ilkley conservation area assessment

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    CONSERVATION AREA ASSESSMENT

    IlkleyMARCH 2002

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    ContentsIntroduction ........................................................................................................... 4

    History and Archaeology ..................................................................................... 6

    The Setting of Ilkley in the Landscape ................................................................ 8

    The Character ........................................................................................................ 9

    Enhancement proposals ...................................................................................... 22

    Boundary Rationale ............................................................................................. 29

    Complementary Development Controls ............................................................ 30

    Preservation & Enhancement Policies & Proposals.......................................... 32

    Glossary of Terms ................................................................................................ 33

    Contacts ................................................................................................................ 33

    Appendix 1: Summary of Listed Buildings in IlkleyConservation Area ............................................................................................... 34

    Appendix 2: Legislation and Council PoliciesRelating to Conservation Areas ..........................................................................38

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    IntroductionA conservation area is an area of specialarchitectural or historic interest the character orappearance of which it is desirable to preserve orenhance (Section 69 of the Town and CountryPlanning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas)Act 1990). Ilkley was designated as a ConservationArea in 1971, the area then considerably extendedin March 1982, and is now one of 56 in the Bradforddistrict. Located some 16 miles north-west ofBradford, Ilkley is a town with historic origins andits own unique character. The conservation areaencompasses the development of Ilkley fromRoman origins, through surviving Medievalelements to the main period of growth in the secondhalf of the 19th and early 20th centuries.

    The relationship between buildings and spaceswithin conservation areas creates a uniqueenvironment, which provides a strong sense ofidentity and familiarity for residents, and anirreplaceable part of our local, regional and nationalheritage. It is the responsibility of the local planningauthority to designate conservation areas, whichbrings a general control over the demolition ofunlisted buildings, strengthens controls over minordevelopment and makes special provision for theprotection of trees. The objective of these measuresis to provide for the preservation of the essentialcharacter and appearance of the area, in order tomaintain or improve its environmental quality andsafeguard local distinctiveness and sense of place,within a framework of controlled and positivemanagement of change.

    City of Bradford Metropolitan District Council hasprepared this assessment (March 2002) in order tofulfil their statutory duties under the Town andCountry Planning (Listed Buildings andConservation Areas) Act 1990. Section 69 (2) of thisact places a duty on the local authority to review itsconservation areas from time to time, and Section71 to formulate and publish proposals for theirpreservation and enhancement. The principalobjectives of the document are to:

    Define and record the special interest of Ilkleyconservation area;

    To ensure that the boundary of the conservationarea reflects the area of special interest ; and

    Assess the action that may be necessary tosafeguard this special interest.

    It is however, not intended to be whollycomprehensive in its content and failure to mentionany particular building, feature or space should notbe assumed to imply that they are of no interest.This assessment should be read in conjunction withthe Bradford Unitary Development Plan andnational policy guidance, particularly PlanningPolicy Guidance Note 15 (PPG15): Planning and theHistoric Environment. These documents providemore detailed information on local and nationalpolicy relating to conservation areas.

    Opposite page : Wells Road

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    Ilkley Conservation Area is very large (over 650hectares) and, in terms of the character and qualityof its component townscapes, very diverse. As aresult, identifying a single strategy for itspreservation and enhancement has been difficult,since there are different objectives within thevarious component parts. The existingConservation Area Statement is brief and of limitedvalue in understanding the towns history and thehistorical inter-relationship of past phases in itsgrowth. The absence of clear objectives forenhancement has sometimes made it difficult todeal with planning applications.

    However, if the Conservation Area is broken downinto the following component parts - each reflectingthe important phases in the evolution of the town -distinctive qualities can be highlighted, and astrategy for enhancement and preservation set outbased on the individual characteristics and historicalimportance of each of those component areasbegins to emerge.

    The identified component areas are:

    1. THE ROMAN COREIlkleys origins at the Fort, Parish Church and ManorHouse.

    2. THE SHOPPING CENTREFocused around the axes of The Grove and BrookStreet.

    3. THE SPA TOWNEvolved around the former hydrotherapyestablishments and their grounds.

    4. THE RAILWAY TOWNThe station and the community of workers housesbeyond.

    5. THE VICTORIAN SUBURBSResidential streets and terraces south and west ofThe Grove.

    6. THE RESIDENTIAL EXPANSIONVictorian and Edwardian expansion of the affluentresidential area.

    Parish Ghyll Road

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    History andArchaeologyThe medieval village and 19th-century town of Ilkleywas constructed on one of the most importantRoman sites in West Yorkshire. The settlement wasfounded by the Brigantes above the flood plain ofthe Wharfe. A fort was built here in the 1st centuryAD to guard a junction in the Roman road system,at the point where a north-south route, across theWharfe, met one of the main east-west trans-Pennine roads, from Ribchester to York. At thatjunction a civilian settlement, or vicus, alsodeveloped, principally along the east-west road,now approximately the line of The Grove, and wasknown as Olicana. Discoveries of Roman remainshave been recorded at Ilkley from the 16th centuryonwards, and some of these finds can be seen inthe Manor House Museum, which occupies part ofthe fort area. The only upstandingRoman masonry is a stretch of thewestern fort wall behind theMuseum, though the extent of thefort is partially visible as a modifiedearthwork. The site of the fort is aScheduled Ancient Monument.

    In post-Roman times part of the fortarea became a Christian burialground: so much is evident fromthe exceptionally fine Anglo-Saxoncrosses which formerly stood invarious parts of the churchyard, butwere later brought together on thesouth side and have now beenhoused in the parish church tower.

    They date to the 9th century. A stone church mayhave existed there by that date, as two Romanaltars, also preserved in the church, had been recutto form Anglo-Saxon doorway or window lintels.By the 10th century, Ilkley was part of theArchbishop of Yorks Wharfedale estates, centredon Otley; it may have been part of that estate sincethe late 7th century. The archbishops appear to havelost most of Ilkley to other landowners in the late10th century, and the church and priest recordedthere in 1086 are likely to have belonged to theNorman lord William de Percy.

    It is probable that the Anglo-Saxon and Normanmanorial halls were also located on the fort site.They were certainly there during the 13th and 14th

    centuries, as remains of medievalstructures have been found built out ofthe Roman walls to the north of the ManorHouse Museum: these include a stonelatrine, indicative of manorial status. Theearliest part of the present Manor House,dating probably to the 14th century, alsobelonged to this group of buildings,though the rest of the structure wasevidently demolished during rebuildingworks of the 16th and 17th centuries,when the Manor House reached itspresent form. The nearby parish churchis presumably also on the site of its Anglo-Saxon predecessor. It was largely rebuiltin the 15th century, though it incorporatesa south doorway of 13th-century date.

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    The nave was lengthened and the eastern parts ofthe church were rebuilt in 1861.

    Both medieval manor house and church madeextensive use of the Roman building materialsavailable, and the same is true of the medieval andlater farmhouses and outbuildings, often single-storey buildings with masonry walls and thatchedroofs. These survived until Ilkleys development asa spa town in the later 19th century. The medievalsettlement lay near the manor house and church,on both sides of what is now Church Street, andthis is the only part of the present town where asignificant number of 18th and early 19th-centurybuildings survive. They include, on the north side,the Mallard Inn, dated 1709, and beyond the westernend of the old village, the Grammar School of 1635.On the south side of the street, the Box Tree is anearly 18th-century farmhouse.

    Other farmhouses and cottages extended alongwhat is now Brook Street south of its junction withChurch Street, along both sides of the stream thatflowed down Mill Ghyll. This was one of therouteways to the common pastures of Ilkley Moor,and also the location of the manorial water cornmill, first recorded in the early 13th century. Anotherrouteway, further

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