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  • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

    and Animal Science

    Department of Clinical Sciences

    Impact of cardiorespiratory diseases on morbidity and mortality in Irish wolfhounds

    Lovisa Orleifson

    Uppsala 2016

    Degree Project 30 credits within the Veterinary Medicine Programme

    ISSN 1652-8697 Examensarbete 2016:5

  • Impact of cardiorespiratory diseases on morbidity and mortality in Irish wolfhounds Inverkan av kardiorespiratoriska sjukdomar p sjuklighet och ddlighet hos irlndska varghundar

    Lovisa Orleifson Supervisor: Jens Hggstrm, Department of Clinical Sciences

    Assistant Supervisor: Ingrid Ljungvall, Department of Clinical Sciences

    Assistant Supervisor: Katja Hglund, Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry

    Examiner: Henrik Rnnberg, Department of Clinical Sciences

    Degree Project in Veterinary Medicine Credits: 30 Level: Second cycle, A2E Course code: EX0736 Place of publication: Uppsala Year of publication: 2016 Number of part of series: Examensarbete 2016:5 ISSN: 1652-8697 Online publication: http://stud.epsilon.slu.se Key words: irish wolfhound, mortality, dilated cardiomyopathy, pneumonia Nyckelord: irlndsk varghund, ddlighet, dilaterad kardiomyopati, lunginflammation

    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet

    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science

    Department of Clinical Sciences

    http://stud.epsilon.slu.se/

  • SUMMARY

    Irish wolfhounds have the highest probability of death at a young age of all breeds, according

    to Swedish animal actuarial data. The breed is 29 times more likely to die from cardiac causes

    than the baseline breed. In European studies, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is shown to be

    hereditary in Irish wolfhounds with a prevalence ranging from 24 43 %. Studies have also

    shown that the breed has an increased risk to die from tumors, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal

    and respiratory diseases. Few studies describe respiratory diseases in Irish wolfhounds, but

    studies conducted in Australia and North America show that pneumonia has a high incidence

    in the breed and that several cases have a fatal outcome.

    The aim of this study was to study impact of different health issues on morbidity and mortality

    in Swedish Irish wolfhounds, with focus on DCM and pneumonia. Questionnaires were sent to

    owners of purebred Irish wolfhounds born during 2006 2008. A total of 100 questionnaires

    were completed resulting in an overall response rate of 36 %. The study population consisted

    of 49 males and 51 females and among those 72 dogs were dead and 28 dogs were still alive at

    the end of the study.

    The results from this study showed that the most common causes of death were tumors, heart

    disease and pneumonia. These findings are partly supported by previous studies. Our study

    revealed pneumonia as one of the most common causes of death, which has not been shown

    before. Sixteen percent of the dogs included in the study were affected by DCM. Percentage of

    dogs with pneumonia on at least one occasion during their lifetime was 37 % and a majority of

    them had recurrent episodes. DCM was more common in males than in females, however, the

    difference was not significant. No sex predisposition was found regarding pneumonia.

    This study showed that DCM and pneumonia are common in Irish wolfhounds in Sweden.

    Because these diagnoses also have been reported as the most common causes of death, they

    should be given attention in the course of improving the general health in the breed. Further

    research is warranted regarding etiology, diagnosis and different treatment regimens concerning

    respiratory disease in the breed.

  • SAMMANFATTNING

    Enligt frskringsstatistik har svenska irlndska varghundar hgre sannolikhet att d vid yngre

    lder jmfrt med andra raser. De lper en 29 gnger hgre risk att d av hjrtsjukdom.

    Europeiska studier har visat att dilaterad kardiomyopati (DCM) r rftligt i rasen och har en

    hg prevalens (24 43 %). Studier har ocks visat att irlndska varghundar har en kad risk att

    d av tumrsjukdomar, sjukdomar i rrelseapparaten samt av gastrointestinala- eller

    respiratoriska sjukdomar. F studier finns tillgngliga rrande lunginflammationer i rasen, men

    utlndska studier har visat att incidensen sannolikt r hg och att sjukdomen kan ha en ddlig

    utgng.

    Mlet med denna studie var att underska sjuklighet och ddlighet hos svenska irlndska

    varghundar med srskild fokus p DCM och lunginflammation. Enkter skickades ut till gare

    av renrasiga irlndska varghundar fdda under ren 2006 2008. Totalt besvarades 100 enkter

    vilket resulterade i en svarsfrekvens p 36 %. Studiepopulationen bestod av 49 hanar och 51

    tikar, varav 72 hundar var dda och 28 hundar fortfarande i livet vid studiens slut.

    Resultaten frn denna studie visade att de vanligaste ddsorsakerna var tumrsjukdom,

    hjrtsjukdom och lunginflammation. Detta verensstmmer delvis med tidigare studier. Vr

    studie visade att lunginflammation var en av de vanligaste ddsorsakerna, vilket inte har visats

    tidigare. Av hundarna i studiepopulationen hade 16 % DCM. Andelen av hundarna som varit

    drabbade av lunginflammation vid minst ett tillflle var 37 % och majoriteten av dessa hade

    terkommande episoder. DCM var vanligare hos hanar jmfrt med hos tikar men skillnaden

    var ej signifikant. Gllande lunginflammation frelg ingen tydlig knspredisposition.

    Denna studie visade att DCM och lunginflammation r vanligt hos irlndska varghundar i

    Sverige. Eftersom dessa diagnoser ocks rapporterats vara ngra av de vanligaste

    ddsorsakerna, br de uppmrksammas i arbetet med att frbttra hlsan i rasen. Ytterligare

    forskning kring respiratoriska sjukdomar i rasen behvs med avseende p etiologi,

    diagnosstllande och olika behandlingsregimer.

  • CONTENT

    Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 1

    Literature review ........................................................................................................................ 1

    The canine heart ..................................................................................................................... 1

    Congestive heart failure ..................................................................................................... 2

    Cardiomyopathy ..................................................................................................................... 2

    Dilated cardiomyopathy ......................................................................................................... 3

    Clinical signs ...................................................................................................................... 3

    Diagnosis ............................................................................................................................ 4

    Prognosis ............................................................................................................................ 4

    Dilated cardiomyopathy in Irish wolfhounds ......................................................................... 5

    Inheritance .......................................................................................................................... 5

    Other health issues in Irish wolfhounds ................................................................................. 6

    Osteosarcoma ..................................................................................................................... 6

    Pneumonia .......................................................................................................................... 6

    Other diseases ..................................................................................................................... 7

    Material and methods ................................................................................................................. 7

    Study design ........................................................................................................................... 7

    Data management ................................................................................................................... 8

    Statistical analyses .................................................................................................................. 8

    Results ........................................................................................................................................ 9

    Cause of death ........................................................................................................................ 9

    Dilated cardiomyopathy ....................................................................................................... 10

    Pneumonia ............................................................................................................................ 11

    Discussion ................................................................................................................................ 12

    Cause of death ...................................................................................................................... 13

    Dilated cardiomyopathy ....................................................................................................... 14

    Pneumonia ................................

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