Indigenous Tradition of Syrian Christians of Kerala a Perspective Based on Their Folk Songs Marriage, Customs and History
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<ul><li><p>I N D I A N F O L K L O R E R E S E A R C H J O U R N A L</p><p>34</p><p>The indigenous tradition of Syrian Christiansof Kerala a perspective based on their folk</p><p>songs: marriage, customs and history</p><p>MATHEW VARGHESE</p><p>Abstract: This essay attempts to delineate the original structureof Christianity practiced by the Syrian Christians of Kerala andrelates it with their folk songs on the one hand and their currentcustomary practices on the other. In the process the paper tracesthe historians views on the early Christianity in Kerala, findsthe historical elements in their folk songs, describes marriageceremonies, songs and dances, and presents the texts of thefolksongs.</p><p>The original structure of Christianity practiced by the Syrian Christiansof Kerala is a subject of interest as this community mainly centred,only, in Kerala and they claim to be one of the oldest Christians in theworld. They believe that they had converted to Christianity as early as 52AD by one of the apostle of Christ, St. Thomas and they had a Brahminancestry prior to their Christian conversion. This claim and many of theirother claims are not, according to some historians, substantiated withhistoriographally accepted convincing evidences.The length of discourseon this subject may continue endlessly, since as writing perfect objectivehistory is a problem. The introduction of early Christianity in this part ofIndian subcontinent might have happened because of the trade relationsthat this region had established with countries in the Mediterranean regionfrom ancient times; and it might also reflect the socio-politicaldevelopments in these region on the basis of this relationship. As corollaryto this we could find the existence of all Semitic religions in Kerala andthe tradition and practice of which are different from other parts of the</p><p>Indian Folklore Research Journal, Vol.2, No.5, 2005: 3458 2005 National Folklore Support Centre</p></li><li><p>VOLUME 2 NUMBER 5 DECEMBER 2005</p><p>35</p><p>world; and this is a testimony to the cultural exchange that had takenplace with the trade relations. Historiographically confirmed sources haveaccepted that the Islam was introduced in Kerala soon after it had takenbirth in Arabia. Contextually, the religious practice of Islam in Kerala isinfluenced by the Arab tradition in contrast to the Islam practiced inother part of India which is generally influenced by Persian tradition.Unlike the profound account on the presence of Islam in this region,there are certain evidences of the presence of Judaism and Christianityfrom the early centuries. When we observe these aspects on the basis oftrade relation, we could understand that some time in the early centuries,with the natural assistance of trade and commerce, all these Semiticreligions have founded their roots in the land of Kerala. When a religionor culture takes its root in a new land, a new folk culture subsequentlytakes roots together with it. The folk culture need not be a source ofhistoriography, but certainly it is a source for understanding what thepeople think about themselves and how they want to be accepted in thesociety they are destined to live in.</p><p>This paper tries to investigate the folk tradition of Syrian Christiansof Kerala as what is explained in their folk songs that are sung at varioussocial occasions. The attempt here is confined only to discern what thecommunity thinks about themselves, not to validate the historicity oftheir origin and existence in the land of Kerala. I do not think thoseinformation given in the discussions are sufficient enough to attemptsuch an effort. These songs also are not properly validated historicallyand here too the paper does not like to make an attempt in that direction.What is revealed in those songs are indicative of the communitysaspirations.</p><p>The historians views on the early Christianity in Kerala.Kerala is one of the states in India which have a distinctive history that itis different, in many respects, from other parts of India. One of the notablereason is that might have given such a history is because of its closeproximity to the countries by sea route through the Arabian Sea with theWest Asian and Mediterranean regions from the ancient times. The spicesrich region of Kerala was a prime centre of Maritime trade of the ancientworld as it falls in the spice route and major civilisations such as theGreeks, Romans, Jews and Christians had visited this region. Amongthem the Jews and Christians from Jerusalem, Mesopotamia andBabylonian regions were a long time trading partners. (Edward Gibbon-Decline and Fall of the Raman Empire-1946, p.41). The varieties of rareSpices grown in the region of Kerala (Malabar) were paper, Ginger,turmeric and Cardamom, which were essential commodities of ancienttrade, especially the trade with Europeans. In the ancient European</p><p>The indigenous tradition of Syrian Christians of Kerala</p></li><li><p>I N D I A N F O L K L O R E R E S E A R C H J O U R N A L</p><p>36</p><p>method of food processing and preservation those spices grown in Kerala,especially the paper, was an important ingredient. Pepper was consideredas the king of the spices, the black gold, for many centuries just becauseof its unique food flavouring and preserving quality. It gave value ofpossession to one who trades it; as a result, traders and countries fromvarious part of the world, used to compete with each other for establishingcontrol over trade on these important commodities. Another addedattraction for traders to come to the Malabar Coast (Kerala coast) was totrade rare and exceptional varieties of precious and semiprecious stonesfrom the region that fall beyond the Western-ghats which is, at present,in the state of Tamil Nadu. The ancient trade were mostly centred on theplace described in the ancient records as Museries (the place is identifiedas Kodungalore in the present kerala). The history says that ships fromsouthern Babylonia (the present Basra in Iraq) used to land at this porttown and go back with huge loads of cargo of spices and othercommodities. It used to take 40 days to travel by ship from any WestAsian port to the Kerala Coast; after a brief stay in this part of the world,mostly the traders used to return to their native land (Pliny, NaturalHistory, Vol.II, p. 419.). The traders were highly respected as they broughtwealth. The history of trade of this commodity with other civilisation is avery long one: At first the Greeks and then the Romans followed by theJews and Christians and then the Muslims who controlled the trade forlong time until Europeans discovered the route to India with sole purposeof controlling the trade of pepper.</p><p>Some historical records explain that in 1st century itself, there wasthe presence of Christianity in Kerala. It is based on the followingreferential accounts: the Jewish settlers who migrated to Kerala in theyear 68 AD had recorded that there were Christians in Kerala; similarly atravelogue by Pantaenus, the head of Alexandrian school who visitedKerala in the 2nd century also referred to a flourishing Christian communitythere. (A.Sreedhara Menon, History of Kerala, p, 107 1967). As mentionedabove there was migration of Jews to Kerala coast in the year 68 AD.Similarly, much later but as early as eighth century there was anothermigration of Islamic religion to the Kerala coast, soon after it introducedin Arabia. The Muslim traveller Suleiman (852) recorded this (A. SreedaraMenon, op cit 109).</p><p>The community of Syrian Christians believes that they are convertedinto the faith of Christianity as early as 52 AD, when St. Thomas visitedIndia with a trade ship that landed at Museries. The Christians of Keralais known as Thomas Christians after the disciples of Jesus who is wellknown in the Christian literature as doubting Thomas, and who took themission of spreading Christianity in Persia and India. The communitybelieves that they were converted to the noble faith of Christianity by</p><p>MATHEW VARGHESE</p></li><li><p>VOLUME 2 NUMBER 5 DECEMBER 2005</p><p>37</p><p>this apostle of Christ from the noble Brahmin community of Kerala in the1st century itself. The name Syrian Christians, according to a descriptionin the Nation master Encyclopaedia, means Aramaic speaking Jewishtradition. It has more to do with a tradition and culture in the earlyChristianity than an ethnic group. The Kerala Christians also known asNazranies, who according to the Nation Master Encyclopaedia refer to,the early Christians who converted from Judasism and believed that Jesusas the Christ and they followed Jewish tradition. The term Nazareneswas first mentioned in the Bible (Act 24.5). The classical language Aramaicalso called Syriac and the name Syrian Christian also may mean that thepeople who follow the liturgy in Syriac.</p><p>Their religious practices and liturgy are Chaldean rites and thelanguage and the liturgy in Syriac a form of Aramaic, the language spokenby Jesus. They were also under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the OrientalPatriarch of Celusia-Ctesiphon of Persia (Babylon) until the arrival ofPortuguese in the 15th century. However we cannot discount the ethnicfact that there are two major divisions in the Syrian Christian communityin Kerala since its inception in Kerala in the ancient time. The one whoconverted to Christianity in the 1st century are believed to be fromindigenous native Keralites community known as Northies(Vadamumbhagakkar); the second community is said to be migrants of aJewish Christian community from west Asian region and they are calledSouthies (Thekkumbhagakkar). Those two are named so because of theethnic reasons as the first group claim to have originated from theconversion of the natives while the other group claim to have migrated toKerala during 4th century. Most of the folk songs that we are going toexamine are sung by both these groups, except a few sung by southiesalone.</p><p>There is a lot of confusion among historians about the authenticityof a Brahmin conversion in into Christianity in the early centuries asthere was no Brahmins in Kerala at that period; the Brahmins in Keralaare considered to have migrated from the mainland of India to the regionof Kerala during the 8th and 9th centuries. One of the possible argumentthat can be accepted as authentic is the opinion put forward by ZachariasThundy, of Northern Michigan University that the early Christian of Keralaare a mixture of the native Munda Dravidian converts and the Jewishconverts. The popular history has not settled this question with veryclear and definitive evidences. The other group, the southies, are 72Christian families from around Baghdad, Nineveh, and Jerusalem whocame to the Kerala coast in the 4th century under the leadership of aTrader from west Asia Called Thomas of Cana (the place where Jesusturned water into wine). The Syrian Christians who were in Kerala earlierto this and who settled in the northern side of Kodungalore river and</p><p>The indigenous tradition of Syrian Christians of Kerala</p></li><li><p>I N D I A N F O L K L O R E R E S E A R C H J O U R N A L</p><p>38</p><p>thus known as northies and those who migrated from the west Asia andwere allowed to settle in the southern side of the river are called southies.This type of migration could have happened over different periods oftime.</p><p>In the ancient Kerala Christians and Jews were given rights to dotrading and establish trade guilds; there are many historical recordsshowing their rights to perform these rights are available in the form ofcopper-plate edits. During 849 AD there was a copper plate edit executedby the King Ayyan Atikal Tiruvatikal conferred several important rightsand privileges to Christians. This edit is one of the very important sourcesof Kerala history and is known as Terrisapally copper plate edits. (Variar1991, 118). This edit was given by the king to a leader of Christiancommunity called Maruvan Sapisso which was mainly about the landallotment for building a Church at a place near Quilon, and it also describesmany important historical aspects about the social status, religious belief,relations with other communities, of traders and merchants from Persia,Jerusalem and Babylon. The copper plate edit is considered as one of themost important original source for Kerala history. Another importantinscription available as historical record is the Tazhakad Church inscriptionof the King Rajasimha (1028-1043 AD), in which, two Christian merchants,Chathan Vadukan and Iravi Chattan, who were members of the TradeGuild Manigramam were given certain important privileges and rights.(Variar, 134) In another copper plate edit which is available as a historicalrecord is the one given by Vira Raghava Chakravarti to a Christianmerchant Iravi Kortanan chetty as the leader of the trade guildManigramam.(Variar, 135) The rights and privileges allowed for thesecommunities were meant, mainly, for the smooth conduct of their job(trading) and for their normal social and religious life.</p><p>In the ancient historical Kerala records, there are mention abouttwo trade guilds, one is controlled by the Christians, the Manigramam;the other is by the Jews, known as Anchuvakam. (variar, 136) There werea flourishing Jewish community of traders, merchants and other settlersin Kerala, and they were said to have migrated from Judea in the year 68AD, after the religious prosecution they had to experience with the adventof Christianity in that region. The Jewish people used to come to Keralafor trade much earlier to this migration. When the Israel state took birthduring 1948, the major population of Kerala Jews migrated back to thePromised Land. A very few Jewish families are living in Kerala now, andamong them two or three families belong to the original Kerala Jews,brown Jews. Though this community enjoyed full freedom and privilegesunder the rulers of Kerala, when the Portuguese took reign in the centralpart of Kerala they had to face severe religious prosecution; fearing thePortuguese tyranny many of them converted to Christianity or Hinduism.</p><p>MATHEW VARGHESE</p></li><li><p>VOLUME 2 NUMBER 5 DECEMBER 2005</p><p>39</p><p>There is no clear evidence to prove this but this is a very pertinent popularbelief.</p><p>Elements of History in the folk songsThese songs are describing, among many other things like customs,tradition and habits of the community, the oral history of Syrian Christiansin a very characteristic manner. Especially with regards to the segregationof the community into two divisions, the songs have their own explanationwhich are much different from the historical facts. Here the division ofcommunity into two is not because of the earlier group and later group orthe one who are natives and the other who are foreigners but due tointernal conflicts and quarrels and that resulted in the division as southiesand northies. May be the division of the community into two on the lineof emigration and conversion in different times could be a superiorityseeking technique adopted by each group. The northies always showsuperiority over the southies of being from a native high caste community;on the other hand the sou...</p></li></ul>
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