INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS

Download INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS

Post on 25-Dec-2015

219 views

Category:

Documents

4 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR ODOR PERCEPTION BODY ODORS COOKING ODORS CHEMICAL ODORS CIGARETTE SMOKE ODOR CONTROL INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS ODOR PERCEPTION: QUANTITATIVE ASPECT: INTENSITY. QUALITATIVE ASPECT: OFFENSIVENESS OR PLEASANTNESS. </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR ODOR PERCEPTION BODY ODORS COOKING ODORS CHEMICAL ODORS CIGARETTE SMOKE ODOR CONTROL INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS ODOR PERCEPTION IS AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE &amp; HUMIDITY: TEMPERATURE: AN INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE SLIGHTLY REDUCES SOME ODORS, SUCH AS CIGARETTE SMOKE. THE PERCEPTION OF SMOKE, COOKING, BODY ODORS &amp; MANY OTHER VAPORS DECREASES AS HUMIDITY INCREASES. IN ORDER TO KEEP ODOR PERCEPTION &amp; IRRITATION AT A MINIMUM, THE OPTIMUM RELATIVE HUMIDITY FOR A CONDITIONED SPACE IS 45% TO 60%. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR ODOR PERCEPTION BODY ODORS COOKING ODORS CHEMICAL ODORS CIGARETTE SMOKE ODOR CONTROL INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS BODY ODORS: UNSTABLE &amp; DISAPPEAR WITH TIME, EVEN WITHOUT ANY AIR CHANGE. IN EXPERIMENTS, THE STRENGTH OF BODY ODORS IN AN UNVENTILATED ROOM FELL ABRUPTLY, WITHIN 5 MINUTES, FROM VERY OBJECTIONABLE TO PERCEPTIBLE BUT NOT OBJECTIONABLE. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR ODOR PERCEPTION BODY ODORS COOKING ODORS CHEMICAL ODORS CIGARETTE SMOKE ODOR CONTROL INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS COOKING ODORS: IN EXPERIMENTS, IT TOOK ABOUT 6 TO 7 HOURS FOR THE SAME TYPE OF REDUCTION AS OCCURRED IN 5 MINUTES WITH BODY ODORS. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR ODOR PERCEPTION BODY ODORS COOKING ODORS CHEMICAL ODORS CIGARETTE SMOKE ODOR CONTROL INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS CHEMICAL ODORS </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR ODOR PERCEPTION BODY ODORS COOKING ODORS CHEMICAL ODORS CIGARETTE SMOKE ODOR CONTROL INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE CIGARETTE SMOKE: IN EXPERIMENTS, THE INTENSITY INCREASED DURING THE FIRST THREE HOURS AFTER SMOKING. THEN DECREASED SLOWLY FOR A LONG TIME, REACHING THE THRESHOLD LEVEL ONLY AFTER 17 TO 48 HOURS, DEPENDING ON THE NUMBER OF CIGARETTES SMOKED. IN ROOMS WHERE HEAVY SMOKING GOES ON THE VENTILATION RATES SHOULD MUCH HIGHER THAN TO ELIMINATE BODY ODORS ALONE. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR ODOR PERCEPTION BODY ODORS COOKING ODORS CHEMICAL ODORS CIGARETTE SMOKE ODOR CONTROL INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS VENTILATION </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR ODOR PERCEPTION BODY ODORS COOKING ODORS CHEMICAL ODORS CIGARETTE SMOKE ODOR CONTROL INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS FILTRATION ODOR CONTROL: PARTICULATE FILTERS ADSORPTION FILTERS AIR WASHERS ELECTRONIC AIR CLEANERS </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR ODOR PERCEPTION BODY ODORS COOKING ODORS CHEMICAL ODORS CIGARETTE SMOKE ODOR CONTROL INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS ODOR MASKING &amp; COUNTERACTION ODOR MASKING: TECHNIQUE OF INTRODUCING AN ODOR TO COVER AN UNPLEASANT ODOR. ODOR COUNTERACTION: THE ART OF MIXING TWO ODOROUS VAPORS TOGETHER SUCH THAT BOTH ODORS ARE DIMINISHED. INEXACT METHOD. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL GREGORY BATESON CALIFORNIA STATE OFFICE BUILDING, SACRAMENTO, CA, 1979-1982 </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL GREGORY BATESON CALIFORNIA STATE OFFICE BUILDING, SACRAMENTO, CA, 1979-1982 PROBLEMS: PLAGUED BY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PROBLEMS SINCE IT OPENED IN 1982. COMPLAINTS OF RESPIRATORY, GASTROINTESTINAL, SKIN, AND EYE PROBLEMS BEGAN SOON AFTER THE FIRST OCCUPANTS MOVED IN. SOME OCCUPANTS COMPLAINED OF SUFFERING DIZZINESS, LOSS OF BALANCE, OCCASIONAL SORE THROAT, AND ITCHY SKIN. THERE WERE REPORTS OF UNPLEASANT ODORS. MOST COMPLAINTS SEEMED TO COME FROM AREAS WITH THE LOWEST VENTILATION RATES. MORE COMPLAINTS OCCURRED WHEN THE VENTILATION SYSTEM WAS OPERATED ONLY IN THE DAYTIME THAN WHEN OPERATED AROUND THE CLOCK. AIR QUALITY TESTS FOUND SLIGHTLY ELEVATED LEVELS OF FORMALDEHYDE, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND OTHER POLLUTANTS. FUNGAL SPORES WERE FOUND IN THE AIR EXHAUSTED FROM THE ROCK BE THERMAL HEAT STORAGE. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL AIRBORNE INFECTIONS DESCRIPTION: BACTERIA &amp; VIRUSES IN AIR &amp; DUST. METHOD OF CONTROL: AIR FILTRATION TO CONTROL DUST. AIR STERILIZATION: ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT. VENTILATION </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL RADON DESCRIPTION: NON-REACTIVE RADIOACTIVE GAS FORMED BY THE RADIOACTIVE DECAY OF RADIUM. SOURCES: AREAS OF URANIUM &amp; PHOSPHATE DEPOSITS. SOME MASONRY PRODUCTS. SOME TYPES OF GYPSUM BOARD. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL RADON </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL RADON HEALTH EFFECTS: CONSIDERED TO BE A MAJOR CAUSE OF THE HIGH INCIDENCE OF LUNG CANCER IN URANIUM MINERS. BETWEEN 20 TO 50 INDIVIDUALS PER MILLION PEOPLE DIE PER YEAR FROM RADON RELATED CANCER. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL ORGANIC COMPOUNDS </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL ORGANIC COMPOUNDS DESCRIPTION: A VERY LARGE GROUP OF MATERIALS THAT CONTAIN CARBON AS THEIR PRIMARY CONSTITUENT &amp; HYDROGEN, NITROGEN OXYGEN, SULFUR &amp; OTHER ELEMENTS AS SECONDARY CONSTITUENTS. SOURCES: SYNTHETIC MATERIALS: CARPETING, WALL COVERINGS, ETC. SOLVENTS IN HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS: ADHESIVES, CLEANING AGENTS, PAINTS &amp; PERSONAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS. INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION: NATURAL GAS &amp; TOBACCO. METABOLIC PROCESSES IN HUMANS, ANIMALS &amp; PLANTS. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL ORGANIC COMPOUNDS HEALTH EFFECTS: VARIES GREATLY (OVER 250 COMPOUNDS). SOME COMPOUNDS CAUSE IRRITATION. SOME AFFECT THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. OTHERS AFFECT METABOLIC PROCESSES. SOME CAUSE CANCER. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL FORMALDEHYDE &amp; OTHER ALDEHYDES DESCRIPTION: SPECIFIC GROUP OF COMPOUNDS THAT VAPORIZE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. CONTAIN HYDROGEN &amp; OXYGEN IN ADDITION TO CARBON. FORMALDEHYDE IS COLORLESS &amp; HAS A PUNGENT IRRITATING ODOR. SOURCES: UREA-FORMALDEHYDE FOAM INSULATION. UREA-FORMALDEHYDE ADHESIVES &amp; RESINS FOUND IN PLYWOOD &amp; PARTICLE BOARD. BURNING OF NATURAL GAS, TOBACCO &amp; OTHER COMBUSTIBLES. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL FORMALDEHYDE &amp; OTHER ALDEHYDES HEALTH EFFECTS: LOW CONCENTRATIONS: HIGHLY IRRITATING TO THE SKIN, EYES &amp; MUCOUS MEMBRANES OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT. HIGH CONCENTRATIONS: HEADACHES &amp; DIZZINESS. NAUSEA &amp; VOMITING. SKIN RASH. COUGHING </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL CARBON MONOXIDE DESCRIPTION: COLORLESS, ODORLESS GAS. SOURCES: GAS, OIL &amp; WOOD STOVES WITH INADEQUATE COMBUSTION AIR. IMPROPERLY MAINTAINED FLUES &amp; DAMPERS. EXHAUST FROM AUTOMOBILES. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL CARBON MONOXIDE HEALTH EFFECTS: LOW CONCENTRATIONS: IMPAIRED VISUAL ACUITY &amp; BRAIN FUNCTION. HIGH CONCENTRATIONS: HEADACHES. NAUSEA. WEAKNESS. CONFUSION. ULTIMATELY DEATH. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL NITROGEN OXIDES DESCRIPTION: HEATING AIR TO HIGH TEMPERATURE CAUSES NITROGEN &amp; OXYGEN TO REACT FORMING NITRIC OXIDE &amp; NITROGEN DIOXIDE. </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL NITROGEN OXIDES SOURCES: CIGARETTE SMOKING. GAS-BURNING APPLIANCES. OUTDOOR AIR. HEALTH EFFECTS: LOW CONCENTRATIONS: RESPIRATORY IRRITANT. HIGH CONCENTRATIONS: IMPLICATED IN RESPIRATORY DISEASE &amp; REDUCTIONS OF RESPIRATORY FUNCTION. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL SMOKE DESCRIPTION: COMPLEX MIXTURE OF GASES &amp; PARTICLES INCLUDING, CARBON MONOXIDE, NITROGEN OXIDES, ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, &amp; HEAVY METALS GENERATED FROM INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION. SOURCES: BURNING OF COAL &amp; WOOD. CIGARETTE SMOKE. HEALTH EFFECTS: HIGHLY CARCINOGENIC. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL ASBESTOS DESCRIPTION: A FIBROUS, NON- COMBUSTIBLE MINERAL. SOURCES: SPACKLING COMPOUNDS. ASBESTOS CEMENT. WALL BOARD. FURNACE &amp; PIPE INSULATION. FIREPROOFING. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL ASBESTOS HEALTH EFFECTS: COUGHING. CHEST PAINS. WEAKNESS. CANCER OF THE LUNGS. </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL EVALUATION EVALUATION OF INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS: MATHEMATICAL MODELS: NEEDS CONSIDERABLE REFINEMENTS BEFORE IT CAN BE USED IN REAL APPLICATIONS. SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS: METHOD IS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE. OCCUPANT EVALUATION: REQUIRES QUALIFIED MEDICAL PERSONNEL. </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION ODOR INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS HISTORY AIRBORNE INFECTIONS RADON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FORMALDEHYDE CARBON MONOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES SMOKE ASBESTOS EVALUATION CONTROL METHODS OF CONTROL METHODS OF CONTROL: REMOVAL OR SUBSTITUTION CHANGE IN DESIGN ENCAPSULATION SPATIAL CONFINEMENT TEMPORAL USE VENTILATION FILTRATION </li> </ul>