynetwork 55. CONCLUSION 56. TO CLIMB THE CORPORATE LADDER NegotiateGain powerINFLUENCEPEOPLETOPlay organizational politicsPlay organizational network 57. Gain powerPlay organizationalpoliticsTo get what you want in thePlay organizationalnetworkorganizationNegotiate 58. RECALL Influence each other Followers LeadersLEADERSHIP Influencing processTo Achieve organizationobjectives