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Impact of Land Use Change on Carbon Stock and GHG Emissions in New Oil Palm Plantings

- Case Studies from Musim Mas Group -

By Dr Gan Lian Tiong, Musim Mas Group Head of Sustainability

Overthepastfewdecadestheoilpalmhasbeenoneofthemostrapidlyexpandingtropicalcropsintheworld.Ithasbecomethedriveroflandusechangeleadingtodegradationofhabitatsforbiodiversityandecologicalservices(Koh &Wilcove 2008).

Oilpalmisreportedtoberesponsiblefor16%oftotalGHGemissionsfromlandusechangeandpeatoxidationinIndonesia(Agus etal.2013).

Expansionofoilpalmisexpectedtocontinuetofeedincreasingworldpopulation:anadditional12millionhectareswillbeneededby2050(Corley,2009).

Introduction

It is an imminent RSPO requirement that new plantation developmentsmust estimate land use change, identify major potential sources ofemissionsanddevelopalanduseplantominimizenetGHGemissions.

The revisedP&C2013 requiresnewplantationdevelopments toconduct landusechange(C7.3.2)andestimatethecarbonstockoftheproposeddevelopmentarea(C.7.8.1).

Majorpotentialsourcesofemissionsthatmayresultdirectlyfromthedevelopmentbeidentifiedandestimated(C.7.8.1).

AplantominimizenetGHGemissionsbyavoidanceoflandareaswithhighcarbonstocksand/orbysequestrationoptionsmustbedeveloped(C7.8.2).

RSPO Carbon Assessment Procedure for New Plantings

Provides a practical methodology to growers.

For estimating the carbon stock changes (above and below ground) and GHG emissions in new oil palm development.

Developing plans to minimise loss of carbon stocks and GHG emissions with land conversion.

.

Twocasestudiesarereportedinthispresentation.

Casestudy1isanewoilpalmplantationlocatedinWestKalimantan.ThiswasreportedinNPPon7January,2011.

Thelandusechangeanalysisisbasedona2010Landsat 7ETM+satelliteimageforthebeforecommencementofplantingdataandafteroilpalms havebeenplantedfrom2012 2014using8TTM+satelliteimagery2014.

Casestudy2islocatedinCentralKalimantaninvolvingnewoilpalmplanting,reportedinNPPon13December,2012.

The landuse change analysis isdetermined bymapping the planned oil palmexpansionareasfrom20132015onthe7ETM+satelliteimagery2012.

TheimpactoflandusechangeoncarbonstockandGHGemissionsisexaminedusingthefollowingmethods:

LandcoveranalysisisbasedonLansat satelliteimageries.

Landusechangeanalysisisbasedonchangeinlandcoverarisingfromthenewoilpalmplanting.

CarbonstockvaluesarecalculatedusingdefaultvaluesoftheRSPOPalmGHGcalculator.

GHGemissionsarecalculatedusingtheRSPOPalmGHG calculator(v1.2.andv2).

Remotesensingisusedtodeterminelandcoverandlandusechangeinnewoilpalmdevelopment.

Land Use Change Analysis

Approach to Estimation of GHG Emissions

Lansat Satellite Imagery

Land Cover Analysis

Carbon Stock Analysis

GHG Emissions Analysis

Lansat Satellite Imagery

Land Cover Analysis

Approach to Estimation of GHG Emissions

100.009,000.00Total

2.19197.31Openland

29.952,695.65Shrubland

61.815,562.89Mixedrubbercultivation

6.05544.14Degradedsecondaryforest

%HaLandCover

Land cover estimated from 7 ETM+ Landsat satellite

Landsat 7 ETM+ Satellite 2010

An example of land cover analysis using satellite image Case study 1

Verification was carried out as follow: Overlaying HCV map on Landsat image. Overlaying Landsat images and participatory survey map. Overlaying the Landsat images and HCV maps over the participatory survey map.

1009,000.001009,000.00Total

3241.642197.31Openland

504,509.87302,695.65Shrubland

474,248.49625,562.89Mixedrubbercultivation

006544.14Degradedsecondaryforest

%Ha%Ha

FromSurveyDataFromLandsat DataLandCover

Verification of land cover based on the data from participative survey by the Public Relation Team

1009,000.00Total

3241.64Openland

443,965.73Shrubland

474,248.49Mixedrubbercultivation

6544.14Degradedsecondaryforest

%HaLandCover

Reconciled Land Use Classification in 2010

Land Use Change Analysis

Approach to Estimation of GHG Emissions

Land use planning

Case study 1 Case study 2

2,635.02(29.2%)

4,920.18(54.7%)

1,043.04(11.6%)

401.76(4.5%)

9,000.00(100%)

Total

23.34192.7825.520241.64Openland

1,961.591,993.5710.5703,965.73Shrubland

564.062,677.491,006.9504,248.49Mixedrubbercultivation

86.0356.350401.76544.14Degradedsecondaryforest

Plantedarea(Oilpalm)

Shrubland

Mixedrubber

cultivation

Degradedsecondaryforest

Changesin2014Total

Area(ha)2010

LandCover

275 ha of peat land and 402 ha of degraded secondary forest were left unplanted and set-aside.

Land Use Change Analysis Case Study 1

1%51%6%37%5%Percentage

123.928229.23920.436,049.39739.88100%

16,062.85Total

02,470.710015%2,470.71Plantedarea(oilpalm)

123.92258.940002%382.86Openland

0546.48920.43009%1,466.91Cultivatedland

04,953.1006,049.39068%11,002.49Shrubland

0000739.885%739.88Degradedsecondaryforest

Openland

Plantedarea

(oilpalm)

Cultivatedland

ShrublandDegradedsecondaryforest

Landusechangefromoilpalmplanting20132015(Ha)

%Areain

2012(Ha)LandCover

Land Use Change Analysis Case Study 2

7,637.35 ha of peat land and 740 ha of degraded secondary forest are left unplanted and set-aside

Approach to Estimation of GHG Emissions

Carbon Stock Analysis

54.1963.41CStock/Ha

487,732.56570,710.259,000.009,000.00Total

131,751.000.00502,635.020.00Plantedarea(PalmOil)

0.000.000.000.00241.64Openland

226,328.28182,423.58464,920.183,965.73Shrubland

78,228.00318,636.75751,043.044,248.49Mixedrubbercultivation

51,425.2869,649.92128401.76544.14Degradedsecondaryforest

2014201020142010

TotalCarbonStock(TonC)

CarbonStock/ha

(Tonha1 )*

TotalArea(ha)LandCover

Above and Below Ground Carbon Stock (Ton C) Case Study 1

*Source : RSPO Carbon Assessment Tool for New Oil Palm Planting, June 2014.

53.1351.94CStock/Ha

853,470.33834,372.9316,062.8516,062.85Total

411,461.50123,535.50508,229.232,470.71Plantedarea(oilpalm)

0.000.000123.92382.86Openland

69,032.25110,018.2575920.431,466.91Cultivatedland

278,271.94506,114.54466,049.3911,002.49Shrubland

94,704.6494,704.64128739.88739.88Degradedsecondaryforest

2015201220152012

TotalCarbonStockCarbonStock/ha(TonC/Ha)*

TotalArea(Ha)LandCover

Above and Below Ground Carbon Stock (Ton C) Case Study 2

*Source : RSPO Carbon Assessment Tool for New Oil Palm Planting, June 2014.

Approach to Estimation of GHG Emissions

GHG Emissions Analysis

5.9213,582.25Total**

SequestrationinConservationArea6

15.8436,342.90CropSequestration5

Sinks

PeatOxidation4

0.41944.04FuelConsumption3

0.33762.64Fertilizer(mineral)manufacture&transport2

9.1821,053.92LandConversion1

tCO2e/hatCO2e

EmissionsEmissionsSources

Plantation/FieldEmissionsandSinks

No

Sources of GHG emissions from new oil palm planting Case Study 1 (PalmGHG v 1.21)

14.5183,642.42Total**

SequestrationinConservationArea6

22.49129,535.14CropSequestration5

Sinks

PeatOxidation4

0.03153.64FuelConsumption3

1.106,310.82Fertilizer(mineral)manufacture&transport2

6.8539,428.26LandConversion1

tCO2e/hatCO2e

EmissionsEmissionsSources

Plantation/FieldEmissionsandSinks

No

Sources of GHG emissions from new oil palm planting Case Study 2 (PalmGHG v 1.21)

1.880.5313.2674,358.16TOTAL

0.000.000.0178.00MillFuelConsumption9

0.000.000.000.00POME(Methanecapture)8

MillOperationEmission

0.000.000.03153.64Fuelconsumption7

0.170.051.257,206.26N2Ofromfertilizer(mineral)application6

0.140.041.106,310.82Fertiliser (mineral)manufacturetransport5

EstateOperationEmission

0.000.000.000.00Peatoxidation4

0.000.000.000.00Sequestrationinconservationareas3

3.130.9022.49129,535.14CropSequestration2

0.940.276.8539,428.26LandConversion1

LandUseEmission

tCO2e/tCPOtCO2e/tFFBtCO2e/hatCO2eDescriptionNo

Sources of GHG emissions from new oil palm planting Case Study 2 (PalmGHG v 2)

Discussion and Conclusions

The case studies have indicated that land cover change has a significantimpact on the carbon stock values and GHG emissions in new oil palmplantings.

Forest areas and peatland are associated with high emission factors.Avoidance of these from plantingwill significantly help reduce the GHGemissionsinthenewoilpalmplanting.

Landcoverchangefromthosewithahighercarbonstockvalue(e.g.mixedrubberareas)tothosewithalowercarbonstockvalue(e.g.shrubland)willresultsinlowercarbonstocksintheafterplantingperiod.

Remotesensingmethodsprovideaquick,practicalandarelativelylowcostway to determine land use and analyze land use change. The methodprovidesagoodindicationofoutcomes.

ThePalmGHG CalculatorisdesignedtoestimateGHGemissionsfromoilpalmcultivationandfieldoperations.

ItisalsodesignedtoestimateGHGemissionsfromnewoilpalmplantings.

Itenablesidentificationofthepotentialsourcesofemissions thatmayresultdirectlyfromthedevelopment.

ReducingGHGemissions from landuse changewillhelpmitigate climatechangeandcontributesignificantlytonationalemissionreductiontargets.

Accountingforpotentialemissionsfromnewoilpalmplantationexpansionis essential in arriving at aplantingplanwhichwouldminimize netGHGemissions.

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