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PERPUSTAKAAN UMP Ill III Ill I I II Ill Il I 0000074825 CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CARBON NANOPARTICLE CONVERTS FROM WOOD FIBER WASTE VIA SUBCRITICAL LIQUID AND PYROLYSIS CONDITIONS. by NTJTRULILLIANI BINTI MOIID SHUKRI A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Chemical Engineering. Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering Universiti Malaysia Pahang PERPUSTARAAN I III 6 UNVERSrn M/LAV5A PAHANG' FEBRUARY 2013 07482 J No. Panggilan TP Tarikh S1 2 3 MA 013 L55 rs

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  • PERPUSTAKAAN UMP

    Ill III Ill I I II Ill Il I 0000074825

    CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CARBON NANOPARTICLE

    CONVERTS FROM WOOD FIBER WASTE VIA SUBCRITICAL LIQUID AND

    PYROLYSIS CONDITIONS.

    by

    NTJTRULILLIANI BINTI MOIID SHUKRI

    A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering

    in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering

    in Chemical Engineering.

    Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering

    Universiti Malaysia Pahang

    PERPUSTARAAN I III 6 UNVERSrn M/LAV5A PAHANG'

    FEBRUARY 2013 07482 JNo. Panggilan

    TP Tarikh S1

    2 3 MA 013 L55

    rs

  • ABSTRACT

    Hydrothermal carbonization and pyrolysis are the process transforms into a

    useful material in the life and environmental practice. In contrast, both of the process

    are different in term of reaction. Hydrothermal carbonization process is to remove

    water contain and pyrolysis to remove volatile content in product. The problem of

    abundant volume of wood fibre waste production which normally being dumped to

    the landfill. Thus wood manufacturing should control the output product to avoid

    natural pollution from illegal activities. The objective of this research is to determine

    the amount of carbon particle in each process This process not only forms carbon

    element but other chemical compound such as hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur in

    small ratio. This research is also proposed to avoid environmental pollution from

    give harm to human and economic aspect. Hydrothermal carbonization is conducted

    by supercritical unit and pyrolysis conducted by furbnace with temperature, volume

    and time control. The required temperature for this research is 200 C and

    proportional with time in 4 hours. Each experiment needs to change the volume of

    material to 1 50g ang 175g. After completing experiment, the product analyses using

    elemental analysis and TGA will be carry out to determine the chemical composition

    and the carbon present in product. Hydrothermal carbonization and pyrolysis are

    synthesis technique to convert waste material into a variety of application. Likewise,

    recycle a wood fibre waste to generate new application that gives a big impact to the

    economy and environment. The management of waste can be improved by the

    friendly technology that applies to avoid environmental problem.

    v

  • ABSTRAK

    Pengkarbonan hidroterma dan pirolisis ialah proses berubah menjadi satu

    bahan yang berguna dalam bidui dan alam sekitar. Sebaliknya, kedua-dua proses jadi

    berbeza di istilah tindak balas. Proses perigkarbonan hidroterma ialah untuk

    membuang air mengandungi dan pirolisis membuang kandungan turun naik dalam

    produk. Masalah jumlah amat banyak pengeluaran sia-sia serat kayu yang biasanya

    dibuang ke bahan buangan. Oleh itu, pembuatan kayu patut mengawal keluaran

    output mengelak pencemaran semulajadi dari kegiatan haram. Objektif

    penyelidikanini ialah untuk menentukan zarah banyaknya karbon dalam setiap

    proses. mi bukan sahaja membentuk unsur karbon tetapi sebatian kimia lam seperti

    hidrogen, nitrogen dan sulfur dalam nisbah kecil. Penyelidikan mi juga dicadangkan

    untuk mengelak pencemaran alam sekitar dari memberi kerosakan oleh manusia dan

    segi ekonomik. Pengkarbonan hidroterma dijalankan oleh unit gentmg dan pirolisis

    dikendalikan oleh relau dengan suhu, jumlah dan kawalan masa. Suhu diperlukan

    untuk penyelidikan mi ialah 200 C dan berkadar dengan masa dalam 4 jam. Setiap

    eksperimen perlu mengubah jumlah bahan kepada 150g clan 175g. Selepas

    menamatkan eksperimen,analisis produk menggunakan analisis unsur dan TGA akan

    melaksanakan untuk menentukan komposisi kimia dan karbon hadir dalam produk.

    Pengkarbonan hidroterma dai piro1isis ialah teknik menukar bahan buangan ke

    dalam pelbagai jenis keperluan. Begitu juga, kitar semula satu serat kayu

    membazirkan untuk menjana permohonan bani yang memberi satu impak besar bagi

    ekonomi dan persekitaran. Pengurusan sisa boleh diperbaiki dengan teknologi mesra

    alam yang digunakan untuk mengelak masalah persekitaran

    vi

  • TABLE OF CONTENT

    Page

    Supervisor's declaration

    Student's declaration

    Acknoledgement iv

    Abtract v

    Abtark vi

    Table of Contents vii

    List of Tables x

    List of Figures xi

    List of Abbreviation xiii

    List of symbol xiv

    CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background 15

    1.2 Problem statement 18

    1.3 Research objective 18

    1.4 Scope of study 19

    1.5 Expected outcomes 19

    1.6 Conclusion 20

    CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

    2.1 Biomass 21

    2. 1.1 Properties of Biomass 26

    2.1.1.1 Moisture Content 26

    2.1.1.2Calorific value 27

    2.1.1.3 Propotions of fixed carbon and volatile matter 27

    vii

  • 2.1.1.4 Alkali metal content 28

    2.1.1.5 Ash and residue content 29

    2.1.1.6 Lignocellulose ratio 29

    2.1.1.6.1 Cellulose 30

    2.1.1.6.2 Hemicellulose 31

    2.1.1.6.3 Lignin 32

    2.2.1 Characteristic of biomass 33

    2.2.1.1 Renewable 33

    2.2.2.2 Carbon neutral 33

    2.1.3 Wood fiber waste 34

    2.1.4 Product and application of wood fiber waste 35

    2.2 Hydrothermal carbonization 37

    2.2.1 Process parameter 42

    2.3 Pyrolysis 44

    2.3.1 Type of pyrolysis 46

    2.3.1.1 Conventional pyrolysis 46

    2.3.1.2 Fast pyrolysis 47

    2.3.2 Mechanism of slow pyrolysis 48

    CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

    3.1 Introduction 49

    3.2 Research planning 49

    3.3 Material 50

    3.3.1 Wood fiber waste 50

    3.3.2 Citric acid 50

    3.4 Preparation of nanoparticle 51

    3.4.1 Hydrothermal carbonization production 51

    3.4.2 Pyrolysis production 53

    3.4.3 Preparation for characteristic analysis 54

    3.4.3.1 Determination of calorific value 54

    3.4.3.2 Determination of ash content 55

    3.4.3.3 Determination of moisture content 56

    3.4.3.4 Determination of volatile content 56

    viii

  • 3.4.4 Thermogravimetry analysis 57

    3.4.5 Elemental analysis 58

    3.5 Method analysis 59

    3.6 Conclusion 59

    CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

    4.1 Solid product from hydrothermal carbonization 60

    and pyrolysis process

    4.2 Characteristic of products 62

    4.2.1 Ash content 63

    4.2.2 Moisture content 64

    4.2.3 Calorific value 65

    4.2.4 Volatile content 66

    4.3 Thermogravimetry analysis 67

    4.4 CHNO analysis 71

    CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

    5.1 Conclusion 72

    5.2 Recommendation 73

    5.3 Future work 74

    REFERENCES 75

    APPENDIX

    Appendix A

    ix

  • LIST OF TABLES

    Page

    Table 1.1 Percentage of chemical composition in wood fiber. 16

    Appendix Al Result for characteristic in products. 79

    Appendix A2 Percent weight losses in thermogravimetry analysis. 79

    Appendix A3 CHNO result for each tested analysis 80

    x

  • LIST OF FIGURE

    Page

    Figure 2.1 Structural formula of cellulose 30

    Figure 2.2 Schematic diagram of hemicellulose 31

    Figure 2.3 Lignin formula structure 32

    Figure 2.4 Diagram of methods for biomass process. 39

    Figure 3.1 Preparation of nanoparticle for hydrothermal carbonization 52

    Figure 3.2 Supercritical unit 52

    Figure 3.3 Preparation of pyrolysis process 54

    Figure 3.4 Glass furnace 53

    Figure 3.5 Oxygen bomb calorimeter 55

    Figure 3.6 Thermogravimetry analyzer 57

    Figure 3.7 Elementar Vario Macro Series 58

    Figure 4.1 Physical changing of wood fiber waste (a) before and 61

    (b) after hydrothermal carbonization and (c) after pyrolysis.

    Figure 4.2 Weight percentage of ash in products. 63

    Figure 4.3 Moisture content in tested materials. 64

    Figure 4.4 Value of calorific in samples. 65

    Figure 4.5 Weight percentage of volatile in tested samples. 66

    Figure 4.6 TGA analyis of (a) wood fiber waste and hydrothermal 69

    xi

  • carbonization, (b) wood fiber waste and pyrolysis,

    (c) hydrothermal carbonization and pyrolysis

    and (d) combination of wood fiber waste hydrothermal

    carbonization and pyrolysis.

    Figure 4.7 CHNO contain intested material 71

    xii

  • LIST OF ABBREVIATION

    g - Gram

    TGA - Thermo gravimetry

    MDF - Medium density fiberboard

    GCV - Gross calorific value

    HHV - Higher heating valu

    NCV - Nett calorific value

    LHV - Lower heating value

    CO2 Carbon dioxide

    H30 - Hydromium

    0H - Hydroxide

    C - Carbon

    N - Nitrogen

    H - Hydrogen

    S - Sulfur

    O - Oxygen

    Na - Natrium

    K - Potassium

    Mg - Magnesium

    P - Phosphorus

    Ca - Calcium

    Ag - Silver

    MJ/kg - mega Joule per kilogram

    MJ/nm 3 - mega Joule per newton

    id/mo! - kilo Joule per mol

    cm - centimeter

    xiii

  • LIST OF SYMBOL

    oc - degrees Celcius

    % - percent

    xlv

  • CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background

    Wood fibre, classified as organic material can be extracted from tree,

    bamboo, corn, soy and other plant-based material. The physical properties of wood

    fiber are thermal expansion, high density, good moisture content and electrical

    resistance. These elements are the main factor to choose the best quality of wood in

    manufacturing. Thermal expansion is a percentage of length change affected by the

    temperature change between -5 1.1'C to 54.4C. Moisture content can be defined as

    water content in wood. Wood has the ability to absorb water or moisture and it

    depend on the temperature and humidity from the surrounding. Hence, wood will

    lose or gain the water moisture in certain condition that called equilibrium moisture

    content. Conductivity refers to the electric flow within electric power supply. While,

    dielectric constant is the quantity of the electric in the material when it supplied to

    the electric power and dielectric power factor is the requirement to generate heat

    from the quantity of the electric supply (Jerrold 1994). Furthermore, it also has

    chemical compositions in wood such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and

    sulphur.

    15

  • Table 1.1 Percentage of chemical composition in wood fibre (Jerrold, 1994).

    Chemical composition % of dry matter weight

    Carbon 45-50

    Hydrogen 6.0-6.5

    Oxygen 38-42

    Nitrogen 0.1-0.5

    Sulphur max 0.05

    The quality of wood fiber is depend on the condition and properties of the

    wood. Because of this, wood has a high demand to produce furniture, construction

    material, particle board, pallet and others. According to this, the waste of wood fiber

    is not dispelled in proper way to avoid environmental problem. The waste

    management face a problem to solve this situation due to give a sensitive disposal

    issues. The management should reduce the problem by a new technology and

    research. For example, in bioprocess or chemical that offer the latest improvement in

    order to achieve a good sustainable life.

    16

  • Mohan and his friends explored that pyrolysis process have been improved

    and widely used in charcoal production and convert to liquids fuels (Mohan et al.,

    2006). Pyrolysis convert biomass by heating in absence of air to produce carbon

    solid, char and volatiles product (Brownsort,2009). In pyrolysis reaction, wood fiber

    waste produce a large number of chemical substance which is can be used as

    additional for conventional fuels In high temperature, the component in biomass

    present a sufficient energy since it highly influenced of inorganic materials and

    different heat treatments condition (Mohan et al, 2006)..

    For recent decade, hydrothermal carbonization is introduced that can be

    approach to increase the technology in waste material. Various type of

    lignocellulosic material had been use in hydrothermal treatment to reduce a natural

    pollution and reuse a waste material due to save an energy usage. Hydrothermal

    carbonization is a friendly environmental process that applies energy to form a new

    item for more application. It releases a small amount of energy input into a heat. The

    current hydrothermal applications are water purification, reducing CO 2 and energy

    storage ( Hu et al., 2010). The main reactions occur in hydrothermal are hydrolysis

    dehydration. These two reaction encourage in hydrothermal process with temperature

    condition. In generally, the effective dehydration occurs only in water presence

    which is the wood fiber waste must in wet condition. Hydrothemal carbonization

    process convert the biomass directed to complex structural under a control of surface

    polarity of the biomass (Titirici et al., 2007).

    17

  • 1.2 Problem statement

    Disposal method of wood fibre is a main problem in manufacturing industry.

    Nowadays, hydrothermal is a technique to reduce environment pollution in an

    authority of engineering field (Lykidis et al., 2008). In hydrothermal process, wood

    fibre is a suitable raw material due to the character and capability to use in a process.

    This material did not require high energy and complicated process to produce a new

    product. Pyrolysis is a another process that applicable to convert the wood waste to

    valuable composition (Bridewater et al., 1999). Another problem is high cost of

    conventional nanoparticle synthesis production to treat a waste into a useful material.

    Nanoparticle synthesis needs a variety of medium and specific character to complete

    the reaction according to the material (Kim et al., 2009). Thermochemical process is

    pyrolysis which is protion of the lignocellulose is integrated with the production of

    valuable chemicals. This process occur when absence of oxygen and produce char,

    liquid and gas where liquid and gas are volatile component.

    1.3 Research objective

    The objectives of this study are

    i. To analyze the carbon nanoparticles produced from hydrothermal

    carbonization and pyrolysis process.

    ii. To investigate the chemical characterization of the waste material.

    iii. To determine the ash, volatile , moisture content in hydrothermal and

    pyrolysis product.

    18

  • 1.4 Scope of study

    Wood fibre waste is a main element to describe the chemical composition and

    carbon compound. The process will analyze the carbon conversion using chemical

    characteristic. Citric acid is used as a catalyst to increase a process rate without

    change the reaction. The duration time to conduct the experiment is 4 hours at 200 C

    1.5 Expected outcomes

    Hydrothermal carbonizationand and pyrolysis are synthesis techniques which

    carried out waste material into a variety of application. For example, recycle a wood

    fibre waste to generate new application that gives a big impact to the economy and

    environment. The management of waste will be improving by the friendly

    technology applies to avoid environmental problem. Wood fibre wastes contain

    higher carbon than hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur. Thus, wood fibre waste can be

    used as a fuel to save the fuel sources in earth.

    19

  • 1.6 Conclusions

    In this chapter, conversion process waste material to valuable material is

    discussed. Hydrothermal carbonization is a process to reduce CO2 in product which

    is to control global warming. Meanwhile, pyrolysis is a combustion process that react

    wihout oxygen and no oxidation take place in this process. Wood fibre is one of the

    waste materials that easy to process to produce a reuse material for future

    application.

    20

  • CHAPTER 2

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    2.1 Biomass

    Biomass is the material that can be derived directly or indirectly from plant

    which is consumed as energy or materials in a significant amount of existing via

    animal farming and food industry. The term of biomass is called a "phytomass" and

    translated bioresource or bio-derived-resource (UN Energy, 2007). Meanwhile,

    McKendry stated that the carbohydrates formation by plant derivation by the reaction

    between c02 in the air, water and sunlight through photosynthesis process

    (McKendry, 2001). The basis resource contains hundreds of thousands of plant

    species, terrestrial and aquatic, several agricultural, forestry and industrial residues

    and process waste, sewage and animal wastes. Definitely, biomass means wood, rape

    seed, water hyacinth, sawdust, wood chip, rice husk, rice straw, pulp sludge, kitchen

    garbage and animal dung. The types of plantation in biomass are eucalyptus, hybrid

    poplar, oil palm, sugar cane and switch grass (UN Energy, 2007).

    21

  • In 1934, biomass term appeared first in the literature of Oxford English

    Dictionary. Russian scientist, Bogorov used biomass as nomenclature. He analyse the

    periodic growth change of plankton by measured the weight after drying process. He

    named dried plankton as biomass (Bogorov, 1934). Biomass is renewable resource

    and renewable energy conversion from biomass to energy. But, in Japan, biomass is

    designated a new energy and it authorized term to this country. The concerning law

    of the use of new energy was obligated in April 1997. However, biomass not

    approved as a new energies and officially accepted in January 2002 when the law

    was revised (H.Sano, 2002). The power generation by photovoltaic, wind energy,

    fuel cell and biomass by means of thermal use of waste selected as a new energy.

    The law provide a permitting new energy that what have to be the invention,

    generation and utilization of petroleum possibilities, what is inefficiently infiltrated

    by the economic control and what the recommended in order to support the use of

    new energy by the government regulation (Yokoyama, 2008).

    The derivation energy of biomass will increase the overall energy supply as

    the price of fossil fuels increase over the next decades. The energy source from

    biomass is very attractive, and then it can be a zero CO 2 of energy source. Hence,

    greenhouse gas emission will decrease. The emission of CO 2 is caused by

    combustion of biomass, though the consumption of fossil fuels occurs when the

    carbon converts to CO 2 . The zero of CO2 achieving by the new trees or other plants

    replanted to the range that the CO2 released can be reduced during the consumption

    of biomass energy. The appropriate management in energy plantations, it not concern

    in developing countries where the forest used for biomass energy not being replanted

    (Yokoyama,2008)

    22

  • The availability of land is significant of widespread expansion of biomass

    energy otherwise used for food production or other commercial such as timber

    production (Yokoyama, 2008).The estimation of future biomass energy potential is

    ranging from 42 EJ to 350 EJ that closes to the total energy production by year 2100.

    Therefore, biomass energy should be wisely utilized in accordance with the food or

    valuable material production as well as environmental protection (H. Sano, 2002).

    Biomass involves various and different in chemical property, physical

    property, moisture content, mechanical strength in biomass and transformation of

    technology to material and energy to materials and energy also diversified.

    Developing of effective cost and environmentally friendly to conversion technologies

    have been complete to reduce the dependency of fossil to restrain CO 2 emission and

    active the rural economics (H. Sano, 2002).

    Plant and natural resource is the living thing that can be used in biomass.

    Biomass contain of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. Apart from that, it also

    contains small quantities of alkali, alkali earth and heavy metals. The chemical and

    physical properties of biomass enable to produce coal and petroleum by

    transformation of fossil by geological processes. The carbon contain in fossil was

    removed and released from the atmosphere under different environmental conditions

    in. Therefore, utilization of biomass creates a closed loop carbon cycle in short of

    time. The higher energy density can be found in fossil fuel due to the oxidation of the

    carbon to carbon dioxide and hydrogen to water.

    23

  • Biomass can replace a minor problem of the fuel and energy via combustion

    and fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol fuel, enlargement of oil seed and

    invention of biogas through anaerobic digestion (Powison et al., 2005). Gustavsson

    and his friend analyzed the energy efficiencies, costs and and biological impact on

    biomass energy in 1995. In Brazil, oil car fuel had been replace with sugarcane

    which is it converted into ethanol but the process growth highly inefficient.

    Nevertheless, production of biological fuel simply increases in CO 2 emission and

    fossil resources cannot compensate for past and currently emitted CO 2 (McKendry,

    2002).

    Biomass material can be categories into four:

    i. Wood and wood waste

    ii. Energy crops

    iii. Agricultural residues

    iv. Food waste

    Wood and wood waste consist of bark and sawdust which is no chemical

    treatments but the physical and chemical properties influenced it sources. This type

    of wood is suitable used in energy applications. At a variety of scales, it can burn for

    heat and power for new developing technologies of produce a liquid and gaseous in

    biofuels (Koopmans, 1997). Meanwhile, it can distribute in energy crops which is

    have a high demand in fuel and output of potential performed. Therefore, it should be

    maximize the output of crops to energy supply and gives a big impact on crop

    management practice (Bain et al., 2002). The characteristic of energy crop are high

    24

  • production, low energy input and cost, minimum in contamination of composition

    and required a low nutrient. These characteristics influenced on local climate change

    and soil conditions (McKendry, 2002).

    Natural resources play an important role in conversion energy of biomass.

    The development of bioenergy industry, agricultural residues implied in renewable

    energy resources (Blasi et al., 1997). In general, residues presently related to the

    growing and selecting of product that consuming nutritional value or processing in

    industrially (Unal et al., 2010). Food waste embraces the highest potential of

    economic utilization due to high amount of carbon and effectively exchanges into

    biogas and organic fertilizer (Zafar, 2012).

    25

  • 2.1.1 Properties of Biomass

    The characteristics of the biomass are important to determine the optimal of

    conversion process. Similarly, the selection of biomass is influenced by the process

    in which the energy is needed. these two features are interactive to be introduced in

    energy source of biomass. The specific material properties become important in

    processing that depending on the energy transformation processes. have classified the

    main material properties in subsequent process of biomass: (McKendry 2002)

    i. Moisture content

    ii. Calorific value

    iii. Proportions of fixed carbon and volatiles

    iv. Alkali metal content

    V. Ash content

    vi. Lignocellulosic ratio

    2.1.1.1 Moisture Content

    Two type of moisture content are importance inbiomass which is intrinsic

    and extrinsic moisture. The intrinsic moisture means that the moisture contains in

    biomass without the influenced of weather effect, however extrinsic moisture

    contains influence of normal weather condition in harvesting (Khan et al., 2009). The

    moisture content in biomass is determined by the weather conditions during

    harvesting. In thermal conversion, woody and low moisture content herbaceous plant

    species are the most efficient biomass sources to liquid fuels, methanol. In high

    26

  • moisture of herbaceous plant species, sugarcane is suitable for produce ethanol by

    biochemical (fermentation) conversion (McKendry, 2002).

    2.1.1.2 Calorific Value

    In biomass, calorific value is express as energy content or heat value when

    burnt in air. the calorific value can be measure in solid, liquid and gas phase. In solid

    phase, the measurement of calorific value in term of the energy content per unit

    mass or volume, MJ/kg, Mi/i for liquid and Mi/Nm 3 for gas. For fuel ,calorific value

    can be expressed in two forms such asthe gross calorific value (GCV) or higher

    heating value (HHV) and the nett calorific value (NCV) or lower heating value

    (LHV) (Khan et., 2009). The higher heating value present the total energy content

    released when the fuel burn in air. It also include the latent heat that contained in

    water vapour, so it describe recoverable the maximum amount of energy potential in

    biomass. In technology, the actual amount of energy had been described as the

    combustible gas, oil and steam. The lower heating value is applicable use for

    incompatible latent heat contained in water vapor (McKendry, 2001).

    2.1.2.3 Propotions of Fixed Carbon and Volatile Matter

    Solid fuel has been developed as coal which consists of chemical energy

    stored in fixed carbon and volatiles. The fixed carbon content refer to the mass

    remaining after releases of volatile, eliminating the ash and moisture contents.

    Meanwhile, the volatile content in solid is portion convert as gas by heating process.

    The fuel analysis used to determined volatile content, ash and moisture continued

    27

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