INDEKS P TANAH. Phosphorus Index for Oregon & Washington Steve Campbell USDA - Natural Resources Conservation Service Portland, Oregon Dan Sullivan Oregon

Download INDEKS P TANAH. Phosphorus Index for Oregon & Washington Steve Campbell USDA - Natural Resources Conservation Service Portland, Oregon Dan Sullivan Oregon

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>INDEKS P TANAH Slide 2 Phosphorus Index for Oregon &amp; Washington Steve Campbell USDA - Natural Resources Conservation Service Portland, Oregon Dan Sullivan Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 3 Tujuan dan Konsep Indeks-P 1. Indeks P adalah alat-bantu untuk assess the potential for phosphorus transport from a field to surface waters. 2. Indeks P didasarkan pada soil properties, field characteristics, and management practices. SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 4 NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT CAN LEAD TO EXCESS ALGAE GROWTH Why is there a concern about phosphorus transport to surface waters? SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 5 Dampak Eutrofikasi terhadap Kualitas Air 1.Mengganggu kualitas air untuk perikanan, rekreasi, industri, dan air-minum. 2.Beberapa jenis blue-green algae membentuk senyawa yg bersifat toksik bagi hewan dan manusia. 3.Oxygen depletion during decay of aquatic plants. 4.Increases in pH can cause an increase in ammonia concentrations, which can be harmful to fish. SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 6 Management P : Then dan Now Then PROBLEM: Soils fix P in insoluble forms, limiting crop yields Now PROBLEM: Soils have a finite P sorption capacity. As we load a site with P, soluble P concentrations increase in runoff. SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 7 Then FACT: We can control P loss from agricultural sites by reducing soil erosion losses Now FACT: Enough P to cause eutrophication can occur because dissolved P can move in runoff, without soil erosion SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Management P : Then dan Now Slide 8 Then FACT: Phosphorus does not move through the soil Now FACT: P can move through soil and reach surface water via tile drains SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Management P : Then dan Now Slide 9 Proses Transport P In: Sharpley et al., 1999; ARS-149 SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 10 Sejarah Konsep Indeks P Developed by Lemunyon and Gilbert, USDA- SCS in 1993 (Journal of Production Agriculture 6:4) Adopted by NRCS - Oregon in 1994 using the national model Revision to the 1994 version in 2000 to reflect Pacific Northwest conditions. SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 11 Proses revisi Indeks P di Oregon dan Washington Dikembangkan oleh Komite yang beranggotakan dari: Kantor Konservasi sumberdaya alam Universitas Negeri Oregon Washington State University Industri Pertanian SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 12 Faktor-faktor dalam Indeks P di Oregon dan Washington Faktor-faktor Transport P 1.Potensi erosi tanah 2.Kelas Runoff 3.Bahanya banjir 4.Distance to perennial surface water / buffer width 5.Drainage bawah-permukaan SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 13 Faktor Sumber: 1.Nilai Uji P-tanah 2.Dosis aplikasi pupuk P : commercial and organic forms 3.Metode dan waktu aplikasi pupuk P SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Faktor-faktor dalam Indeks P di Oregon dan Washington Slide 14 Each P Index factor is assigned a weight based on its relative effect on P transport SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 15 Each P Index factor is assigned a weight based on its relative effect on P transport SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 16 Each P Index factor is assigned a P Loss Rating with corresponding points SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 17 Faktor erosi tanah (sheet &amp; rill) predicted by the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 18 P Index Runoff Class Factor Faktor ini didasarkan pada: Soil Hydrologic Group - considers water infiltration rate, depth to seasonal high water table, and depth to impermeable layers. Kemiringan lahan - the steeper the slope, the higher the potential for P transport. SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 19 Runoff Class Factor SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 20 Flooding Hazard Factor - from soil surveys or local information Flooding Hazard Factor - from soil surveys or local information SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 21 Faktor jarak thd perairan / Lebar penyangga SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 22 Uji P-tanah : Agronomic &amp; Environmental Interpretations In: Sharpley et al., 1999; ARS-149 SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 23 Faktor uji tanah untuk P P Index Points = (Soil Test P - 40) / 10 SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 24 Neraca Hara : Rumput hijauan Biosolids fertilization, agronomic rate to supply 160 lb available N per acre Applied Nutrients Removed Nutrients SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 25 P Application Rate Factor P Application Rate Factor P Index Points = (lb/ac P 2 O 5 ) / 50 SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 26 Faktor Metode Aplikasi P 1.Berdasarkan pada bagaimana dan waktu aplikasipupuk P ke tanah 2.Is the P source injected, incorporated with tillage, or surface applied ? 3.What time of year is the P source applied ? SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 27 Faktor Metode Aplikasi P SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 28 Potential for P Transport Source Factors Soil Erosion Runoff Surface &amp; Subsurface Soil Test P Rate of P applied fertilizer or manure Method &amp; timing of P application P Index Class low, medium, high, very high Phosphorus Index Adapted from SERA-IEG 17, No. 389 SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 29 In Sharpley et al., 1999; ARS-149 Indeks P mengidentifikasi daerah-daerah yang berpotensi tinggi untuk transport P Indeks Phosphorus SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 30 P Index Site Vulnerability Classes SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt Slide 31 Ringkasan 1.The Phosphorus Index is a planning tool to assess the potential for phosphorus transport from a field to surface waters. 2.Users of the P Index may include conservation planners, extension specialists, other agricultural professionals, and land managers. SUMBER: https://prod.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE.../nrcs142p2_041108.ppt </p>