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  • Inclusive Design for Street Vendors in India

    Centre for Urban Equity (CUE) CEPT University

    Ahmedabad

  • 2

    1. Introduction 3

    2. Issues and Challenges 4

    3. DesignProcess 6

    4. DesignParameters 8

    5. UrbanDesignInnovations 12

    6. PlanningInnovations 18

    Appendix:Design&theLaw 25

    Contents

    With Cardiff University PreparedunderanESRC/DFIDfundedresearchprogrammeentitledMakingSpaceforthePoor:Law,Rights,RegulationandStreetTradeinthe21stCentury.

    Contributors Prof. Darshini Mahadevia, Prof. Alison Brown, Suchita Vayas, Tejas Patel and Self Employed WomensAssociation(SEWA)

    Disclaimer The comments and opinions in this paper are of the author(s) and not of the Centre for Urban Equity orCEPT University.

    Centre for Urban Equity & Cardiff University - 2014

  • 3

    1. Introduction

    For generations, street vending has providedvibrancy, colour and a market outlet in Indiancities. However, as the 21st century progresses,thedynamic growthof city populations, the scaleofphysicaldevelopment,andglobalisingeconomiescreatenewchallengesforstreetvendors,whofacechanging political, economic and social contextsandincreasingcompetitionforspace.

    Today,modern street vending plays a vital role inthe urban economy, as a source of jobs, revenueand valueadded to theeconomy.Streetvendingprovidesaflexible link ineconomic supply chains,gives vitality to urban streets, and providesaffordable goods for many urban residents. Yetstreet vending exacerbates congestion at busysites(eg:citycentreswherecompetitionforspaceisacute)andvendors lackthefacilitiesfor decentwork.

    This Design Guide explores the challenges ofmanaging street vending in modern India, andexplores how inclusive urbandesign can generateimaginativeuseofspace.TheDesignGuideadoptsarights-basedapproachtodevelopment,buildingon the paradigm of the right to the city, whichargues for a right for all urban inhabitants to access thebenefitsofurbanlife,includingstreetvendors.TheguidedrawsonworkundertakenbytheCentrefor Urban Equity at CEPT University, and is partof the ESRC/DFID research programme entitledMakingSpaceforthePoor:Law,Rights,RegulationandStreetTradeinthe21stCentury,runbyCardiffUniversity .

    1 ESRC/DFIDAwardRES-167-25-0591

  • 4

    2. Issues and Challenges Opportunities of street vending

    Interestingcityenvironment

    Keeps street busy Outlet for formal sector goods

    Employment for many people

    GoodsavailableatconvenientlocationsProvidesaffordablegoods

    Street vending providesmany opportunities: goods and services at convenient locations, and affordableprices;self-employmentfor largenumbersofpeople; linksformalsectorwithclients;keepsstreetsclean,busyandsafe,createsaninterestingcityenvironment.

  • 5

    Problems for other street users

    Problems for street vendors

    No space for street vendorsNo street furniture

    Noutilities

    Noparkingspace

    Nostormwaterrun-offs

    Nowalkingspace

    Lackof space (eg: surfacedpavementsandsecurevendingsites)and lackof facilities (eg: shelter, streetdrainage,waterandtoilets,orstorage)causemajorproblemsforvendors.

    Vendingalsotakesupstreetspace,blockingpavementandparkingspaceandcausingcongestionforotherroad users.

  • 6

    3. Design Process

    Takingdesignworkonsite

    Vendorsindesignworkshops-SEWAAhmedabad Vendorsindesignworkshops-SEWAAhmedabad

    Vendorleaders,Khodiyarnagar

    Participatory design

    Street vendorshave innovative ideasofhow space conflicts canbe resolved, andwhen secured vendingspaceisassuredmanyvendorassociationscanmanagethevendingspace.Managementmayinclude,spaceallocation,collectionoffeesorlicensepayments,andcleaningandlittercollection.

  • 7

    Mappingstreetvending

    Recordingactivitiesatdifferenttimesofday

    Understanding the road space

    Understanding the context

    Context analysis

    Mapping the existing situation

    Thecontextanalysisexplorestheroleofthemarketinitswiderarea,lookingat: Surroundinglanduses(includinggeneratorsofpedestriantraffic) Existingaccessforpedestrians,autorickshaws,motorcycles,carsandmarketgoods Nearbylandmarksthatdrawpeopletothearea Typeofmarket,eg:citylevel,arealevel,roadside,busstandetc Maingoodssold:daily(eg:vegetables,perishables),consumergoods(eg:clothes,household,etc.) Understandthelinkages(supplies,customers,roleinurbanretailhierarchy)

    Detailedmarketmappingiscrucial,becauseoftenofficialplanningprocessesdonotshowwhatishappeninginformally,andthusthereisnodocumentedinformationonthescaleandsizeofvendingactivities.Marketmappingisbestundertakenwithorbyvendorassociations,whounderstandthedailyandweeklyfluctuationoftrade.Themappingshouldconsider:numbersofvendorsatdifferenttimes;typesofgoodssold;locationoffacilities,eg:toilets,taps.Anyredesignorrearrangementofspaceshouldaccommodateallexistingvendors,otherwisethoseexcludedwillsufferincreasedhardshipandpoverty.

  • 8

    4. Design Parameters Display space for different vending activities

    4) Small space required withplatformsellingflowers

    6) Temporary structure requiredwithplatformforbreadseller

    2) No storage and structure for vending on ground (display space 1.8X1.2m)

    7) Selling fruits on movingcart with temporary weatherprotection(displayspace1.8X1.05m)

    8) Cots and beds used to displaygoodsbyoldclothesvendors(displayspace2X1m)

    5) Platform created with boxes,heightismodifiedasperneed

    10) Designed moving cart to sell ice-cream

    9)Designedmovingcart

    1)Balloonman

    Study of street vending, Ahmedabad, 2011, CUE

    3) Using compound wall as todisplayclothes

    ThesesketchesshowsomeofthemostcommonformsofvendingdisplayinAhmedabad.AcharacteristicofstreetvendinginIndia,lesscommonelsewhere,isthewidespreaduseofthelari (cart) for display and moving goods.

  • 9

    Roadclosedonmarketday Roadopenonnormalweekday

    The sketches below showminimum cross-sections of streets used for vending if no obstructions occur.Pavementwidthsof2.0m-2.5mallowtwopeopletopass.Seatedvendorswithastallorstandusuallyrequireafurther2.0mtodisplaytheirgoods.

    Street space requirements

    Broad pavement

    Narrow pavement

    Temporary vending areas

    Source: STREET VENDORS IN INDIAN CITIES : strategy, toolbox and public space design : KANPUR AS AN EXAMPLE, 2011,http://issuu.com/felixx.design/docs/2011-11-03_kanpur_boek_small.

  • 10

    CityMarket

    N e i g h b o u r h o o d market

    Type of market or street vending area

    Thetypeofmarketorstreetvendingarea,andthespacerequirements,alsodependsonitsfunctionwithinthecityretailinghierarchy,thetypeofgoodssold-whethergeneralorspecialist,andthetimesofoperation.Eachmarketorstreetvendingareahasitsowncharacteristics,butfourbroadtypesofmarketcanbeidentified:

    City market - selling specialist clothes or goods; Neighbourhood market-sellingday-to-daygoods,suchasvegetables,meat,orbread; Street market -servingpassingtrade,eg:withcookedfood,vegetables,etc.; Hub market-atbusypedestrianlocations,eg:atransportnode,religiousplace,orhospital;

    Inaddition therearemanyspecialistmarkets,eg: sellingflowersorusedclothes. Temporarymarketsorvendingareasmaytakeplaceonspecificdaysoftheweek.Festivalmarketstakeplaceatspecifictimesofyear.

    Natural markets

    SEWA2,whichrepresents1millionself-employedworkers,hasdevelopedtheconceptofanatural market,aplacewithparticularpotentialforstreetvendingbecauseofitshighpedestrianflows.Thismaybeacitycentresite,abusterminal,areligiousbuildingoranimportantroadjunction.SEWAhasundertakenastudyidentifying165streetmarketsinAhmedabad3.Itisoftendifficulttorelocatevendorsfromnaturalmarkets,butimportanttoresolvetheconflictsthatarecommonatsuchsites.

    StreetMarket

    Hubmarkets(eg:transport stands)

    Streetmarket

    Citymarket

    Temporarymarket

    Neighbourhoodmarket

    2Self-EmployedWomensAssociation

    3CitationthecorrectcitationisintheReportofSurvey

    Design Parameters...ctd.

  • 11

    DifferenttypesofmarketsinAhmedabad:Studyoflocation,typeofvendinganddisplay,andtimeperiod

    Goods sold and time of operation

    Citycentre/specialistmarket

    Location

    Used clothes

    Goods Timing

    Neighbourhoodmarket Vegetables/cookedfood

    Streetmarket Newclothes,eveningmarket

    Hubmarket/publicleisuregarden Cookedfood

  • 12

    5. Urban Design Innovations

    Pedestrian area Service lane

    Frontage area

    2 m 2 m

    Vending area

    [1]

    Pedestrian area

    Storage

    Service lane

    Frontage zone

    2.3 m 1.7 m

    Vending area

    [2]

    Pedestrian area

    Storage

    Service lane

    Frontage zone

    2 m 2 m

    Vending area

    [3]

    Pavements Inclusivedesignoftenmeansmakingthebestuseofexistingspacethroughbetterspacemanagementortime-sharing(eg:foraneveningorSundaymarket).Thesketchesbelowshowdifferentwaysinwhicha4mpavementwidthcanaccommodatevending,withorwithoutfixedstructures.

    Lariwithshadeumbrellaandseatingarea,eg:forvegetables or household goods

    Lockablestorage,displayshelvesandsun/rainshade,eg: for phone accessories

    Cookedfooddisplaywithseatingarea,shade,andstorage space for utensils andingredients,eg:forroti

  • 13

    Small mobile cart on platform,eg:forsellingchai

    Moveableseat,displayboxesandumbrella,eg:forvegetable seller

    Wallandfloordisplaywithfixedshelter,eg:forT-shirts

    Moveableseatandumbrella,eg: for shoe-mender

    [4]

    Pedestrian area

    Mobile carts

    Service lane

    Frontage zone

    2.3 m 1.7 m

    Vending area

    Storage

    Pedestrian areaService lane

    Frontage zone

    2 m 2 mVending area

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