indikator pencemaran lingkungan oleh sudrajat fmipa_unmul 2010


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INDIKATOR PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN Oleh Sudrajat FMIPA_UNMUL 2010 Slide 2 Pollution Indicators The presence or absence of particular organisms can indicate whether the water is polluted or not. These are called Indicator Species Slide 3 Air Pollution Indicators Lichens Different types of lichen have different sensitivities to sulphur dioxide gas. 3 main types crusty, leafy and shrubby Indicator species present Appearance of lichenSO 2 concentration Crusty lichens only High Crusty and leafyMedium Shrubbylow Slide 4 Air Pollution Map Look at the air pollution map, and explain the distribution of the different types of lichen. Slide 5 Lichen Lichen + Green algae not found : SO2 conc. >170 mg/m 3 Only green algae : max. 170 mg/m 3 close formations of lichen on the trunk of the tree, even in the cracks : 125-150 mg/m 3 Slide 6 Lichen leaf shaped lobe plates formed by leafy lichen : 60-70 mg/m 3 lichen growing as a little bush or hanging like a beard : 40-50 mg/m 3 Slide 7 Lichen Lichen are particularly good indicators of gas pollution in the air Almost all lichen are sensitive to air pollutions. Such as SO2, F2, O3, pH or even metal ion Slide 8 What physiological properties make lichens useful indicators of air quality? Range of air pollution sensitivities across species. Lichens exhibit a range of sensitivities to S- & N compounds in acid rain, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, and fluoride. Changes in distribution or populations of the most sensitive lichens provide an early warning that air pollution is beginning to adversely affect the ecosystem. The mix of species and abundances at any one site can be used to position the site along an air quality gradient. High surface area and no roots. Lichens on trees and shrubs obtain nutrients from the air, precipitation, and substrate run-off. Tissue levels of many pollutants are correlated with ambient atmospheric levels. Readily absorb water and lack specialized barriers to prevent vapor loss. Daily cycles of wetting and drying produce a dynamic equilibrium between concentration and leaching of pollutants. As pollution concentrations change, so do concentrations in lichens. Mobile elements: S, N, K, Ca, Mg, Na. can change significantly over a few months. Less mobile elements: Pb, Cd, Ni change more slowly. Slide 9 What kinds of data are collected? Lichen communities and floristics Tissue analyses Transplants Laboratory Slide 10 What are lichens? Lichens are symbiotic organisms consisting of a fungus and an alga and/or a cyanobacterium. British soldiers Button lichenLung lichen Slide 11 Hells Canyon National Recreation Area Nitrogen concentrations in lichen tissue and abundance of the nitrogen-loving lichen, Xanthoria, were highest at sites closest to the Snake River. Tongass National Forest, Sitka, Alaska Slide 12 Lichens were absent from alder Toxicity units Determine LC/EC50 value from dilution series tested Toxicity units (TUa) = 100/LC or EC50 Based on Tonks & Baltus, 1997 Key to classification system: 0-1Limited to not acutely toxic 1-2Negligibly acutely toxic 2-10Mildly acutely toxic 10-100Acutely toxic >100Highly acutely toxic