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  • Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis

    “Pinkeye”

    Lew Strickland DVM MS DACT Extension Veterinarian University of Tennessee

  • Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis

    • Pink eye • Moraxella bovis possible Moraxella bovoculi

    COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

  • IBK Complex Etiologic Agent

    Vector – Face Flies

    Corneal Irritation

  • Etiologic agent(s)

    • Moraxella bovis

    • Gram negative coccobacillus • Carrier on several mucous membrane sites • Eyes, nasal cavity, vaginal cavity

  • Etiologic agent(s)

    • Moraxella bovoculi • Gram negative

    coccobacillus • Carrier on several mucous

    membrane sites • Eyes, nasal cavity, vaginal

    cavity • Originally isolated from

    clinical cases in dairy and beef calves in Northern CA

  • Etiologic agent(s)

    • Neiserria catarrhalis • Neiserria ovis • Mycoplasma sp. • Infectious bovine

    rhinotracheitis (IBR) BHV-1 alpha herpesvirus

  • Corneal Irritation

    • Fescue and other grass seed heads

    • Round bale hay • Pigweed • Ultraviolet radiation in

    lightly pigmented breeds • Dust • IBR infection

  • Corneal Irritation

    • Corneal damage necessary first step toward infection

    • Exposure of the stroma and collagen permits bacterial pilus attachment

  • Pathophysiology • M. bovis pilus (fimbrial)

    antigens • Q pilus – necessary for initial

    attachment • I pilus – necessary for

    persistence • Pilus: filamentous extension

    that bacteria use to attach, sense the exterior environment and exchange DNA

  • Corneal Irritation

  • Factors • Irritation of cornea • Dusty conditions • Ultraviolet radiation • Flies feeding

    – Musca autumnalis • Pigmentation • Age • Other infection

    – IBR, Mycoplasma COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

  • Transmission

    • Infected secretions – Eyes – Nasal secretions

    • Flies • Inanimate object • Asymptomatic carriers

    – ~ 1 year

    COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

  • Clinical Signs

    • Infection rates 2 to 80% of the herd • Peak infection rate

    – 3rd or 4th week of an outbreak • Incubation period : 2 to 3 days • Conjunctivitis • Excessive tearing • Squinting • Decreased appetite (pain and moderate fever)

    – 7 to 17 kg lower body weight at weaning

    COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

  • Stage 1

    • Tearing • Photophobia • Excessive blinking • Conjunctivitis • Pain: reduced feeding • Small ulcer: central • “Cloudy” cornea • Unilateral or bilateral

    COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

  • Stage 2

    • Similar to stage 1 • Larger corneal ulcer • Greater inflammation • Increased “cloudiness” • Iris still visible • Blood vessels on outside of cornea • Edge of cornea is “pink”

    COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

  • Stage 3

    • Ulcer covers most of the cornea • Inflammation to inner parts • Anterior chamber fills with fibrin

    – Yellow appearance

  • Stage 4

    • Ulcer completely through cornea • Iris may protrude through ulcer

  • Corneal Scar

    • Blood vessels recede • Initially “Cloudy” blue cornea • Cornea may become clear • White scar may be permanent

  • Treatment

    • Early treatment – Successful outcome – Reduce shedding

    • Systemic Antibiotics – Oxytetracycline – Ceftiofur – Nuflor – Penicillin

    http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=antibiotoc%20injection%20of%20cattle&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=TWIJyKbX87EQzM&tbnid=V1IQ3srgJmKqDM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://www.capitalpress.com/Lvstk/TH-antibiotics-bill-080709&ei=JiYWUrf0OY3E9gSn14GYAg&psig=AFQjCNE8ztD3he4gHx3Rj76tYlYzhlsagg&ust=1377269594038041

  • Treatment

    • Local Antibiotics – Bulbar or palpebral conjunctiva – Penicillin and dexamethasone – Labor/expertise

    COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

    http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=infectious%20bovine%20keratoconjunctivitis&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=z-pADsKkLttimM&tbnid=b7GnDWvd7lNMMM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://www.agriculture.com/livestock/cattle/taking-down-pinkeye_276-sl17749&ei=FBAWUpDXH4HG9gT2x4HwBA&psig=AFQjCNHObNcSphjXa3oKtkv-WdLfFAEoTw&ust=1377263960126508

  • Treatment > Stage 3

    • Patch • Tarsorrhaphy • 3rd eyelid flap

    COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

    http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=bovine%20pinkeye%20research&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=Z3YBQXLH6Nr9KM&tbnid=fB9YfJSe1f9kAM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/ar/archive/sep11/cattle0911.htm?pf%3D1&ei=UCUWUorSHJLm8QSf2oCgDw&psig=AFQjCNElEC008SF-roIW__Y7ryvF5Y5IBw&ust=1377269435355715

  • Treatment

    • Topical treatments – Tear production – Multiple treatments daily (4X per day)

    COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

    http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=infectious%20bovine%20keratoconjunctivitis&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=vD7tj_GUqwMKJM&tbnid=BWhXsjinP4lU9M:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum%3D10861&ei=-RMWUo6yGojQ8QTy6IGwCw&psig=AFQjCNEy5nOsD_59mUWb_Ag2RT0L6gdGSw&ust=1377265014185926

  • Treatment – Topical • Vetericyn PlusTM Pinkeye Spray • (0.009 % hypochlorous acid) • Experimentally induced lesion • 2.0 ml, twice daily application

    for 10 days • Reduced pain scores, lesion

    circumference, and healing time

  • COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

    Illegal !!!

  • Vaccination • Autogenous Vaccines

    – 3 commercial labs available Addison, Newport, and AgriLabs Take a culture and mail it to the lab pathogen grown : make a vaccine Back to you in ~ 6 weeks ~$500 for 200 doses Requires primary and booster immunization

  • Prevention

    • Fly control • Reduce irritation

    – Clip pastures, provide shade • Separate clinical animals • Vaccination/implants/SolidBac

    – Multi strains – Minerals Vit A/ nutrition

    COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

  • Fly Biology

    • Face fly maggots develop in freshly deposited cattle manure.

    • Female face flies lay their eggs within 15 minutes after it is deposited

    • The four stage life cycle takes about 15 to 25 days.

    • Overwinter as adults in sheltered areas such as barns or attics and become active again in the spring.

  • External Parasite Control Flies, Lice, Grubs and Ticks

    Classes of Products: • Organophosphates (Coral, Warbex, Spotton)

    (Organochlorine Endosulfan)

    • Pyrethoid (Cylense, Durasect, Boss)

    • Spinosyn (Elector)

    • Avermectins (Ivomec, Dectomax) • Tolfenpro (Bayer Ear tag)

    • Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs) and Oral larvacides

  • Insect Growth Regulators

    • IGR • Not an insecticide • Interrupt or inhibit the life cycle of a

    pest • Cannot reach adulthood, • Not capable of reproducing

  • Ear Tag

    • Duration ~ 5months • Apply when flies > 50+ / side • 12-15 wks control

  • Resistance

    • Early season use back rubs / topical • Use fly tags during heavy infestation • Use one class of drug for 1-2 yrs • Keep records of resistance in area • Remove tags @ end of season

  • Label Directions

    • Always read & follow label directions • Always wear non-permeable gloves & keep

    away from food • Withdrawal periods beef & dairy • Proper records of treatment dates products

    & lot #’s

  • Questions/Discussion Please

    Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis�“Pinkeye” Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis IBK Complex Etiologic agent(s) Etiologic agent(s) Etiologic agent(s) Corneal Irritation Corneal Irritation Pathophysiology Corneal Irritation Factors Transmission Clinical Signs Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Corneal Scar Treatment Treatment Treatment > Stage 3 Treatment Treatment – Topical Slide Number 26 Vaccination Prevention Fly Biology External Parasite Control�Flies, Lice, Grubs and Ticks Insect Growth Regulators Ear Tag Resistance Label Directions Questions/Discussion Please

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