imagery rehearsal self-efficacy imagery rehearsal self-efficacy and the performance of australian

Download Imagery Rehearsal Self-Efficacy Imagery rehearsal self-efficacy and the performance of Australian

If you can't read please download the document

Post on 24-Jun-2020




0 download

Embed Size (px)


  • Imagery Rehearsal Self-Efficacy and

    the Performance of Austrahan Rules

    Football Skills

    Paid James Michael Callery

    Dip. Phys. Ed, (MelbUnL) TSTC (MelbUni)

    B,Eco/PoI (MonMelb) B.A(MonMelb)

    This thesis is presented in Mfilment of the requirements of the degree of

    Doctor of Philosophy

    Department of Physical Education and Recreation Faculty of Human Development

    Victoria University of Technology


  • FTS THESIS 796.336 CAL 300010047^4068 Gallery, Paul James Michael Imagery rehearsal self-efficacy and the performance of Australian

  • Abstract

    This thesis examined imagery, self-efficacy, and performance. A single-case,

    multiple-baseline study presented an imagery rehearsal program on kick passing to ten

    Austrahan Football League (AFL) players over half a competitive season. Kicking

    performance, assessed by three expert judges, increased for eight players after

    imagery rehearsal was introduced, according to visual analysis of individual graphs.

    Significant spUt middle technique analyses (p

  • group performed significantly better than the control group at post-test, while self-

    efficacy was significantly higher for the imagery group for all measures once

    treatment started. LISREL indicated significant paths (p

  • Acknowledgements

    I sincerely thank Dr. Tony Morris, my principal supervisor, for his professional

    guidance, encouragement, attention to detail, and fiiendly advice over the last six

    years. Tony went to great pains to make himself available for consultations at short

    notice and was even happy to provide such assistance at his own home. Tony refused

    to "leave any stone unturned" in all aspects of this presentation. I will always be

    indebted to Tony for his diligence and fiiendship in the latter part of my professional

    development. I know that Tony, I, and om: families have developed a lasting

    fiiendship throughout this marathon task.

    The most significant people to show appreciation to, for their support and

    encouragement, throughout the production of this thesis, are, my wife Kate, and my

    children, Katie, Ben, and Matt. They have endured my back for countless hours, as I

    have sat and typed at the word processing keyboard without ever complaining or

    becoming upset. Now is then turn for the good things that have been placed on "the

    back burner". May the words "not now" or "a httle later" never be uttered by me to

    them again.

    Liz Homer "Head" of the Human Movement Department, in which I teach,

    and Dannielle McKeman "Head" of the University, have been a tower of support as

    well as providing a calming influence. Liz never finds any academic's demand too

    challenging and is a whiz at reading our handwriting. Margaret Burgess, provided the

    same spontaneous support to me when Liz Homer departed ACU on maternity leave.

    Margaret and Carolyn Billings provided terrific direction when computing problems

  • arose. I am extremely grateful to Bill Howarth for his usual "co-operation" with the

    printing of draft after draft, and finally this final document.

    Special thanks to Dr. Peter Rendell and Dr. Neil Diamond for then assistance

    in the statistical analysis and the stmctural equation modelling. Thanks also To Dr.

    Mark Anderson, my second supervisor, for his advice and for also introducing me to

    the "htde book" The Elements of Style.

    I will always be indebted to Professor Bemie Daffey, Associate Professor

    Kevin Burke, and Associate Professor John Saunders for encouraging me to pursue

    my career path and enabling me to conq)lete these studies.

    Finally, I extend my appreciation to players and coaches who, by their

    cooperation, made it possible for me to conduct my research in a manner that

    facilitated smooth sailing.

  • Table of Contents

    List of Tables (i)

    List of Figures (ii)

    Chapter 1: Introduction 1

    Chapter 2: Literature Review 3

    2.1 Introduction to the Literature Review 3

    2.2 Definitions 4

    2.3i Theories of How Imagery Works 8

    2.3.1 Psychoneuromuscular Theory 9

    2.3.2 Symbolic Learning Theory 10

    2. J. 3 Bioinformational or Information Processing Theory 11

    2.3.4 Arousal or Activation Theory 12.

    2.4 Measurement 14

    2.5 ImgeryUsein Sport 20

    2.6 Research 21

    2.6./1 Research on Mental Practice and Imagery 21

    2.6.2 Analogue Tasks 23

    2.6.3 Closed Skills out of the Conq)etitive Environment 24

    2.514 Closed Skills in Competition 25

    2.6.5 Open Skills out of Competition 26

    2.6.6 Open Skills in Competition 27

  • 2.6.7 ~* Research on Imagery When Combined with other.., 29


    2.6.8 - Motivational Role of Imagery 33

    2.7 Problems with Imagery Theory and Research 34

    2.8 Single-Case Research Designs 40

    2.9 Summary 45

    2.10 The Present Thesis 47

    Chapter 3: The Effect of Imagery on the Performance of an

    Austrahan Rules Football Skill 48

    3.1 Introduction 48

    3.2 Methods 50

    3.2.1 Participants 50

    3.2.2 Design 41

    3.2.3 Treatment 53 Diary of Reactions to Treatment 58 Football Imagery Questionnaire 60

    3.2.4 Measures 63 Performance Ratmg 63 Social Vahdation Questionnaire 68

    3.2.5 Procedure 68

    3.3 Results .....71

    3.4 Discussion and Conclusions 88

  • Chapter 4: The Effects of an Imagery Program on Self Efficacy and

    Performance of an Austrahan Rules Football Skill 99

    4.1 Introduction 99

    4.1.1 Imphcations of the Study of Imagery Rehearsal

    and Disposal Skills in Austrahan Rules Football 99

    4.1.2 Self-Efficacy and its Relationship to Imagery and

    Performance 103

    4.2 Methods 105

    4.2.1 Participants 105

    4.2.2 Design 105

    4.2.3 Task 117

    4.2.4 Imagery Program. 118 Imagery Sesssions 118 Diary 123

    4.2.5 Measures 124 Performance Scores 124 Self-Efficacy Ratings 125

    .5.3 Social Vahdation 126

    4.2.6 Procedure 127

    4.3 Results 130

    4.3.1 Front and Centres 130

    4.3.2 Self-Efficacy 141

    4.3.3 Social Vahdation 151

    4.4 Discussion and Conclusions 152

  • Chapter 5 : The Relationship between Imagery Rehearsal,

    Self-Efficacy and Performance of a Goal Kicking Skill 167

    5.1 Introduction 167

    5.2 Methods 171

    5.2.1 Participants 171

    5.2.2 Design.. 171

    5.2.3 Treatment 172 Content of Imagery Program. 172 Self-Report Imagery Rehearsal Evahiation 174 Diary 174

    5.2.4 Measures 175 Goal Kicking Performance 175 Self-Report Goal Kicking Self-Efficacy 177 Social Validation 179

    5.2.5 Procedure 180

    5.3 Results 185

    5.3.1 Goal Kicking Performance 186

    5.3.2 Self-Efficacy for Goal Kicking 190

    5.3.3 Social Vahdation Results 195

    5.4 Discussion and Conclusion 196

  • Chapter 6 : Causal Modelling Imagery, Self-Efficacy and

    Performance 203

    6.1 Introduction 203

    6.2 Stmctural Equation Modelling 205

    6.2.1 General Princq)les 205

    6.2.2 Assessment of Fit 209

    6.3 Stmcture ofthe Model 211

    6.4 Methods 217

    6.4.1 Participants, Treatment, Measures and

    Procedure for Data Collection 217

    6.4.2 Stuctural Equation Modellmg Methods 217

    6.5 Results 218

    6.5.1 Goodness of Fit 223

    6.6 Discussion and Conclusions 229

    Chapter 7: Thesis Conclusion and Final Comments 243

    7.1 Introduction 243

    7.2 Conclusions firom Studies 1, 2, 3, and Stmctural

    Equation Modelling 243

    7.3 Imphcations for Theory and Research 245

    7.4 Methodological Considerations 253

    7.5 Future Research 266

    7.6 Imphcations For Practice 274

    7.7 Concluding Remark 276

  • (i)

    List of Tables

    1. Verbal Descriptions and Points Scored for Disposals 65

    2. Means and Standard Deviations for Disposal Skills for

    Baseline and Treatment Periods 72

    3. Impotant Attributes of Front and Centres in Australian

    Rules Football Games 121

    4. Means and Standard Deviations for Front and Centres for

    Baseline and Treatment Periods 131

    5. Treatment Self-Efficacy Ratings Compared to BaseUne

    Self-EfTicacy Ratings 142

    6. Means of Goal Kicking Performance for Participants in the

    Experimental and Control Groups 187

    7. Means and Standard Deviations for Self-Efficacy across Six

    Repeated Measures 192

    8. Newman-Keuls Post-Hoc Analysis for the Imagery

    Rehearsal Group 194

  • (ii)

    List of Figures

    1. Staggered introduction of intervention on a weekly basis

    in single-case, multiple-baseline design 52

    2. An example of a player's mean disposal scores per game for

    Australian Rules Football Games 10 to 24,1991 67

    3. Mean disposal scores per game of player 1 for Austr


View more >