Indoor pollution

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<ul><li>1.Indoor Air Pollution</li></ul> <p>2. Introduction Although pollutant concentrations vary significantly from building to building, the levels of some common air pollutants often are greater indoors than outdoors. Since most people spend more time indoors than outdoors, exposure to indoor air pollutants is an important environmental problem. 3. To be cont.. Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological material that cause harm discomfort to humans or other living organisms,or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere. 4. Whats indoor air pollution? Indoor Air Pollution is the term used to describe the amount of contaminants in the air inside a building from sources such as cigarette smoking, fuel combustion for heating or cooking, certain wallboards, carpets, or insulation as well as the geology of the area (radon in soil or rocks beneath the structure). 5. To be cont.. Refers to good and bad effects of the contents of airinside a structure on its occupants Good indoor air quality(IAQ) has no unwanted gasesor particles in it at concentrations which willadversely affect someone Poor indoor air quality has gases or particles inexcessive concentration so as to affect thesatisfaction or health of occupants 6. What Causes Indoor AirPollution?? Air tightness of buildings Poorly designed air conditioning andventilation systems Indoor sources of pollution Outdoor sources of pollution 7. Air Tightness in Buildings Causes inadequate supply of fresh air, as a result, negative pressure develops, which causes Ground level pollutants, e.g. CO, Radon etc.to be drawn inside the buildings. Release of odor (Bioaerosols) and other pollutants. Pull outside polluted air from vents, cracks and openings and increase dust, pollen etc. Causes Sick Building Syndrome. 8. Sources of Indoor Air Pollutionin a Typical Office Building 9. Sources of Indoor Air Pollution in a TypicalHousehold 10. Poorly Designed AirConditioning Systems Results into the production of fungi, moldsand other sickness causing microbes. 11. What is IAQ?? IAQ stands for Indoor Air Quality. It refers to the nature of the conditioned(heat/ cool) air that circulates throughoutspace/area, where we work and live i.e. theair we breathe most of the time (almost 80% of the time). 12. Problems of IAQEnclosed spaces inhabited by humans producefollowing effects-Reduction in oxygen level of spaces.Increase in CO2 level.Increase in temperature.Increase in humidityIncrease in Bioaerosols and odor 13. Relationship between Indoor and OutdoorAir QualityIndoor Air Quality Outdoor Air Quality Indoor pollutant Outdoor contaminantsconcentrations may be may be presenthigher or lower thanindoors at a sufficientoutdoorairconcentration to affectconcentrationsthe occupantsExample : Pollen and mold spores from outdoorscauses hay fever and allergies indoors 14. Poor IAQ Results 15. Why should you be concerned about thequality of air that you breath? The contaminant indoor air could damage peoples health Indoor air pollutants are among the top five environmentalrisk People spend about 90% of their time indoors and so thehealth problems that result from exposure to indoorpollution increases According to World Health Organization (WHO)approximately 30% of all commercial buildings havesignificant IAQ problems 16. Sources of Pollutants Normal Biological Processes - people and petsgenerate carbon dioxide, moisture, odors andmicrobes Combustion appliances such as wood stoves, gasstoves, furnaces, fireplaces and gas heaters Use of consumer products such as spray cans, airfresheners, spray cleaners and construction materials Cigarette smoking Soil under and around buildings Appliances such as humidifiers, air conditioners andnebulizers 17. Sources involved in IAQ problems Evaluations by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for studies on more than 500 Indoor Air quality health hazard casesBioaerosols5%Insidecontamination 15%OutsideContamination Inadequate10% Ventilation Building53% products4%Unknown causes13% 18. Percent Typical SourcesProblem Origin Lack of outside air, poor air distribution,uncomfortableInadequate Building 53% temperature andhumidity,Ventilation Systems contaminant sources inside the system Solvent vapors, dusts,Contaminants Originating 15% formaldehyde, building materials,Inside Building furnishingsBuilding Products4%Concrete, wood, furnishings.Unknown Causes 13% Unidentified sourcesOutdoor Contaminants Motor vehicle exhaust, pollen, 10%Entering Buildingfungi, smoke, constructionMicrobiological Agents 5%Bioaerosols, Legionella 19. How does Outdoor Air enterIndoors Infiltration - outdoor air flows into the house throughopenings, joints, and cracks in walls, floors, andceilings, and around windows and doors Natural Ventilation - air moves through openedwindows and doors Mechanical Ventilation - from outdoor-vented fansthat intermittently remove air from a single room,such as bathrooms and kitchen, to air handlingsystems that use fans and duct work to continuouslyremove indoor air and distribute filtered andconditioned outdoor air to strategic pointsthroughout the house 20. Health effects due to IndoorAir Pollutants Headaches Nausea Respiratory infections Asthma Hypersensitivity pneumonitis Humidifier fever Legionnaires disease Lung cancer 21. Health Symptoms and Possible Contaminants SYMPTOM POSSIBLE PRIMARY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS SOURCES CONDITION Headache Bio-aerosols Ventilation systems Ergonomic Fatigue VOCs Humidifiers Conditions Poor Concentration Drip pans Noise and Dizziness Cooling coils in AHVs Vibration Tiredness Plants Outside air Headache with nausea CO Incomplete Ergonomic Ringing in ears FormaldehydeCombustion (vehicleConditions Pounding heart Exhaust, stoves, Noise and fireplaces)Vibration Building products Furnishings Dry Throat NO2 Incomplete Relative Shortness of breath FormaldehydeCombustion humidity or Bronchial Asthma VOCs Building Products Irritation and Particulates Furnishings Infection of Smoking Respiratory Tract 22. To be cont.. SYMPTOM POSSIBLE PRIMARYENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS SOURCESCONDITION Nasal Problems NO2 Incomplete Combustion Relative Humidity (Stuffiness,Irritation) Formaldehyde Building Products High Temperatures Bio-aerosols Furnishings Ventilation Systems Humidifiers Drip Pans Cooling Coils in AHVs Outside Air Skin Problems Formaldehyde Ventilation Systems Warm Air (Dryness, Irritation, Humidifiers Low RelativeRashes) Outside Air Humidity Excessive AirMovement Eye Problems NO2 Incomplete Combustion Artificial Light (Burning, Dry Gritty Formaldehyde Building ProductsEye) VOCs Furnishings Particulates Ventilation Systems Bio-aerosols Humidifiers Cooling Coils in AHVs Outside Air Building ProductDeterioration 23. List of Pollutants affectingIAQ Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Dust and dirt Radon Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) Respirable Particulate Matter (RPM) Carbon and Nitrous Oxides 24. Indoor Air Pollutants and Their Health Effects PollutantEffects LimitsNO2Type: Immediate0.05 ppm (avg. over one year for 8hours exposure daily)- EPA Causes: irritation to the skin, eyes and throat, cough etc.CO Type: Immediate9.0 ppm (avg. over 8 hours Causes: headache, shortness of breath, higher conc. May cause sudden period)- EPA deaths.RSPM Type: Cumulative 150 g/ m3 (24 hr. average) Causes: Lung cancerSO2Type: Immediate0.05 ppm (avg. over one year for 8 Causes: lung disorders and shortness of breath hours exposure daily)- EPARadonType: Cumulative &gt;/ 4 pCi/ Litre of indoor air Causes: Lung cancerFormaldehyde Type: Immediate120 g/ cu.m. (continuousexposure)- ASHRAE Causes: irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, fatigue, headache, skin allergies, vomiting etc.Asbestos Type: Cumulative &gt;/ 2 fibers/ cu.cm. Of the indoor Causes: Lung cancerair (8 hrs. exposure period)- OSHAPesticides Type: Immediate- Causes: Skin diseasesVOCs Type: ImmediateNot for all VOCs. Causes: Liver, kidney disorders, irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, skin For chlordane: rashes and respiratory problems. 5 g/cu.m.(continuous exposure))CO2Surrogate index of ventilation 1000 ppmO3 Type: Immediate100 g/cu.m (continuousexposure)- OSHA Causes: eyes itch, burn, respiratory disorders, lowers our resistance to colds and pneumonia. </p>