Indian Medicinal Plants || Jatropha curcas Linn.

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<ul><li><p>JJacaranda acutifoliaauct. non-Humb. &amp; Bonpl.</p><p>Synonym J. mimosifolia D. DonJ. ovalifolia R. Br.</p><p>Family Bignoniaceae.Habitat Cultivated in Indiangardens.</p><p>Folk Nili-gulmohar.Action Leaves volatile oilappliedto buboes. Leaves and bark ofthe plantused for syphilis andblennorrhagia. An infusion of thebark is employed as a lotion forulcers.</p><p>The leaves contain jacaranone, ver-bascoside and phenylacetic-beta-glu-coside along with a glucose ester, jaca-ranose. Flavonoid scutellarein andits -glucuronide, and hydroquinoneswere also isolated. Fruits contain beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid and hentriacon-tane; stem bark gave lupenone andbeta-sitosterol.</p><p>The owers contain an anthocyanin.In Pakistan, the owers are sold as asubstitute for the Unani herb Gul-e-Gaozabaan.</p><p>The lyophylized aqueous extract ofthe stem showed a high and broadantimicrobial activity against humanurinary tract bacteria, especially Pseu-domonas sp.</p><p>The fatty acid, jacarandic acid, iso-lated from the seed oil, was found tobe a strong inhibitor of prostaglandinbiosynthesis in sheep.</p><p>J. rhombifolia G. F. W. May., syn.J. licifolia D. Don is grown in Indi-an gardens. Extracts of the plant showinsecticidal properties.</p><p>Several species of Jacaranda are usedfor syphilis in Brazil and other partsof South America under the namescarobin, carabinha etc. A crystallinesubstance, carobin, besides resins,acids and caroba balsam, has beenisolated from them.</p><p>Jasminum angustifolium Vahl.</p><p>Family Oleaceae.Habitat South India.English Wild Jasmine.Ayurvedic Bana-mallikaa, Vana-malli, Kaanan-mallikaa, Aasphotaa.</p><p>Siddha/Tamil Kaatumalli.Action Rootused in ringworm.Leavesjuice is given as an emeticin cases of poisoning.</p><p>Fresh owers gave indole.</p><p>Jasminum arborescens Roxb.</p><p>Synonym J. roxburghianumWall.Habitat Sub-Himalayan tract,Bengal, Central and South India.</p><p>English Tree Jasmine.Ayurvedic Nava-mallikaa.Siddha/Tamil Nagamalli.</p></li><li><p>J342 Jasminum auriculatum Vahl.</p><p>Folk Chameli (var.), Maalati (var.).Action Leavesastringent andstomachic. Juice of the leaves, withpepper, garlic and other stimulants,is used as an emetic in obstructionof the bronchial tubes due to viscidphlegm.</p><p>Jasminum auriculatum Vahl.</p><p>Family Oleaceae.Habitat Cultivated throughoutIndia, especially in Uttar Pradeshand Tamil Nadu. In Uttar Pradesh,cultivated on commercial scale inGhazipur, Jaunpur, Farrukhabadand Kannauj for its fragrant owerswhich yield an essential oil.</p><p>Ayurvedic Yuuthikaa, Yuuthi,Mugdhee.</p><p>Siddha/Tamil Usimalligai.Folk Juuhi.Action See Jasminum humile.</p><p>The leaves gave lupeol, its epimer,hentriacontane and n-tricantanol,a triterpenoid, jasminol; d-mannitol;volatile constituent, jasmone. The pintype pointed ower buds (long styled)on solvent extraction yielded higherconcrete content rich in indole andmethyl anthranilate, whereas thrumtype (short styled) buds yield high-er absolute with benzyl acetate as theprominent constituent.</p><p>Jasminum flexile Vahl.</p><p>Synonym J. azoricum Linn.</p><p>Family Oleaceae.Habitat Assam, Mizoram,Meghalaya and Western Ghats.</p><p>Ayurvedic Maalati (var.).Siddha/Tamil Ramabanam mullai.Folk Chameli (var.).Action See Jasminum ocinale.</p><p>Jasminum heterophyllumRoxb. non-Moench.</p><p>Family Oleaceae.Habitat Nepal, North Bengal,Assam hills, Khasi hills andManipur.</p><p>Ayurvedic Svarna-yuuthikaa (var.).Folk Juuhi (yellow var.).Action See Jasminum humile.</p><p>Jasminum humile Linn.</p><p>Synonym J. humile auct. non L.J. bignoniaceum Wall ex G. Don.</p><p>Family Oleaceae.Habitat Sub-tropical Himalayasfrom Kashmir to Nepal and in theNilgiris, Palni Hills, Western Ghatsand Kerala.</p><p>English Yellow Jasmine, NepalJasmine, Italian Jasmine.</p><p>Ayurvedic Svarna-yuuthikaa,Svarnajaati, Hemapushpikaa,Vaasanti.</p><p>Siddha/Tamil Semmalligai.Folk Juuhi (yellow var.).</p></li><li><p>JJasminum officinale Linn. var. grandiflorum (L.) Kobuski. 343</p><p>Action Flowerastringent, cardiactonic. Rootused in ringworm.The milky juice, exuded fromincisions in the bark, is used fortreating chronic stulas. The plantis also used for treating hard lumps.</p><p>The leaves gave alpha-amyrin, be-tulin, friedelin, lupeol, betulinic, olea-nolic and ursolic acids; beta-sitosterol,-cinnamoyloxyoleoside--methyl-ester (jasminoside) and a secoiridoidglycoside.</p><p>Jasminum malabaricum Wight.</p><p>Family Oleaceae.Habitat Deccan, West Coast,Western Ghats and in the Nilgiris.</p><p>Ayurvedic Mudgara.Folk Mogaraa (var.), Ran-mogaraa.Action See Jasminum sambac.</p><p>Jasminum multiflorum(Burm. f.) Andr.</p><p>Synonym J. pubescens Willd.J. hirsutumWilld.J. bracteatum Roxb.</p><p>Family Oleaceae.Habitat Sub-Himalayan tract andin moist forests of Western Ghats.</p><p>English Downy Jasmine.Ayurvedic Kunda, KasturiMogaraa.Siddha/Tamil Magarandam, Malli.Folk Kasturi Mogaraa.Action Diuretic, emetic. Boiledbarkapplied on burns.</p><p>Ethanolic extract of fresh leavesand owers contain the secoiridoidlactones, jasmolactone A, B, C andD; and secoiridoid glycosides. Jas-molactone B and D and the secoiri-doid glycosides (multioroside and-hydroxyoleuropein) exhibited va-sodilatory and cardiotropic activities.</p><p>Jasminum officinale Linn. var.grandiflorum (L.) Kobuski.</p><p>Synonym J. grandiorum Linn.</p><p>Family Oleaceae.</p><p>Habitat North-Western Himalayasand Persia; cultivated in Kumaon,Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, MadhyaPradesh; in gardens throughoutIndia.</p><p>English Spanish Jasmine.</p><p>Ayurvedic Jaati, Jaatikaa, Jaatimalli,Pravaaljaati, Saumanasyaayani,Sumanaa, Chetikaa, Hriddgandhaa,Maalati, Chameli.</p><p>Unani Yaasmin.</p><p>Siddha/Tamil Manmadabanam,Mullai, Padar-malligai, Pichi, Malli</p><p>Folk Chameli.</p><p>Action Flowerscalming andsedative, CNSdepressant, astringentand mild anaesthetic. A syrupprepared from the owers isused for coughs, hoarsenessesand other disorders of the chest.Plantdiuretic, anthelmintic,emmenagogue; used for healingchronic ulcers and skin diseases.Oilexternally relaxing.</p></li><li><p>J344 Jasminum rottlerianum Wall. ex DC.</p><p>Indian oil sample gave benzyl ac-etate ., benzyl benzoate ., phytol., jasmone ., methyl jasmonate., linalool ., geranyl linalool .,eugenol ., isophytyl acetate ., andisophytol .%.</p><p>The leaves gave ascorbic acid, an-thranilic acid and its glucoside, indoleoxygenase, alkaloid jasminine and sal-icylic acid.</p><p>The owers contain pyridine andnicotinate derivatives; tested positivefor indole.</p><p>The owers and leaf juice is used fortreating tumours.</p><p>Dosage Dried leaves gpowder for decoction (API, Vol.III.); Juice ml. (CCRAS.).</p><p>Jasminum rottlerianumWall. ex DC.</p><p>Family Oleaceae.</p><p>Habitat Western Peninsula, fromKonkan southwards to Kerala.</p><p>Ayurvedic Vana-mallikaa.</p><p>Siddha/Tamil Erumaimullai,Kattumalligei, Uyyakondan.</p><p>Action Leafused in eczema.</p><p>Jasminum sambac (Linn.) Ait.</p><p>Family Oleaceae.Habitat Cultivated throughoutIndia, especially in Uttar Pradesh,on a large scale in Jaunpur, Kannauj,Ghazipur and Farrukhabad for itsfragrant owers.</p><p>English Arabian Jasmine, TuscanJasmine, Double Jasmine.</p><p>Ayurvedic Mallikaa, Madayanti,Madyantikaa, Nava-Mallikaa,Shita-bhiru, Vaarshiki.</p><p>Unani Mograa.Siddha Malligai.Folk Belaa, Motiaabelaa; Mogaraa(Maharashtra).</p><p>Action Rootemmenagogue,blood purier. Flowerslactifuge.Alcoholic extracthypotensive.Leavesantibacterial; used againstindolent and breast tumours.</p><p>The leaves contain the secoiridoidglycosides, jasminin, quercitrin, iso-quercitrin, rutin, quercitrin--dirham-noglycoside, kaempferol--rhamno-glycoside, mannitol, alpha-amyrin,beta-sitosterol and an iridoid glyco-side, sambacin. The absolute containsseveral pyridine and nicotinate deriva-tives.</p><p>Dosage Decoction ml.(CCRAS.)</p><p>Jateorhiza palmata Miers.</p><p>Synonym J. calumba Miers.Family Menispermaceae.Habitat Indigenous to south-easttropical Africa. Imported intoIndia.</p><p>English Calumba, Colombo.Ayurvedic Kalambaka. (Cosciniumfenestratum Colebr., known as Falsecalumba, is used as a substitute forJ. palmata.)</p></li><li><p>JJatropha glandulifera Roxb. 345</p><p>Siddha/Tamil Kolumbu.Action Rootbitter tonic withoutastringency, carminative, gastrictonic, antiatulent, hyptotensive,orexigenic, uterine stimulant,sedative. Used in anorexia,poor digestion, hypochlorhydria,amoebic dysentery and menstrualdisorders. Antifungal.</p><p>Key application As appetitestimulant. (The British HerbalPharmacopoeia.)</p><p>The root gave isoquinoline alkaloids%; palmatine, jaterorrhizine and itsdimer bis-jateorrhizine, columbamine;bitters (including chasmanthin andpalmanin). Volatile oil contains thy-mol.</p><p>The alkaloid jateorrhizine is seda-tive, hypotensive. Palmatine is a uter-ine stimulant.</p><p>As calumba contains very little vola-tile oil andno tannins, it is free fromas-tringency which is commonwith otherbitter herbs.</p><p>The root alkaloids exhibit narcot-ic properties and side eects similarto morphine. It is no longer used(in Western herbal) as a digestive aid,and is rarely used as an antidiarrhoealagent. (Natural Medicines Comprehen-sive Database, .)</p><p>Jatropha curcas Linn.</p><p>Family Euphorbiaceae.Habitat Native to tropicalAmerica. Now cultivated alongwith Cromandel Coast and inTravancore.</p><p>English Physic Nut, Purging Nut.Ayurvedic Vyaaghrairanda (var.),Sthula-eranda, Kaanan-eranda.</p><p>Siddha/Tamil Kattu Amanaku.Folk Bagharenda (var.).Action Seedhighly toxic. Nutpurgative. Plantused for scabies,ringworm, eczema, whitlow, warts,syphilis. Stem barkapplied towounds of animal bites; root barkto sores.</p><p>The protein of the seed contains thetoxic albumin curcin (protein .%,curcin .%).</p><p>Seed and seed oilmore drasticpurgative than castor seed oil andmilder than Croton tiglium oil.</p><p>An aqueous (%) infusion of leavesincreased cardiac contraction is smalldoses. EtOH (%) extract of aerialpartsdiuretic and CNS depressant.</p><p>The seed contain phorbol deriva-tives. The plant also contains cur-cosones and lathyrane diterpenes.</p><p>Jatropha glandulifera Roxb.</p><p>Family Euphorbiaceae.Habitat South India and Bengal.Ayurvedic Vyaaghrairanda.Siddha/Tamil Adalai, Eliya-manakku.</p><p>Folk Bagharenda, Jangali-erandi.Action Root and oil from seedpurgative. Oilantirheumatic,antiparalytic. Used externally onringworm and chronic ulcers.Rootused for glandular swellings.</p></li><li><p>J346 Jatropha gossypifolia Linn.</p><p>Latexapplied to warts andtumours.</p><p>The plant contain alkannins (iso-hexenylnaphthazarins). The presenceof alkannins in this plant (a member ofEuphorbiaceae) should be consideredas an exception.</p><p>The root gave jatropholone A, frax-etin and a coumarinolignan.</p><p>Dosage Seed mg powder.(CCRAS.)</p><p>Jatropha gossypifolia Linn.</p><p>Family Euphorbiaceae.Habitat Native to Brazil; cultivatedas an ornamental.</p><p>English Tua-Tua.Ayurvedic Rakta-Vyaaghrairanda.Siddha/Tamil Stalai.Folk Laal Bagharenda.Action Leaf and seedpurgative.Leafantidermatosis. Barkemmenagogue. Seedemetic.Seed fatty oilused in paralyticaections, also in skin diseases.</p><p>The leaves contain triterpenes, a tri-hydroxy ketone and correspondingdiosphenol. The root contains thediterpenes, jatropholone A and jat-rophatrione. A tumour-inhibitor ma-crocyclic diterpene, jatrophone, hasbeen isolated from roots.</p><p>The seeds contain phorbol deriva-tives, jatropholones A and B, hydroxy-jatrophone and hydroxyisojatrophone.</p><p>Hot water extract of the plant ex-hibits antimalarial activity againstPlas-modium falciparum.</p><p>Jatropha multifida Linn.</p><p>Family Euphorbiaceae.</p><p>Habitat Native to South America.Naturalized in various parts ofIndia.</p><p>English Coral plant, Physic Nut.</p><p>Ayurvedic Brihat-Danti (biggervar. of Danti, also equated withBaliospermum montanum).</p><p>Folk Danti (var.).</p><p>Action Seedspurgative, emetic.Fruitspoisonous. Leavesusedfor scabies. Latexapplied towounds and ulcers.</p><p>The latex from the plant showed an-tibacterial activity against Staphylococ-cus aureus. It contains immunologi-cally active acylphloroglucinols, mul-tidol, phloroglucinol and multidolbeta-D-glucopyranoside. The latex al-so contains an immunologically active,cyclic decapeptide, labaditin.</p><p>J. panduraefolia Andr. (native toAmerica), widely grown in Indian gar-dens, is known as Fiddle-leaved Jat-ropha. The latex from the plant showsfungitoxic activity against ringwormfungus,Microsporum gypseum.</p><p>Juglans regia Linn.</p><p>Family Juglandaceae.</p><p>Habitat Native to Iran; nowcultivated in Kashmir, HimachalPradesh., Khasi Hills and the hillsof Uttar Pradesh.</p><p>English Walnut tree.</p></li><li><p>JJuncus effusus Linn. 347</p><p>Ayurvedic Akshoda, Akshoda-ka, Akshota, Shailbhava, Pilu,Karparaal, Vrantphala.</p><p>Unani Akhrot.Siddha/Tamil Akrottu.Action Leaves and barkalterative, laxative, antiseptic, mildhypoglycaemic, anti-inammatory,antiscrofula, detergent. An infusionof leaves and bark is used forherpes, eczema and other cutaneousaections; externally to skineruptions and ulcers. Volatile oilantifungal, antimicrobial.</p><p>Key application (leaf) In mild,supercial inammation of the skinand excessive perspiration of handsand feet. (German Commission E.).When English Walnuts (Juglansregia) are added to low fat diet, totalcholesterol may be decreased by % and LDL by %. (NaturalMedicines Comprehensive Database,.)</p><p>Walnut hull preparations are usedfor skin diseases and abscesses.</p><p>Walnut is eaten as a dry fruit. Be-cause of its resemblance to the brain,it was thought, according to the doc-trine of signatures, to be a good braintonic. Walnuts are also eaten to lowerthe cholesterol levels.</p><p>From the volatile oil of the leavesterpenoid substances (monoterpenes,sesquiterpenes, diterpene and triter-pene derivatives) and eugenol havebeen isolated. Fatty acids, includinggeranic acid; alpha-and beta-pinene,,,cincole, limonene, beta-eudesmoland juglone are also important con-stituents of the volatile oil.</p><p>The leaves contain napthoquinones,mainly juglone. The root bark gave, ,-bis-juglone and oligomeric ju-glones. Unripe fruit husk also gavenapthoquinones.</p><p>The kernels of Indian walnuts con-tain .% protein, % carbohydrates,.% mineral matter (sodium, potas-sium, calcium, magnesium, iron, cop-per, phosphorus, sulphur and chorine).Iodine (. mcg/ g), arsenic, zinc,cobalt and manganese are also report-ed. Kernels are also rich in vitamins ofthe B group, vitamin A ( IU/ g),and ascorbic acid ( mg/ g).</p><p>The juice of unripe fruits showedsignicant thyroid hormone enhanc-ing activity (prolonged use of such ex-tract may cause serious side eect).</p><p>White Walnut, Lemon Walnut, But-ternut, Oilnut of the USA is equat-ed with Juglans cineraria L. The innerbark gave napthoquinones, includingjuglone, juglandin, juglandic acid, tan-nins and an essential oil.</p><p>Butternut is used as a dermatologi-cal and antihaemorrhoidal agent. Ju-glone exhibits antimicrobial, antipara-sitic and antineoplastic activities.</p><p>Dosage Dried cotyledons g(API, Vol. II.)</p><p>Juncus effusus Linn.</p><p>Synonym J. communis E. Mey.</p><p>Family Juncaceae.</p><p>Habitat Eastern Himalayas andKhasi Hills.</p><p>English Rush, Matting Rush.</p></li><li><p>J348 Juniperus communis Linn. var. saxatillis Palias.</p><p>Action Pithantilithic, discutient,diuretic, depurative, pectoral.Rootdiuretic, especially instrangury.</p><p>The leavesgaveavonoids, lutcoline--glucoside, diosmin and hesperidin;aerial parts gave phenolic constituents,eusol and juncusol. Juncusol is an-timicrobial. A dihydrodibenzoxepin,isolated from the plant, showed cyto-toxic activity.</p><p>Juniperus communis Linn. var.saxatillis Palias.</p><p>Synonym J. c...</p></li></ul>

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