India & South Asia

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<ul><li> 1. INDIA &amp; SOUTH ASIA</li></ul> <p> 2. 3. INDIA </p> <ul><li>Mahatma Gandhi , ( a former lawyer)organizes protests .</li></ul> <ul><li>Believes in non-violent protest orCIVIL DISOBEDIENCE - (refusal to obey unjust law) to get independence.</li></ul> <p> 4. </p> <ul><li>Led marches, protests, boycotts &amp; withheld paying taxes to get independence </li></ul> <p> 5. MAHATMA GANDHI </p> <ul><li> WE MUST BE THE CHANGE WE WISH TO SEE </li></ul> <p> 6. INDIA </p> <ul><li>Gandhi calledMAHATMAor Great Soul</li></ul> <ul><li>1919 Brits kill 100s &amp; arrest Gandhi </li></ul> <ul><li>LedSalt Marchin 1930, urging people to make salt,which was against British law (shows non-violent resistance) </li></ul> <p> 7. GREAT SALT MARCH 1930 8. INDIA &amp; PAKISTAN </p> <ul><li>Conflict grows btw Muslim minority &amp; Hindu majority.</li></ul> <ul><li>Muslims led byAli Jinnahwant a separate Muslim state in Pakistan </li></ul> <p> 9. </p> <ul><li>8/14/47 Indian empire gets independence &amp; divided into 2 nations:</li></ul> <ul><li>India-Hindu nation </li></ul> <ul><li>Pakistan -Muslim nation .</li></ul> <p> 10. INDIA &amp; PAKISTAN </p> <ul><li>Millions flee. Hindus go to India &amp; Muslims to Pakistan.</li></ul> <ul><li>Many die, including Gandhi, (assassinated on 6/30/48) </li></ul> <ul><li>Several areas stay indep.</li></ul> <ul><li>Eachchoose which nation to join </li></ul> <p> 11. KASHMIR </p> <ul><li>Kashmir , area high inHindu Kush mtns btw India &amp; Pakistan had problems .</li></ul> <ul><li>Good resources there &amp; also major rivers of region begin here . </li></ul> <p> 12. KASHMIR </p> <ul><li>Kashmir has Hindu Prince &amp; Muslim people. </li></ul> <ul><li>Pakistan &amp; India sends in troops to take over.</li></ul> <ul><li>UN steps in &amp; divides Kashmir.(2/3 to India &amp; 1/3 toPakistan). No one happy. Series of small wars occur. </li></ul> <ul><li>In 1990s, both nations get nuclear weapons. </li></ul> <p> 13. KASHMIR </p> <ul><li>Violence starts in 2001 election </li></ul> <ul><li>Pak hijacks India airliner.</li></ul> <ul><li>Ind troops kill people in camps &amp; tests long range missiles </li></ul> <ul><li>Oct 2001, 1 million troops line up along border.</li></ul> <ul><li>Still ongoing struggle .</li></ul> <p> 14. AFRICA AFRICA 15. AFRICA </p> <ul><li>Did not get independence after WW I . </li></ul> <ul><li>Euro cant afford </li></ul> <ul><li>to keep troops</li></ul> <ul><li>in colonies</li></ul> <ul><li>after WWII</li></ul> <p> 16. </p> <ul><li>New leaders (many educated in US) believeinMARCUS GARVEY. </li></ul> <ul><li>He stressedPAN-AFRICANISM: unity of African people </li></ul> <ul><li>Stress African</li></ul> <ul><li>heritage </li></ul> <p> 17. KWAME NKRUMAH </p> <ul><li>1957: The Gold Coast(Ghana), 1 stcolony gets independence from GB w/ help ofKWAME NKRUMAH who later became leader </li></ul> <p> 18. </p> <ul><li>17 by nationsby 1960.</li></ul> <ul><li>11 morebtw 1961-1965. </li></ul> <ul><li>Guerilla warfare helps Morocco, Mozambique,Angola &amp; Tunisia </li></ul> <p> 19. AFRICA SOUTH 20. </p> <ul><li>White run govt.</li></ul> <ul><li>1950s:AFRIKANNERS(SA whites) decide to make strongersegregation laws (separating races) calledAPARTHEID .</li></ul> <p> 21. </p> <ul><li>1960-Students protest peacefully at Sharpsville, troops open fire ,shooting kids in back . </li></ul> <ul><li>Blacks not allowed to participate in govt, hold certain jobs, must live in separate </li></ul> <ul><li>homelands.</li></ul> <p> 22. </p> <ul><li>NELSON MANDELAleader ofAFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS(formed to get poli reform) is arrested for fighting for rights.</li></ul> <ul><li>Nationsboycott</li></ul> <ul><li>SA &amp; ban SA</li></ul> <ul><li>from Olympics. </li></ul> <p> 23. </p> <ul><li>1993President de Klerkagrees to hold democratic elections (due to international pressure). </li></ul> <ul><li>Mandela elected Pres.( jail time 26 years </li></ul> <p> 24. NELSON MANDELLA 25. AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS 26. ISSUES IN AFRICA </p> <ul><li>1. single crop economy. live off of land.</li></ul> <ul><li>2.few factories, low literacy rates, few skilled workers </li></ul> <ul><li>3. hi pop growth (3% per yr)high birth rates &amp; death rates </li></ul> <p> 27. </p> <ul><li>4.Must import technology &amp; manufactured goods from West </li></ul> <ul><li>5. bribery &amp; corrupt officials </li></ul> <ul><li>6. Huge droughts createFAMINE - lack of food</li></ul> <ul><li>7. Uneven resources.</li></ul> <ul><li>8. Poverty </li></ul> <p> 28. </p> <ul><li>9.Fast urbanization- city growth leads to crime, overcrowding, pollution, not enough services.</li></ul> <ul><li>10.Aids- 300 mil by 2040. 8% of continent. of Nairobi </li></ul> <p> 29. NIGHTMARE IN RWANDA 30. MASSACRE OF THE TUTSIS 31. 32. </p> <ul><li>Civil wars begin btw groups when too many ethnic groupsput together in one area.</li></ul> <ul><li>GENONICDE : killing a specific ethnic group:</li></ul> <ul><li>RWANDA - Hutus kill 500,000 Tutsis on a rampage in 1994. Killed w/ machetes, fire &amp; torture. </li></ul> <p> 33. MIDDLE EAST 34. </p> <ul><li>Armenia wanted ind &amp; in 1915 Otto kills 600,000 people &amp; deports 500,000</li></ul> <ul><li>Victims ofGENOCIDEordeliberate mass murder of a racial, poli or cultural group. </li></ul> <ul><li>Also calledETHNIC CLEANSING. </li></ul> <ul><li>Otto collapses at end of WWI .</li></ul> <p> 35. </p> <ul><li>IBN SAUD &amp; estKingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. </li></ul> <ul><li>Standard Oil Co. finds oil inPersian Gulf bringing $$$ to area.</li></ul> <p> 36. ISRAEL PALESTINE 37. MIDDLE EAST CONFLICT </p> <ul><li>Palestine est by Jews 1000s yrs ago, but driven out by Romans</li></ul> <ul><li>Occupied by Muslim Palestinians for 100s yrs </li></ul> <ul><li>British Mandate</li></ul> <ul><li>in 1900s </li></ul> <p> 38. </p> <ul><li>1917 Brits issueBalfour Declaration , saying would support a national home for the Jews in Palestine</li></ul> <ul><li>Jews begin to move back to Palestine( believing</li></ul> <ul><li>to be promised land ). </li></ul> <p> 39. CONFLICT </p> <ul><li>GB rejects proposals for Jewish state &amp; limits immigration. </li></ul> <ul><li>Tensions grow as 1000s of Jews arrive .</li></ul> <ul><li>ZIONISM -</li></ul> <ul><li>movement to</li></ul> <ul><li>make a home for </li></ul> <ul><li>the Jews grows </li></ul> <p> 40. PALESTINE </p> <ul><li>1948: UN divides Palestine into Jewish &amp; Arab sections.</li></ul> <ul><li>Jews start nation ofIsraelon May 14, 1948. </li></ul> <ul><li>Arabs see this as betrayal .</li></ul> <p> 41. </p> <ul><li>100,000s Arabs (mostly Muslim) flee.</li></ul> <ul><li>Several Arab nations invade.</li></ul> <ul><li>Arabs dontrecognize Israel.</li></ul> <ul><li>Massacres, bombings, occur for years </li></ul> <p> 42. EGYPT 43. GAMAL ABDUL NASSER 44. NASSER &amp; EGYPT </p> <ul><li>GAMAL ABDUL NASSERtook control of Egypt (50s) </li></ul> <ul><li>Took Suez Canal from GB &amp; FR &amp; is supported by US </li></ul> <ul><li>Nasser promotedPAN-ARABISM -Arab unity, to improve standard of living, but oil r ich nations dont want to share wealth</li></ul> <p> 45. EGYPT &amp; ISRAEL </p> <ul><li>1967 Nasser blockades Israels shipping on Suez </li></ul> <ul><li>June 5, 1967 Israel launches air strikes on Egypt &amp; armies break thru blockade &amp; occupy Sinai Peninsula, WestBank of Jordan River &amp; Golan Heights</li></ul> <p> 46. ANWAR SADAT </p> <ul><li>Nasser dies 1970.</li></ul> <ul><li>ANWAR SADATnew leader of Egypt.</li></ul> <ul><li>1973 launches attack on Israel ,ending in 1974 ceasefire </li></ul> <p> 47. OPEC </p> <ul><li>1960: oil rich countries join together to control supply &amp; pricing of oil. </li></ul> <ul><li>OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries ) includes: UAE, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Libya, Kuwait &amp; more. </li></ul> <p> 48. OPEC </p> <ul><li>Increase &amp; decrease production for price control , ( affects economies around the world )</li></ul> <p> 49. ORGANIZATION of PETROLEUM Exporting Countries 50. </p> <ul><li>1964 (PLO)Palestinian Liberation Organizationforms to create Arab state.</li></ul> <ul><li>Led byYassir Arafatwho used terrorism </li></ul> <p> 51. </p> <ul><li>Arabs become more aggressive leading toINTIFADAor uprising ( which lasts thru the 1980s). </li></ul> <ul><li>1993 PLO &amp; Israel reach agreement. </li></ul> <ul><li>CreatePalestinian Authority </li></ul> <ul><li>which gave self rule in certain areas </li></ul> <p>PLO &amp; INTIFADA 52. PLO </p> <ul><li>Arafat made head of PA &amp; PLO recognizes Israel as nation. </li></ul> <ul><li>Many upset . </li></ul> <ul><li>New militant groups such asHAMASrise on both sides &amp; use terrorist tactics. </li></ul> <p> 53. INTIFADA 54. PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY 55. AYATOLLAH KHOMEINI &amp; IRAN 56. IRAN </p> <ul><li>AYATOLLAHRUHOLLAH KHOMEINIreplaces govt w/THEOCRACY - govt based on religious law.</li></ul> <ul><li>All laws based onKORAN( Islams religious book ). </li></ul> <ul><li>Very strict. Not a US ally. </li></ul> <ul><li>Militants take 52 Americans hostage </li></ul> <p> 57. SADDAM &amp; IRAQ 58. SADDAM HUSSEIN &amp; IRAQ </p> <ul><li>1979HUSSIENtakes power.</li></ul> <ul><li>Major tension btwIraq (Sunni Muslims) &amp; Iran (Shiite Muslims) </li></ul> <ul><li>Iraq attacks Iran in a brutal war.</li></ul> <p> 59. </p> <ul><li>1990- Iraq invades </li></ul> <ul><li>Kuwait for oil.</li></ul> <ul><li>Treats people badly </li></ul> <p> 60. </p> <ul><li>UN tells Saddam to pull out. US invades in Operation Desert Storm </li></ul> <ul><li>US &amp; UN troops defeat Iraq in a month, but Saddam left in power . </li></ul> <ul><li>Hoped people of Iraqwould overthrowSaddam </li></ul> <p> 61. IRAQ TODAY </p> <ul><li>US troops return to Iraq in March 2003over Iraqs support of terrorism, human rights abuses &amp; WMD. </li></ul> <ul><li>Saddam removed from power.</li></ul> <ul><li>Ongoing </li></ul> <p> 62. 63. AFGHANISTAN &amp; OSMA BIN LADEN </p> <ul><li>After WWII, king of Afghanistan had gets kicked out.</li></ul> <ul><li>New leaders try to create new govt </li></ul> <p> 64. </p> <ul><li>USSR invades &amp; occupy for 10 yrs.</li></ul> <ul><li>Forced to w/draw by US &amp; Pakistan. </li></ul> <ul><li>Warring rebel groups fight for control </li></ul> <ul><li>TALIBAN gets</li></ul> <ul><li>control in 1996 </li></ul> <p> 65. </p> <ul><li>Sets up strict Islamic control &amp; has major human rights abuses </li></ul> <ul><li>Support terrorism, including OSAMA BIN LADEN </li></ul> <p> 66. </p> <ul><li>STILL HUNTING FOR OSAMA </li></ul> <p> 67. WORLD TRADE CENTER TOWERS 68. 9/11/01 TIMELINE </p> <ul><li>** 8:45 AM Plane crashes into the north tower of the World Trade Center.</li></ul> <ul><li>**9:03 AM Plane crashes into the south tower of the World Trade Center.</li></ul> <ul><li>**9:17 AM The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) shuts down all New York City area airports. </li></ul> <p> 69. TIMELINE </p> <ul><li>**9:21 AM The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) halts all flights at U.S. airports. It is the first time in history that air traffic has been halted nationwide. </li></ul> <ul><li>**9:43 AM Plane crashes into the Pentagon. Evacuation begins immediately. </li></ul> <ul><li>**9:45 AM The White House evacuates. **10:05 AM The south tower of the World Trade Center collapses. </li></ul> <p> 70. TIMELINE </p> <ul><li>**10:10 AMA portion of the Pentagon collapses. </li></ul> <ul><li>**10:10 AM Plane crashes in Somerset County, Pennsylvania. </li></ul> <ul><li>**10:22 AM The State and Justice Departments, as well as the World Bank are evacuated. </li></ul> <ul><li>**10:28 AM The World Trade Centers north tower collapses. </li></ul> <ul><li>**10:45 AM All federal office buildings in Washington, D.C. are evacuated. </li></ul> <p> 71. TIMELINE </p> <ul><li>** 1:44 PM Five warships and two aircraft carriers are ordered to leave the U.S. Naval Station in Norfolk, Virginia to protect the East Coast. **4:10 PM Building 7 of the World Trade Center collapses.</li></ul> <p> 72. THE FLIGHTS </p> <ul><li>American Airlines Flight 11 From: Boston, Massachusetts To: Los Angeles, California Lives: 92 people on board Crashed into North Tower of World Trade Center at 8:45 AM United Airlines Flight 175 From: Boston, Massachusetts To: Los Angeles, California Lives: 65 people on board Crashed into South Tower of World Trade Center at 9:03 AM </li></ul> <p> 73. FLIGHTS </p> <ul><li>American Airlines Flight 77 From:Washington, D.C. (Dulles Airport) To: Los Angeles, CA Lives:64 people on board Crashed into the Pentagon at 9:43 AM </li></ul> <ul><li>United Airlines Flight 93 From: Newark, New Jersey To: San Francisco, California Lives:45 people on board Crashed into rural Pennsylvania (southeast of Pittsburgh </li></ul> <p> 74. VICTEMS </p> <ul><li>Victims came from more than 90 countries around the world. The following are thenumber of people who died at each site:</li></ul> <ul><li>World Trade Center: 2,823 presumed</li></ul> <ul><li>confirmed dead (includes airline passengers) </li></ul> <ul><li>Pentagon 125 (not including plane victims) Flight 1192 people on board Flight 17564 people on board Flight 7764 people on board Flight 9345 people on board </li></ul> <p> 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. </p>