INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

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INDOOR AIR POLLUTION. Manish Taywade. History. Death from exposure ambient air pollution were first recognized in the Meuse Valley of Belgium during a thermal inversion in December 1930 in city of London. Sixty people died - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

INDOOR AIR POLLUTIONManish Taywade

HistoryDeath from exposure ambient air pollution were first recognized in the Meuse Valley of Belgium during a thermal inversion in December 1930 in city of London. Sixty people diedA 1953 episode in New York City underscored this twentieth century plague. Repeated in Tokyo, Yokohama, New Orleans, and Los Angeles they led to investigation of the health effects of environmental air pollution in the 1960s and early 1970sIn December 1952, a particularly vicious episode in London produced excessive deaths in infants, young children, and elderly persons with cardio-respiratory disease. High particle loads were 4.5 mg/m3 for smoke and 3.75 mg/m3 for sulfur dioxide.A 1984 episode of Bhopal gas leak (methyl isocyanate) killed thousands of peoples.

IntroductionClean air : basic requirement of human health and well-being Air pollution continues to pose a significant threat to health worldwideWHO assessment of the burden of disease due to air pollution, more than 2 million premature deaths each year can be attributed to the effects of urban outdoor air pollution and indoor air pollution (caused by the burning of solid fuels). Globally, indoor air pollution from solid fuel use is responsible for 1.6 million deaths due to pneumonia, chronic respiratory disease and lung cancer, with the overall disease burden

Clean air is considered to be a basic requirement of human health and well-being. However, air pollution continues to pose a significant threat to health worldwideAccording to a WHO assessment of the burden of disease due to air pollution, more than 2 million premature deaths each year can be attributed to the effects of urban outdoor air pollution and indoor air pollution (caused by the burning of solid fuels). More than half of this disease burden is borne by the populations of developing countries.Indoor air pollution (IAP) caused by solid fuel use and/or traditional cooking stoves is a global health threat, particularly for women and young children. The WHO World Health Report 2002 estimates that IAP is responsible for 2.7% of the loss of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide and 3.7% in high-mortality developing countries.

3IntroductionIndoor air pollution (IAP) caused by solid fuel use and/or traditional cooking stoves is a global health threat, particularly for women and young children. More than half of this disease burden is borne by the populations of developing countries.Revealed indoor air pollution as the 8th most important risk factor IAP is responsible for 2.7% of the loss of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide 3.7% in high-mortality developing countries. making it the most lethal killer after malnutrition, unsafe sex and lack of safe water and sanitation

Clean air is considered to be a basic requirement of human health and well-being. However, air pollution continues to pose a significant threat to health worldwideAccording to a WHO assessment of the burden of disease due to air pollution, more than 2 million premature deaths each year can be attributed to the effects of urban outdoor air pollution and indoor air pollution (caused by the burning of solid fuels). More than half of this disease burden is borne by the populations of developing countries.Indoor air pollution (IAP) caused by solid fuel use and/or traditional cooking stoves is a global health threat, particularly for women and young children. The WHO World Health Report 2002 estimates that IAP is responsible for 2.7% of the loss of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide and 3.7% in high-mortality developing countries.

4Disproportionate impact on children and women

more than two-thirds of indoor smoke deaths from acute lower respiratory infections in children occur in WHO's African and South East Asian Regions Over 50% of the COPD deaths due to indoor air pollution occur in the Western Pacific regionwomen are in charge of cooking and - depending on the demands of the local cuisine - they spend between three and seven hours per day near the stove, preparing food.Disproportionate impact on children and women

59% of all indoor air pollution-attributable deaths thus fall on females Young children are often carried on their mother's back or kept close to the warm earthConsequently, infants spend many hours breathing indoor smoke during their first year of life when their developing airways make them particularly vulnerable to hazardous pollutantsAs a result, 56% of all indoor air pollution-attributable deaths occur in children under five years of ageThe Health Impact: A major killerExposure to indoor air pollution increases the risk of pneumonia among children under five years, and chronic respiratory disease and lung cancer (in relation to coal use) among adults over 30 years oldThe evidence for a link with lung cancer from exposure to biomass smoke, and for a link with asthma, cataracts and tuberculosis was considered moderate On the basis of the limited available studies, there is tentative evidence for an association between indoor air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes, in particular low birth weight, or ischaemic heart disease and nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers

Precise mechanism of how exposure causes diseaseStill unclearIt is known that small particles and several of the other pollutants contained in indoor smoke cause inflammation of the airways and lungs and impair the immune responseCarbon monoxide also results in systemic effects by reducing the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood

Pneumonia and other acute lower respiratory infectionsGlobally, pneumonia and other acute lower respiratory infections represent the single most important cause of death in children under five years

Exposure to indoor air pollution more than doubles the risk of pneumonia and is thus responsible for more than 900,000 of the 2 million annual deaths from pneumonia

Lung cancer

Coal use is widespread in China and cooking on open fires or simple stoves can cause lung cancer in womenExposure to smoke from coal fires doubles the risk of lung cancer, in particular among women who tend to smoke less than men in most developing countriesEvery year, more than one million people die from lung cancer globally, and indoor air pollution is responsible for approximately 1.5% of these deaths

Indicators of air pollutionThe WH O Air quality guidelines are designed to offer global guidance on reducing the health impacts of air pollutionThey recommend measurement of selected air pollutants, viz., particulate matter (PM) , ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), applicable across all WHO regions In addition, smoke (soiling) index and coefficient of haze are also commonly used indicators. In India, the Central Pollution Control Board through its National Air Quality Monitoring Programme monitors air quality in all major cities

Particular matterConsists of a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles of organic and inorganic substances suspended in the air. The particles are identified according to their aerodynamic diameter, as either P M10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 m) or P M 2.5 (aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 m).P M 2.5 more dangerous since, when inhaled, they may reach the peripheral regions of the bronchioles, and interfere with gas exchange inside the lungs. The guideline values (upper acceptable limits) are:P M2.5 10 g/m3 annual mean; 25 g/m3 24- hour meanP M10 20 g/m3 annual mean; 50 g/m3 24- hour mean

Ozone (3)formed by the reaction with sunlight (photochemical reaction) of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) from vehicle and industry emissions and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by vehicles, solvents and industry.highest levels of ozone pollution occur during periods of sunny weather. Excessive ozone in the air can have a marked effect on human health. It can cause breathing problems, trigger asthma, reduce lung function and cause lung diseases. Guidelines values for upper limits are: 100 g/m3 (8-hour mean)

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)As an air pollutant, NO2 has several correlated activities: -(a) At short - term concentrations exceeding 2 0 0 g/m3, it is a toxic gas which causes significant inflammation of the airways.

(b) NO2 is the main source of nitrate aerosols, which form an important fraction of P M 2.5 and, in the presence of ultraviolet light, of ozone.

The major sources of anthropogenic emissions of NO2 are combustion processes (heating, power generation, and engines in vehicles and ships). Epidemiological studies have shown that symptoms of bronchitis in asthmatic children increase in association with long-term exposure to NO2. Reduced lung function growth is also linked to NO2. The upper limits of guideline values are: 4 0 g/m3 (annual mean) and 2 0 0 g/m3 (1-hour mean).

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)SO2 is a colourless gas with a sharp odour. It is produced from the burning of fossil fuels (coal and oil) and the smelting of mineral ores that contain sulfur. The main anthropogenic source of SO2 is the burning of sulfur-containing fossil fuels for domestic heating, power generation and motor vehicles.The upper limit of acceptable values are 20 g/m3 (24- hour mean) and 5 0 0 g/m3 (10 - minute mean).

Carbon monoxide(CO)

Carbon monoxide is a tasteless, odorless, colorless, and nonirritating gas produced by incomplete combustion of organic material and is the leading cause of poisoning.Main health effect of CO is a result of its ability to impair the oxygen binding capacity of hemoglobin, which can cause headaches, nausea, dizziness, breathlessness, and fatigue, and with high exposures can lead to coma and deathVOCs

buildings include office furniture, cabinetry, carpet tile, vinyl wa

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