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Handicrafts of IndiaIndian Art and Culture for UPSC

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INDIAN CRAFTS Traditional Craftsmanship Skill with materials & manual dexterity in manipulating tools Total operation involves Emotions, mind, body and vibrant rhythm for the coordination of crafts www.nextgenias.com ORnextgenias.blogspot.comConsider the following towns of India:Bhadrachalem - Chanderi - Kanchipuram - Karanal Which of the above are famous for the production of traditional sarees/fabric Preserve certain values indispensable to mankind Dignity + creativity symbolizes link with the pastMost splendid expressions of life in India Hand spun & handloomed cloth worn by men, women and children Applique, embroidery and dyeing techniques enhance the cloth and woven textiles :silk, cotton or woolen fabrics flourished in India Contemporary India household shrines handicrafted with metal, stone or clay are fashioned by local craftsmen and artisans These living traditions are visible in the unsurpassed beauty of Indian handicrafts. Endowed with a highly developed sense of clay, wood, stone, ivory and textile traditions exist within the Indian craftsmen. TEXTILES: Muslin also known as Malmal known for delicacy and fineness Best Kings Muslin (Malmai Khas) >> Ab-i-rawan : Running water and Shabnam(dew) Chief centre of production Dhaka PATOLA Silk or wedding saree of Gujarat and Maharashtra design appear on both side of the material 2 principle styles 1.Cambay Pattern with white flowers on dark green stems 2.Pattan Pattern with broader strips of field picture, series of elephants, flowering shrubs, human figures and birds BROCADE Represent large group of textiles in which designs are produced by the use of WARP and WEFT threads Pure silk Amru Gold thread Kimkhab: famous varnasi Represents most generous and ornamental fabric of India Tanchoi Brocades named after 3 brothers wholearnt from China and practiced in Surat. Base of this fabric Satin woven in floral and bird motifs Brocade- generic term used for any textile that is richly figured, especially for those with a pattern in gold or silver Pattern extra weft threads of different coloured silk or zari, metallic threads are woven into the basic fabric Patternic technique kadwa Special type brocade gyasar: secular use in Buddhist areas like Bhutan and Ladakh SAREE- Classical Indian garment remained in fashion over 2000 yrs Evolved in distinct weaving patterns Motives reflect nature, everyday life and weavers creativity and his aesthetic sensibilities Types ofSarees - Places Famous for it 1.Paithani -paithan (Maharashtra) 2.Tanchoi silk- Varnasi 3.Pochampalli - Hyderabad 4.Chanderi-Chanderi (MP) 5.Muga silk- Sualkuchi (Assam) 6.Sambalpuri-Sambalpur 7.Jamdani- Bengal and UP 8.Baluchari- Murshidabad (W.Bengal) TIE & DIE (Bandhani) Chief centres of production Rajasthan and Gujarat Rich patterns are outlined by small dots of different colours Designs of dancing women and animal forms are produced by knot dyeing process still fashion in countryside Hunting scenes, female performingGarbha, plenty of floral and bird designs are in the intervening spaces and borders KALAMKARI Painted & printed textiles of AP Kalamkari came from brush like instrument like Kalam: used in medieval period to draw pattern on fabric with natural colour. The clothes from the former school were influenced by Persian painting and the tenets of Islam and Kalahasthi school reproduced scenes from Hindu mythology The art of Kalamkari belongs to 2 distinct schools Masulipatnam (muslim rulers) & Srikalahasthi (Hindu temples) APA TANI WEAVES: Apa Tani tribe lower Subansiri dt of Arunachal Pradesh Home Ziro in Apa Tani plateau located in North of ItanagarWomen weaving and one or two portable loin loom Traditional colours Red, Green and Yellow obtained from leaves, roots, creepers and the barks of trees Cloth use of broad stripes alternating with narrow ones Other geometric patterns extra weft technique BLOCK PRINTING Best known Palampore and Machilipatnam bed covers: decoration incomparable Typical design Tree of Life Baademeri PrintManifestation of Rajasthani folk art on textiles Recognized by their motifs, boldness of designs and stark colours Chief centre of production Sindh: Hindus of Badmer are engaged in this art EMBROIDERY: Batik style of painting whose claim lies in being Individualistic have the scintillating quality of stained glass Kantha embroidery of Bengal> uses discarded sarees which are piled up and quilted. Thread stitches are drawn from the old borders Pichwais temple cloth for temples and chariots depicting Srinath as Krishna in blue. Background dark and richly coloured. Nathwara is famous for it Pattachitra cloth painting of Orissa where whole stories are shown on a long piece of cloth like a picture film. Earthen colours are used PipliApplique pipli near Bhubneshwar is famous for his work which uses bright coloured embroidered cloth probably originating from its traditional use in Jagganath temple Chikan (shawl / fabric) Lucknow The word Chikan stems from a Persian word: meaning to raise Brought to Awadh from Persia which flourished under the patronage of Lucknow Nawabs Traditionally it is embroidered onto Muslin with a white thread. 3 types of designs 1.Bhakia 2.Tepchi 3.Kamdani Gujarat: AARI embroidary with silk threads using a hook is a popular craft of Kutchch, Gujarat Motifs dancing peacocks, human figures in dancing postures Uttar Pradesh: Chikanwork different assumptions and beliefs Megasthanes art of Chikankari (floral prints on fine Muuslin clothes) started in east Bengal West Bengal: Kantha embroidary Popular rural women J & K: Jaal work Takes months to complete thread work on one shawl, bedspread Artisans stitch decorative motifs of birds, maple leaves and other decorative designs The most popular form of thread work is the chain stitch that is done on shawls and clothes. MANIPUR: Unique type - uses one stitch, in deference to the weavers in the areaThis is done in dark matching shade with untwisted silk thread on the border of the phanek (A lungi or lower body wrap worn by women). ANDHRA PRADESH: Mathurias - tribe foundonly in Adilabad inhabit the forest areaand being nomadic, move from place to place looking for agricultural work on land BIHAR: Kasidaembroiderywith geometricalpatternsof Biharresemblestothe kasutiembroideryof Mysoreand isfoundinmany different Styles. KERALA: Syrian embroidery, the first to find its way into Kerala, is no longer practised here MADHYA PRADESH: The Banjaras of Madhya Pradesh, who are found in the districts of Malwa and Nimar have their own distinct style of embroidery. PUNJAB: The art of phulkari has its origins in the early part of the 19th century, when the odhini or head cloth was highlighted with embroidered flowers. ORISSA: Patta Chitra is a cloth painting of Orissa, where whole stories are shown on a long piece of cloth uses earthencolours other typeof embroidery works (a) Mirror Work Embroidery(b) Sequins Embroidery (c)Resham Embroidery(d) Kundan Embroidery