Indian Paintings, Folk Dances & Carnatic Music

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<ul><li><p>RAJESH NAYAK </p><p>CONTENTS </p><p>1. PAINTINGS OF INDIA </p><p>2. FOLK DANCES OF WHOLE INDIA </p><p>3. CARNATIC MUSIC </p></li><li><p>RAJESH NAYAK </p><p>Cave Paintings in India </p><p>Cave paintings of India date back to the prehistoric times. The finest examples of these paintings comprise of </p><p>the murals of Ajanta, Ellora, Bagh, Sittanavasal, etc, which reflect an emphasis on naturalism. Ancient cave </p><p>paintings of India serve as a window to our ancestors, who used to inhabit these caves. In the following lines, </p><p>we have provided more information on the ancient Indian rock paintings: </p><p>Ajanta Paintings </p><p>Ajanta caves are located at a distance of approximately 100 km from the city of Aurangabad. Most of the </p><p>paintings seen in the Ajanta Caves, date back to the period of the Mahayana sect of Buddhism. The themes of </p><p>most of these paintings revolve around the life and teachings of Lord Buddha. This includes the Jataka stories </p><p>related to the various lives and incarnations of Buddha. Calligraphic lines characterize these paintings, which </p><p>can be classified into portraits, narrative illustrations and ornamental decoration. </p><p>Ellora Paintings </p><p>Ellora caves are nestled amidst the Chamadari Hills, lying approximately 18 miles to the northeast of </p><p>Aurangabad city. Paintings can be found in five caves. However, all of them are today preserved only in the </p><p>Kailasa temple. The rock paintings of Ellora were painted in two different series. The first series, which were </p><p>done when the caves were carved, revolve around Lord Vishnu and Goddess Lakshmi. The second series, </p><p>painted centuries later, illustrate procession of Shaiva holy men, Apsaras, etc. </p><p>Bagh Paintings </p><p>Bagh caves, situated on the banks of the Bagh River, have been excavated on the rock face of a lofty hill. The </p><p>wall paintings of these caves date back to period between 5th and 7th century. These paintings represent the </p><p>mast exquisite traditions of Indian art form. </p><p>Sittanavasal Paintings </p><p>Sittanavasal is the site of an ancient Jain Monastery, located at a distance of around 58 km from Trichy. The </p><p>monastery is known for housing some of the most exquisite frescoes in a rock cave. Most of these cave </p><p>paintings are based on the Pandyan period of the 9th century. The themes of these paintings include animals, </p><p>fish, ducks, people collecting lotuses from a pond, two dancing figures, etc. Apart from that, one can also find </p><p>inscriptions dating back to the 9th and 10th century. The ceiling of the Ardhamandapam is adorned with </p><p>murals from the 7th century. </p><p>Madhubani Painting </p><p>Madhubani painting originated in a small village, known as Maithili, of the Bihar state of India. Initially, the </p><p>womenfolk of the village drew the paintings on the walls of their home, as an illustration of their thoughts, </p><p>hopes and dreams. With time, the paintings started becoming a part of festivities and special events, like </p><p>marriage. Slowly and gradually, the Madhubani painting of India crossed the traditional boundaries and started </p><p>reaching connoisseurs of art, both at the national as well as the international level. </p><p>The traditional base of freshly plastered mud wall of huts has now been replaced by cloth, handmade paper and </p><p>canvas. Since the paintings have been confined to a limited geographical range, the themes as well as the style </p><p>are, more or less, the same. Indian Maithili paintings make use of three-dimensional images and the colors that </p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p></li><li><p>RAJESH NAYAK </p><p>are used are derived mainly from plants. The themes on which these paintings are based include nature and </p><p>mythological events. The first reference to the Maithili painting of Bihar dates back to the time of Ramayana, </p><p>when King Janaka ordered the paintings to be created for his daughter, Sita's, wedding. </p><p>Themes of Maithili Paintings </p><p>Themes of the Maithili painting of Bihar revolve around Hindu deities like Krishna, Rama, Lakshmi, Shiva, </p><p>Durga and Saraswati. The natural themes that are used include the Sun, the Moon and the religious plants like </p><p>tulsi. One can also find paintings based on scenes from the royal courts and social events, like weddings. If any </p><p>empty space is left after painting the main theme, it is filled up with the motifs of flowers, animals and birds or </p><p>geometric designs. </p><p>Making Madhubani Paintings </p><p>The brush used for Madhubani paintings of Bihar was made of cotton, wrapped around a bamboo stick. The </p><p>artists prepare the colors that are used for the paintings. Black color is made by adding soot to cow dung; </p><p>yellow from combining turmeric (or pollen or lime) with the milk of banyan leaves; blue from indigo; red from </p><p>the kusam flower juice or red sandalwood; green from the leaves of the wood apple tree; white from rice </p><p>powder and orange from palasha flowers. There is no shading in the application of colors. A double line is </p><p>drawn for outlines and the gap is filled with either cross or straight tiny lines. The linear Maithili paintings do </p><p>not even require application of colors; only the outlines are drawn. </p><p>Miniature Painting </p><p>Miniatures paintings are beautiful handmade paintings, which are quite colorful but small in size. The highlight </p><p>of these paintings is the intricate and delicate brushwork, which lends them a unique identity. The colors are </p><p>handmade, from minerals, vegetables, precious stones, indigo, conch shells, pure gold and silver. The most </p><p>common theme of the Miniature painting of India comprises of the Ragas i.e., the musical codes of Indian </p><p>classical music. There were a number of miniature schools in the country, including those of Mughals, Rajputs </p><p>and the Deccan. History of Miniature Painting in India </p><p>The evolution of Indian Miniatures paintings started in the Western Himalayas, around the 17th century. These </p><p>paintings were highly influenced by the mural paintings that originated during the later half of the 18th </p><p>century. During the time of the Mughals, Muslim kings of the Deccan and Malwa as well as the Hindu Rajas of </p><p>Rajasthan, this art flourished to quite an extent. Infact, the Mughals were responsible for introducing Persian </p><p>tradition in the Miniature paintings of India. The credit for western influence can be ascribed to the Muslim </p><p>kings. </p><p>Schools of Miniature Painting </p><p>The different schools of the Miniature paintings of India include: </p><p> Pala School </p><p> Orissa School </p><p> Jain School </p><p> Mughal School </p><p> Rajasthani School </p><p> Nepali School </p><p>These schools were the products of hothouse cultivation that was practiced over generations. The earliest </p><p>instances of the Indian Miniature painting are those related to the Pala School and date back to the 11th </p><p>century. This school emphasized on the symbolic use of color in the paintings, which was taken from tantric </p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p></li><li><p>RAJESH NAYAK </p><p>ritual. The other characteristics of the Pala School include the use of a skillful and graceful line, modeling </p><p>forms by delicate and expressive variation of pressure, use of natural color for painting human skin, etc </p><p>The Jain School of Miniature paintings laid great emphasis on style. The unique features of this school include </p><p>strong pure colors, stylish figures of ladies, heavy gold outlines, diminution of dress to angular segments, </p><p>enlarged eyes and square-shaped hands. One can see the influence of Jain miniature paintings on Rajasthani </p><p>and Mughal paintings also. </p><p>Mughal Painting </p><p>Mughal painting reflects an exclusive combination of Indian, Persian and Islamic styles. As the name suggests, </p><p>these paintings evolved as well as developed during the rule of Mughal Emperors in India, between 16th to </p><p>19th century. The Mughal paintings of India revolved around themes, like battles, court scenes, receptions, </p><p>legendary stories, hunting scenes, wildlife, portraits, etc. The Victoria and Albert Museums of London house a </p><p>large and impressive collection of Mughal paintings. </p><p>History of Mughal Painting </p><p>Indian Mughal paintings originated during the rule of Mughal Emperor, Humayun (1530-1540). When he came </p><p>back to India from the exile, he also brought along two excellent Persian artists, Mir-Sayyid Ali and Abd-us-</p><p>samad. With time, their art got influenced by the local styles and gradually; it gave rise to the Mughal painting </p><p>of India. The earliest example of the Mughal style is the Tutinama ('Tales of a Parrot') Painting, now in the </p><p>Cleveland Museum of Art. Then, there is the 'Princess of the House of Timur', a painting redone numerous </p><p>times. </p><p>Growth of Mughal Painting </p><p>Mughal paintings of India developed as well as prospered under the rule of Mughal Emperors, Akbar, Jahangir </p><p>and Shah Jahan. </p><p>Under Akbar </p><p>Mughal painting experienced large-scale growth under the reign of Emperor Akbar. During that time, hundreds </p><p>of artists used to paint under the direction of the two Persian artists. Since the Emperor was fond of tales, one </p><p>can see the paintings mainly being based on the Mahabharata, Ramayana and Persian epics. Mughal paintings </p><p>also started illustrating an enhanced naturalism, with animal tales, landscape, portraits, etc. </p><p>Under Jahangir </p><p>Emperor Jahangir reigned from 1605 to 1627 and extended great support to various art forms, especially </p><p>paintings. This period saw more and more refinement in brushwork, along with the use of much lighter and </p><p>subdued colors. The main themes of the Mughal paintings revolved around the events from Jahangir's own life, </p><p>along with portraits, birds, flowers, animals, etc. One of the most popular examples of Mughal paintings of this </p><p>time include the pictorial illustrations of the Jehangir-nama, the biography of Emperor Jahangir. </p><p>Under Shah Jahan </p><p>The grace and refinement of the Jahangir period was seen at the time of Emperor Shah Jahan (1628-1658). </p><p>However, the sensitivity of the paintings was replaced by coldness and rigidity. The themes of that time </p><p>revolved around musical parties, lovers on terraces and gardens, ascetics gathered around a fire, etc. </p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p></li><li><p>RAJESH NAYAK </p><p>Decline of Mughal Painting </p><p>The trend that was seen during the time of Shah Jahan was also found under the rule of Aurangzeb (1658-</p><p>1707). However, the emperor did not pay too much attention on the growth of the Mughal paintings. Still, the </p><p>art form continued to survive with the support received from its other patrons. However, gradually, because of </p><p>diminishing support, a declining trend set in. The time of Muhammad Shah, (1719-1748), did experience a </p><p>brief revival of the Mughal paintings. Nonetheless, with the arrival of Shah Alam II (1759-1806), the art </p><p>almost became extinct and another school of painting, known as Rajput paintings, started evolving. </p><p>Mysore Paintings </p><p>Mysore Painting is a form of classical South Indian painting, which evolved in the Mysore city of Karnataka. </p><p>During that time, Mysore was under the reign of the Wodeyars and it was under their patronage that this school </p><p>of painting reached its zenith. Quite similar to the Tanjore Paintings, Mysore Paintings of India make use of </p><p>thinner gold leaves and require much more hard work. The most popular themes of these paintings include </p><p>Hindu Gods and Goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology. The grace, beauty and intricacy of Indian </p><p>Mysore Paintings leave the onlookers mesmerized. </p><p>History of Mysore Paintings </p><p>It was under the rule of Raja Krishna Raja Wodeyar that the popularity of the Mysore School of painting </p><p>reached its highest point. However, after the Raja expired in 1868, the artists started scattering and the school </p><p>reached the point of total extinction. The year 1875 saw the establishment of Jagan Mohan Palace and </p><p>Chitrakala School and along with it, the revival of the Mysore Painting of India. Late Sri Siddalingeswara </p><p>Swamiji and late Sri Y. Subramanya Raju also contributed to this exquisite art form. </p><p>Centers of Mysore Paintings </p><p>Indian Mysore School of paintings exists in Mysore, Bangalore, Narasipura, Tumkur, Sravanabelagola and </p><p>Nanjangud. </p><p>Making Mysore Paintings </p><p>A number of steps are involved in the process of producing a Mysore painting. The first step requires the artist </p><p>to make a preliminary sketch of the image on the base, which comprises of a cartridge paper pasted on a </p><p>wooden base. Thereafter, he makes a paste of zinc oxide and Arabic gum, known as 'gesso paste'. This paste is </p><p>used to give a slightly raised effect of carving to those parts of the painting that require embellishments and is </p><p>allowed to dry. Then, gold foil is pasted onto the surface. The rest of the painting is prepared with the help of </p><p>watercolors. After the painting is fully dried, it is covered with a thin paper and rubbed lightly with a smooth </p><p>soft stone. </p><p>In the traditional Mysore paintings, all the inputs were made by the artists, including brushes, paints, board, </p><p>gold foil, etc. Instead of the poster colors and watercolors of today, vegetable and mineral colors were used. </p><p>Even the base was formed of paper, wood, wall and cloth, rather than the sole cartridge paper base used now. </p><p>The sketches were made with the help of charcoal, which was prepared by burning tamarind twigs in an iron </p><p>tube. The brushes were made of different materials, like squirrel hair, camel hair, goat hair, etc. </p><p>Pahari Paintings </p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p><p>MonuHighlight</p></li><li><p>RAJESH NAYAK </p><p>Pahari painting is the name given to Rajput paintings, made in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu &amp; Kashmir states </p><p>of India. These paintings developed and flourished during the period of 17th to 19th century. Indian Pahari </p><p>paintings have been done mostly in miniature forms. </p><p>Styles of Pahari Paintings Pahari paintings of India can be divided into two distinct categories, on the basis of their geographical range, </p><p>namely: </p><p> Basohli and Kulu Style (Influenced by Chaurpanchasika style) </p><p> Guler and Kangra Style (Based on cooler colors and refinement) </p><p>History of Pahari Painting Pahari paintings have been widely influenced by the Rajput paintings, because of the family relations of the </p><p>Pahari Rajas with royal court at Rajasthan. One can also see strong influence of the Gujarat and Deccan </p><p>paintings. With the emergence of Bhakti movement, new th...</p></li></ul>