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  • Implementing RIP

    The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a classic distance vector Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) designed to exchange information within an autonomous system (AS) of a small network.

    This module describes the concepts and tasks to implement basic RIP routing. Cisco IOS XR software supports a standard implementation of RIP Version 2 (RIPv2) that supports backward compatibility with RIP Version 1 (RIPv1) as specified by RFC 2453.

    For RIP configuration information related to the following features, see the Related Documents, on page 20 section of this module.

    • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Layer 3 Virtual Private Network (VPN)

    • Site of Origin (SoO) Support

    For more information about RIP on the Cisco IOS XR software and complete descriptions of the RIP commands listed in this module, see the Related Documents, on page 20 section of this module. To locate documentation for other commands that might appear while performing a configuration task, search online in the Cisco IOS XR Commands Master List for the Cisco CRS Router.

    Note

    Feature History for Implementing RIP

    ModificationRelease

    This feature was introduced.Release 3.3.0

    Four-byte autonomous system (AS) number support was added.Release 3.5.0

    MD5 Authentication Using Keychain feature was added.Release 4.0.0

    • Prerequisites for Implementing RIP, page 2

    • Information About Implementing RIP, page 2

    • How to Implement RIP, page 7

    • Configuration Examples for Implementing RIP, page 17

    Cisco IOS XR Routing Configuration Guide for the Cisco CRS Router, Release 4.2.x 1

  • • Additional References, page 20

    Prerequisites for Implementing RIP You must be in a user group associated with a task group that includes the proper task IDs. The command reference guides include the task IDs required for each command. If you suspect user group assignment is preventing you from using a command, contact your AAA administrator for assistance.

    Information About Implementing RIP

    RIP Functional Overview RIP Version 1 (RIP v1) is a classful, distance-vector protocol that is considered the easiest routing protocol to implement. Unlike OSPF, RIP broadcasts User Datagram Protocol (UDP) data packets to exchange routing information in internetworks that are flat rather than hierarchical. Network complexity and networkmanagement time is reduced. However, as a classful routing protocol, RIP v1 allows only contiguous blocks of hosts, subnets or networks to be represented by a single route, severely limiting its usefulness.

    RIP v2 allows more information carried in RIP update packets, such as support for:

    • Route summarization

    • Classless interdomain routing (CIDR)

    • Variable-length subnet masks (VLSMs)

    • Autonomous systems and the use of redistribution

    • Multicast address 224.0.0.9 for RIP advertisements

    The metric that RIP uses to rate the value of different routes is hop count. The hop count is the number of routers that can be traversed in a route. A directly connected network has a metric of zero; an unreachable network has a metric of 16. This small range of metrics makes RIP an unsuitable routing protocol for large networks.

    Routing information updates are advertised every 30 seconds by default, and new updates discovered from neighbor routers are stored in a routing table.

    Only RIP Version 2 (RIP v2), as specified in RFC 2453, is supported on Cisco IOS XR software and, by default, the software only sends and receives RIP v2 packets. However, you can configure the software to send, or receive, or both, only Version 1 packets or only Version 2 packets or both version type packets per interface.

    Here are some good reasons to use RIP:

    • Compatible with diverse network devices

    • Best for small networks, because there is very little overhead, in terms of bandwidth used, configuration, and management time

    • Support for legacy host systems

    Cisco IOS XR Routing Configuration Guide for the Cisco CRS Router, Release 4.2.x 2

    Implementing RIP Prerequisites for Implementing RIP

  • Because of RIP’s ease of use, it is implemented in networks worldwide.

    VRF does not allow configuration of a group applied directly under router RIP. A group can be configured if it is applied globally or under VRF.

    Note

    Split Horizon for RIP Normally, routers that are connected to broadcast-type IP networks and that use distance-vector routing protocols employ the split horizonmechanism to reduce the possibility of routing loops. Split horizon blocks information about routes from being advertised by a router out of any interface from which that information originated. This behavior usually optimizes communications among multiple routers, particularly when links are broken.

    If an interface is configured with secondary IP addresses and split horizon is enabled, updates might not be sourced by every secondary address. One routing update is sourced per network number unless split horizon is disabled.

    The split horizon feature is enabled by default. In general, we recommend that you do not change the default state of split horizon unless you are certain that your operation requires the change in order to properly advertise routes.

    Note

    Route Timers for RIP RIP uses several timers that determine such variables as the frequency of routing updates, the length of time before a route becomes invalid, and other parameters. You can adjust these timers to tune routing protocol performance to better suit your internetwork needs, by making the following timer adjustments to:

    • The rate (time in seconds between updates) at which routing updates are sent

    • The interval of time (in seconds) after which a route is declared invalid

    • The interval (in seconds) during which routing information regarding better paths is suppressed

    • The amount of time (in seconds) that must pass before a route is removed from the RIP topology table

    • The amount of time delay between RIP update packets

    The first four timer adjustments are configurable by the timers basic command. The output-delay command changes the amount of time delay between RIP update packets. See Customizing RIP, on page 9 for configuration details.

    It also is possible to tune the IP routing support in the software to enable faster convergence of the various IP routing algorithms and quickly drop back to redundant routers, if necessary. The total result is to minimize disruptions to end users of the network in situations in which quick recovery is essential.

    Cisco IOS XR Routing Configuration Guide for the Cisco CRS Router, Release 4.2.x 3

    Implementing RIP Split Horizon for RIP

  • Route Redistribution for RIP Redistribution is a feature that allows different routing domains, to exchange routing information. Networking devices that route between different routing domains are called boundary routers, and it is these devices that inject the routes from one routing protocol into another. Routers within a routing domain only have knowledge of routes internal to the domain unless route redistribution is implemented on the boundary routers.

    When running RIP in your routing domain, you might find it necessary to use multiple routing protocols within your internetwork and redistribute routes between them. Some common reasons are:

    • To advertise routes from other protocols into RIP, such as static, connected, OSPF, and BGP.

    • To migrate from RIP to a new Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) such as EIGRP.

    • To retain routing protocol on some routers to support host systems, but upgrade routers for other department groups.

    • To communicate among a mixed-router vendor environment. Basically, you might use a protocol specific to Cisco in one portion of your network and use RIP to communicate with devices other than Cisco devices.

    Further, route redistribution gives a company the ability to run different routing protocols in work groups or areas in which each is particularly effective. By not restricting customers to using only a single routing protocol, Cisco IOS XR route redistribution is a powerful feature that minimizes cost, while maximizing technical advantage through diversity.

    When it comes to implementing route redistribution in your internetwork, it can be very simple or very complex. An example of a simple one-way redistribution is to log into a router on which RIP is enabled and use the redistribute static command to advertise only the static connections to the backbone network to pass through the RIP network. For complex cases in which you must consider routing loops, incompatible routing information, and inconsistent convergence time, you must determine why these problems occur by examining how Cisco routers select the best path when more than one routing protocol is running administrative cost.

    Default Administrative Distances for RIP Administrative distance is used as a measure of the trustworthiness of the source of the IP routing information. When a dynamic routing protocol such as RIP is configured, and you want to use the redistribution feature to exchange routing information, it is important to know the default administrative distances for other route sources so that you can set the appropriate distance weight.

    This table lists the Default Administrative Distances of Routing Protocols.

    Table 1: Default Administrative Distances of Routing Protocols

    Administrative Distance ValueRouting Protocols

    0Connected interface

    0Static r