ii a 1 paul younger keynote address - abandoned …...avoca copper mines, wicklow, ireland tourism...

Click here to load reader

Post on 12-Jul-2020

18 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 1

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Orphaned and Abandoned Mines:in pursuit of best practicein pursuit of best practice

    Paul L YoungerC.Geol. C.Eng. FIChemE FCIWEM FIMMM

    HSBC Professor of Energy & Environment

    Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research & Outreach (HERO) Institute for Research on Environment & Sustainability (IRES)

    Newcastle University, UK. ([email protected])

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Orphaned and Abandoned Mines

    = O&AM

  • 2

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Scope of talk …• Dimensions of the issue• Priority setting – policies, perspectives,

    pragmatism• Community engagement – who, what and

    why?• Partnership approaches – panacea or

    pain-in-the-rear?• Towards best practices

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Dimensions of the issue• Orphaned / abandoned mines:

    – A lethal legacy?: long-term environmental impacts

    – A precious patrimony?: community memory and the heritage ‘industry’

    – both of the above? (in Europe –often yes; elsewhere … ?)

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 3

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Environmental impacts of O&AM: pathways

    • Air: dust-blown emissions: ingestion• Soil: direct ingestion / arable /

    pastoral use; land stability• Water: rivers (dissolved phase and

    sediments), aquifers, ecosystems, drinking water

    Effects generally highly localised

    Effects downstream: ≤ 100s of kmDimensions of

    the issue

    2

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Dust and Land Stability Issues

    Miami, Oklahoma (Tar Creek Superfund Site) Miami, Oklahoma (Tar Creek Superfund Site) –– PbPb/Zn /Zn orefieldorefield

    Dune Dune bedformsbedforms on windswept, on windswept, finefine--grained mine wastesgrained mine wastes

    Crown hole over deep Crown hole over deep mine roof collapsemine roof collapse

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 4

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    O&AM land instability: Impacts on Essential Infrastructure

    DolphingstoneDolphingstone, Edinburgh, East Coast Main Railway Line, Edinburgh, East Coast Main Railway Line

    CrownCrown--hole above ancient mine hole above ancient mine voids subject to recent change in voids subject to recent change in

    water table positionwater table position

    Dimensions of the issue

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    O&AM Stability Issues objectively dangerous

    AberfanAberfan, , South South Wales, Wales,

    2121--1010--1966, 1966, 144 people 144 people killed (116 killed (116 of them of them school school

    children)children)

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 5

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Environmental impacts of O&AM: frequency

    • Air: an issue only with Pb, As, Hg, Cd etc• Soil: areal impact of pollution dependent

    on markets (e.g. dairy herds etc)• Water: BY FAR THE MOST COMMON RECEPTOR AND VECTOR OF O&AM POLLUTION

    Dimensions of the issue

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Impacts of O&AM on water environment: surface waters

    • Iron: most common pollutant (Mn, Zn, As often also mobile at pH ≈ 7)

    • Acidity, low pH: an issue where weathering is near-surface:- spoil heaps, old tailings, shallow workings

    • Other pollutants: e.g. SO4 – an issue where drinking water is abstracted downstream

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 6

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Typical iron-rich (‘ferruginous’) mine water discharges

    Ynysarwed, South Wales, UK - marginally acidic deep coal mine discharge, 250 mg/l Fe

    Skinningrove, Cleveland, UK -two strongly alkaline ironstone mine discharges, both with 17 mg/l Fe

    Dimensions of the issue

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Major acidic discharge:Wheal Jane, Cornwall (UK), Jan 1992 (et seq.)

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 7

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Acidic mine waters in a dry environment:Brugspruit, Witbank Coalfield, S Africa

    Dimensions of the issue

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Impacts of O&AM on water environment: ground waters

    • Remarkably few recorded cases of pollution of major (i.e. potable supply) aquifers:– Major early example: Sth. Durham UK– Several other cases now pending in

    Europe– Under-reporting to date: does it reflect

    slow onset of obvious aquifer pollution after mine abandonment (decades)?

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 8

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Water abstraction boreholes

    Discharge into the sea

    Evapo-transpirationInfiltrating

    rainwater

    Major recharge area

    Mine water upflow

    Runoff

    Diminished recharge over glacial drift

    Infiltrating rainwater

    Piezometricsurface

    (confined)

    Permian: Magnesian Limestone Aquifer and minor basal units

    Glacial drift (Quaternary)

    Coal Measures (Upper Carboniferous)

    Sea or river

    General groundwater flow direction

    Water table / piezometric surface

    KEY

    Water table (unconfined)

    Level of shallowest mine

    workings

    Water abstraction boreholes

    Discharge into the sea

    Evapo-transpirationInfiltrating

    rainwater

    Major recharge area

    Mine water upflow

    Runoff

    Diminished recharge over glacial drift

    Infiltrating rainwater

    Piezometricsurface

    (confined)

    Permian: Magnesian Limestone Aquifer and minor basal units

    Glacial drift (Quaternary)

    Coal Measures (Upper Carboniferous)

    Sea or river

    General groundwater flow direction

    Water table / piezometric surface

    KEY

    Water table (unconfined)

    Level of shallowest mine

    workings

    South Durham (UK): Aquifer Pollution From Underlying

    Abandoned MinesDimensions of

    the issue

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Spennymoor

    Bishop Auckland

    Shildon

    Darlington

    Stockton-on-Tees

    ¤ ¤

    ¤ ¤

    ¤¤¤

    ¤¤

    ¤¤

    ¤¤ ¤

    ¤ ¤ ¤

    ¤¤

    ¤

    ¤ ¤

    Middlesbrough

    Billingham

    Hartlepool

    Sedgefield

    Ferryhill

    ¤ ¤ ¤Newton Aycliffe

    30.0010.

    00

    100.00

    100.00

    300.00

    ¤

    SO42- concentration contour (mg/L)

    Water supply boreholes

    Observation boreholes

    Extent of the study area

    Extent of the mine workings

    Major settlements

    100.00

    Spennymoor

    Bishop Auckland

    Shildon

    Darlington

    Stockton-on-Tees

    ¤ ¤

    ¤ ¤

    ¤¤¤

    ¤¤

    ¤¤

    ¤¤ ¤

    ¤ ¤ ¤

    ¤¤

    ¤

    ¤ ¤

    Middlesbrough

    Billingham

    Hartlepool

    Sedgefield

    Ferryhill

    ¤ ¤ ¤Newton Aycliffe

    30.0010.

    00

    100.00

    100.00

    300.00

    ¤

    SO42- concentration contour (mg/L)

    Water supply boreholes

    Observation boreholes

    Extent of the study area

    Extent of the mine workings

    Major settlements

    100.00

    Predicted plume migration to 2010

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 9

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Predictions of the calendar years in which specific public supply wells will exceed drinking

    water limit (250 mg/l SO4) for first time

    2019Hope House

    2057Waterloo Plantation

    2038Great Stainton

    2029Stillington

    2024Hopper House

    Year in which SO4 concentration predicted to first exceed 250 mg/l

    Public Supply Well

    Dimensions of the issue

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Heritage issues and O&AM

    • Mining is probably the second (certainly the third!) oldest profession

    • The earliest reliably-dated archaeological remains of mining keep getting ever more ancient (e.g. Bronze Age now widely-attested in NW Europe)

    • Conservation of such sites already an issue in Europe; may become so in Middle East / Indian sub-continent

    • Probably an under-appreciated phenomenon in the Americas (e.g. Andes?)

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 10

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Heritage issues and O&AM - examples

    • Neolithic: Grimes Graves Flint mines, Norfolk (UK)• Bronze Age:

    – Great Orme Mine (carbonate-hosted Cu orebody), North Wales (UK)

    – Mynydd Parys (Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Orebody), North Wales (UK)

    – Surface workings in Ireland (Cork)– Mining Settlements (Faja Pirítica, Spain)

    • Dawn of the Industrial Age:– Germany– UK: coal mines, copper mines, etc

    Dimensions of the issue

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Bronze Age Cu Mine Voids

    Great Great OrmeOrme, North Wales, North Wales

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 11

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    In the Bronze Age Voids

    Great Great OrmeOrme, North Wales, North Wales

    Dimensions of the issue

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Heritage issues and O&AM - examples

    Bronze Age VMS copper workings, Mynydd Parys, North Wales: still a source of acidic drainage after 3500 years!

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 12

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Heritage issues and O&AM - examples

    16th Century ‘Coffin Level’, copper mine, Caldbeck,

    N.W. England

    Coal Mine Drainage Aditcommenced 1617 AD,

    Gateshead, N.E. EnglandDimensions of

    the issue

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Heritage issues and O&AM - examples

    Cornish Mining District: the newest UNESCO World Heritage Site

    Romantic mine remains … …… prosaic prosaic pollutionpollution

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 13

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Heritage issues and O&AM - examples

    Avoca Copper Mines, Wicklow, IrelandTourism based on TV location and one of very few mine heritage sites in Ireland …

    Dimensions of the issue

    … welcome to ‘BallykissAMD’

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Heritage issues and O&AM - examples

    Killhope Lead Mining Museum, Co Durham (UK)

    Dimensions of the issue

    Park Level Mine:-Worked for lead: 1853 – 1916- Worked for education and recreation: 1996 –- Point source of dissolved Zn pollution 1853 -

  • 14

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Heritage issues and O&AM - examples

    Killhope Lead Mining Museum, Co Durham (UK)

    Dimensions of the issue

    The fun way to learn about physics and mineralogy –and how to release Pb / Zn-rich suspended sediment

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Priority setting• Why prioritize?

    – Spreading the costs over the years– Availability of specialist contractors– Developing know-how through

    sequential experiences• How: Hierarchical approach -

    impacts → ‘do-ability’

    Priority setting

  • 15

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Impact assessment• Source → Pathway → Receptor• Multi-Attribute Technique:

    – S→P→A + Social considerations• ‘Do-ability’: identification of

    situations where a convergence of interests exists

    Priority setting

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Impact assessment: examples• Source → Pathway → Receptor

    Scottish Environment Protection Agency Opencast Mining GuidelineScottish Environment Protection Agency Opencast Mining Guidelines s to Achieve Compliance with the Groundwater Regulations 1998to Achieve Compliance with the Groundwater Regulations 1998

    Priority setting

  • 16

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    • Multi-Attribute TechniqueImpact assessment: examples

    Environment Agency / Environment Agency / Coal Authority Coal Authority

    Priority ListPriority List

    Priority setting

    Mine Name (Ranked) Score Rank Mine Name (Ranked) Score RankBridgewater Canal 416 1 Goytre 51.2 46Harecastle Canal 300 2 Sheephouse Wood 50 47Taff Merthyr 186 3 Summerley no. 1 44 48Pontlottyn 185.2 4 Corrwg 40.8 49Old Meadows 180 5 Allerdeanmill 38.4 50Six Bells 170.4 6 Nantffyllon 37.6 51Blaenavon/Llwyd 170 7 Chell Heath Road 34.4 52Ynysarwed 163.2 8 Unstone 1 33.6 53Craig y Aber 144 9 Ash Bank 33.2 54Down Brook 139.2 10 A Morlais 32.4 55Blackwood/Sunningdale 133.2 11 Chirm 32.4 56Great Clifton 128.8 12 Hagwood 32.4 57Craggs Moor 127.6 13 Fender 30 58Summersales 127.6 14 Shepley Dyke 30 59Rhymney Hengoed/Tir y Berth 123.2 15 Heage 28 60Deerplay 119.2 16 Cwmgors 26.4 61Park Pit/Garswood 110 17 Loxley Bottom 25.2 62North Celynen 109.2 18 Maerdy H/L&LL Res 23.6 63Fennyfield 108.8 19 Abersychan/Cwm Sychan 23.2 64Jowkin Wood 108.8 20 Garwed Brook 23.2 65Clough Foot 108 21 Nant Ffrwd-oer SE 22.8 66Lindsay 105.6 22 Aspden Valley 22 67Bullhouse 103.6 23 Claywheels Lane 20.8 68Silkstone 96.8 24 Corrwg Fechan 19.2 69Glyn Castle 96 25 Stony Heap 18.8 70Jackson Bridge 93.6 26 Hill Top Farm 18.4 71Carr wood 93.6 27 Penrhiwfer 17.6 72Pemberton 82.8 28 Hapton Valley 17 73Dukes Level Burbage 81.6 29 Ynysybwl/Y FFrwd 16.8 74Pontllanfraith/Tram Road 78.4 30 Tunstall Park 61.2 75Hockery Brook 74.4 31 Tanygarn 15.2 76Dunvant 72.8 32 Ewanrigg 14.4 77Towneley Park 72.8 33 Lambley 12 78Acomb 72 34 Ynyswen/Nant Orky 11.6 79Bradley Brook 71.2 35 Trosnant Brook 10 80Valley Brook 68 36 Broughton Brook/Hawarden 9.6 81Aspull Sough 65.6 37 Mountain Gate 9.2 82Edmondsley 62.4 38 Tawe trib Llechart 7.2 83Alexandradrift 60 39 N Gwynfi 6 84Llynfi 60 40 Welch Whittle 5.2 85Margam Park 58.4 41 Cranberry Holes Dyke 4.8 86Sandhole Colliery 56.8 42 Lowlands 4 87Lightowlers Colliery 54.4 43 Haydock Sough 3.2 88Limb Brook 53.6 44 Byrons Drift 2.4 89Machen 53.6 45 Nant y Fedw 1.6 90

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment Priority setting

  • 17

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    • ‘Do-ability’Impact assessment: examples

    Environment Environment Agency Agency

    Metal Mine Metal Mine Strategy for Strategy for

    WalesWales

    Priority setting

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Community engagement

    ArtesanalArtesanal gold miners, gold miners, Cordillera Real, Bolivia, 1999Cordillera Real, Bolivia, 1999

    Volunteers constructing pilot Volunteers constructing pilot treatment wetland for acidic treatment wetland for acidic drainage from abandoned coal drainage from abandoned coal

    mine, Quaking Houses, Co mine, Quaking Houses, Co Durham (UK) 1994.Durham (UK) 1994.

    Community engagement

  • 18

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Community engagementCommunity gathering: Durham Community gathering: Durham

    MinerMiner’’s Gala, July 2004s Gala, July 2004

    GrupoGrupo de de DiDiáálogologo MineroMinero, , PerPerúú, September 2006, September 2006

    Community engagement

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Community: who?• Which people constitute ‘the

    community’ in any given case?• Who decides who belongs to it, who

    is excluded?• If anyone can ‘join’, do all have

    equal say-so?• What about divided communities?

    Community engagement

  • 19

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Examples• Quaking Houses (Co Durham, UK) –

    small ex-mining community engagement in O&AM remediation

    • Horden (Co Durham, UK) – from formalism to inclusive dialogue

    • (Perú – Pasivos AmbientalesMineros / Pasivos Sociales?)

    Community engagement

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    The Quaking Houses Community Mine Water Treatment Wetland,

    County Durham, UK

    Community engagement

  • 20

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Polluted discharge to Stanley Burn (before project began)

    Community engagement

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    The Gavinswelly Wetland

    Community engagement

  • 21

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Constructing the full-scale wetland

    Community engagement

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Newly-commissioned full-scale wetland (Nov ‘97)

    Community engagement

  • 22

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    The wetland growsEnd of first growing season

    Middle of fourth growing season

    Community engagement

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Horden, Co DurhamRegional

    dewatering of abandoned

    mines in the Wear

    catchment is ongoing,

    preventing rising mine

    waters causing serious

    pollution of the River Wear

    around Durham city

    Community engagement

  • 23

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Horden, Co DurhamHowever,

    this regional dewatering

    network could not

    prevent rebound

    occurring in the East of Wear area after the

    last pumping in coastal collieries ceased in

    March 1994

    Community engagement

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Mine water rebound in East Durham coastal collieries

    -450

    -400

    -350

    -300

    -250

    -200

    -150

    -100

    -50

    0

    15/06/1994

    28/10/1995

    11/03/1997

    24/07/1998

    06/12/1999

    19/04/2001

    01/09/2002

    14/01/2004

    Wat

    er L

    evel

    (mbO

    D)

    HawthornDawdonEasington

    Community engagement

  • 24

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Water drifts pollution pathway - I

    Water well

    Old colliery “water drift”

    Old colliery sea drift

    Capped colliery shaft

    Community engagement

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Water drifts pollution pathway - II

    Water well

    Old colliery “water drift”

    Old colliery sea drift

    Capped colliery shaft

    Community engagement

  • 25

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Water drifts pollution pathway - III

    Water well

    Old colliery “water drift”

    Old colliery sea drift

    Capped colliery shaft

    Community engagement

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Water drifts pollution pathway - IV

    Water well

    Old colliery “water drift”

    Old colliery sea drift

    Capped colliery shaft

    Community engagement

  • 26

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Additional pollution pathway:

    leakage threat to

    wells in Permian

    (MagnesianLimestone)

    aquifer

    Community engagement

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Hawthorn

    Dawdon

    HordenThree open shafts with chance of sufficient connectivity to control water levels in wide

    area if used for pumping

    Community engagement

  • 27

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Horden: breakdown in communication

    • The Coal Authority knew it had to act to prevent aquifer and sea pollution

    • However, it developed its plans in private, and only presented them to local authorities at a late stage opting for Hawthorn

    • It was only then (with 12 months to go before onset of pollution) that they discovered an array of wider community interests of which they were unaware …

    Community engagement

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Groundwater supply wells:source protection zones

    Hawthorn site would

    require a 5km pipeline to

    the sea –taking hyper-

    saline water across

    groundwater source

    protection zones!

    Community engagement

  • 28

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Hawthorn: other drawbacks• Pipeline would require wayleaves from

    numerous landowners in an area inhabited by unemployed miners who are hostile to the Coal Authority

    • The Hawthorn site had already been cleaned-up and prepared for development as a flagship business park for the district

    Community engagement

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    The outcome …• Rapid (6 months) design and build of high-

    density sludge plant at Horden (coastal shaft) as an emergency measure in area where head difference between mine workings and aquifer was already becoming positive …

    • Convening of a multi-stakeholder dialogue group to scope long-term solution (probably pumping at Horden and Dawdon) – towards a partnership approach

    Community engagement

  • 29

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Horden HDS planta world record for rapid procurement?

    Community engagement

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Partnership approaches• Creative approach to regulation:

    – Relevant laws generally not written with peculiarities of O&AM in mind

    – Avoid dis-incentivising voluntary actions• Learning to listen:

    – Other people’s agendas are valid!• Confidence building:

    – Trust is often the commodity in shortest supply; it cannot be re-gained overnight

    Partnership approaches

  • 30

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Partnership approaches: examples

    • Mynydd Parys, North Wales• Lamesley, Co Durham

    Partnership approaches

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Mynydd Parys• Abandoned workings with dam

    impounding head > 50m of highly acidic waters, perched above town of Amlwch

    • Predictive models suggested dam failure would exceed 100-year flood in town, with almost certain loss of life

    • Procedure needed to mine-out dam and restore ‘natural’ drainage

    Partnership approaches

  • 31

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Mynydd Parys

    Partnership approaches

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Mynydd Parys

    Partnership approaches

  • 32

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Mynydd Parys• Engineering challenge relatively

    straightforward, if unusual• Regulatory challenge – major!• Stakeholders:

    – Local government– Landowners and local residents– National authorities: environmental

    protection, heritage, nature conservation– New mining company nearby– Mine explorers

    Partnership approaches

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Mynydd Parys• Conundrum: permitting works to avoid one

    risk while apparently contravening laws on increasing discharge of toxic substances to a watercourse …

    • Solution: two-phase process design– Remove flood risk as Phase One– Plan and implement remediation as Phase Two

    • Thorough risk assessment approach taken, bringing all stakeholders along in consensus-building process

    • One absentee stakeholder attempted to disrupt process late on; given short shrift!

    Partnership approaches

  • 33

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Mynydd Parys:Phase I in progress

    Partnership approaches

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Mynydd Parys: Adit discharge before and after Phase I

    Partnership approaches

    AFTERAFTERBEFOREBEFORE

  • 34

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Mynydd Parys:awaiting Phase II …

    Partnership approaches

    Afon Goch Amlwch

    Copper: 5.4 kg/day

    Zinc: 20.7 kg/day

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Lamesley, Co Durham• Kibblesworth: Coal Authority’s largest pumping

    station on an abandoned mine - preventing flooding, pollution and hazardous gas emissions in a dense urban area– Deterioration in quality due to changes in pumping to the

    east; new need for Fe removal• Birtley sewage works: typical wastewater plant

    requiring upgrade to remove PO4• My question: Given Fe and PO4 are highly reactive

    forming insoluble minerals, can we co-treat both waters to achieve best overall environmental result?

    • Required partnership between a public body (Coal Authority) and private water company (Northumbrian Water Ltd)

    Partnership approaches

  • 35

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Wetland co-treatment of sewage and mine water

    Lamesley (Gateshead): Birtley Sewage Works and Kibblesworth Mine Water Discharge

    Our house!

    Inflow cascade

    Partnership approaches

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Lamesley: challenges overcome in partnership working

    • Novelty of co-treatment process: Newcastle Univ pilot plant• Contrasting time-scale drivers for Coal Authority and

    Northumbrian Water Ltd• Different investment approval processes (involving different

    parts of government)• Both organisations had different pre-agreed preferred

    contractors … some legal delicacies!• Novelty of proposed joint-ownership of discharge consent from

    final treatment system: required creative thinking from Environment Agency– Despite all the above, great success was achieved: the

    project was runner-up in the 2005 National Utility Awards (in ‘Environmental Excellence’ category)

    Partnership approaches

  • 36

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Towards best practices• Dependencies:

    – Climate– Type of mining– Socio-economic setting– Legal framework

    Towards best practices

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Towards best practices• Ideal attributes:

    – Logical basis: never accept the over-ruling of scientific rigour

    – Culturally appropriate– Ecologically integrated– Hydrologically integrated (catchment

    perspective / supra-catchment aquifers)

    – Cognisant of full life-cycle

    Towards best practices

  • 37

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Best practice guidance• PIRAMID• ERMITE• ERMISA, CAMINAR• ICMM Community Toolkit• etc•… but: MEND is the envy of the world, so don’t concern yourselves too much with what we’ve been up to!

    Towards best practices

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    PIRAMID guidelines

    Towards best practices

  • 38

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    YOUNGER PL, WOLKERSDORFER CH:

    Preface

    ERMITE CONSORTIUM:

    Mining impacts on the Fresh Water Environment: Technical and Managerial Guidelines for Catchment Scale Management

    Supplement 1 to Volume 23 March 2004

    YOUNGER PL, WOLKERSDORFER CH:

    Preface

    ERMITE CONSORTIUM:

    Mining impacts on the Fresh Water Environment: Technical and Managerial Guidelines for Catchment Scale Management

    ERMITE: Environmental Regulation of Mine Waters in the European Union

    European Commision, 5th Framework Programme, contract EVK1-CT-2000-00078

    ERMITE guidelines

    Towards best practices

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    From ERMITE to ERMISA …

    YOUNGER PL, WOLKERSDORFER CH:

    Preface

    ERMITE CONSORTIUM:

    Mining impacts on the Fresh Water Environment: Technical and Managerial Guidelines for Catchment Scale Management

    Supplement 1 to Volume 23 March 2004

    Towards best practices

  • 39

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    … and on to CAMINAR(2007 – 2010)

    • Collaborative EU-funded multi-stakeholder research in Peru, Chile, Bolivia

    • Producing guidelines for water management in arid and semi-arid zones with mining

    – HERO, Newcastle University– Water Management

    Consultants (Chile)– ETSIMO (Spain)– Labor, Peru: (Stakeholder

    engagement) – CAZALAC, Chile: (UNESCO

    Centre for Water Management in arid and semi-arid zones)

    Towards best practices

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Summary• Dimensions of the issue: dust, stability, WATER – and

    ‘heritage’• Priority setting – an integrated technical and social

    evaluation is needed• Community engagement – needs to be pursued at all

    scales, from a single village, through regions to countries and international arenas

    • Partnership approaches – costly, but worth it!• Towards best practices – scientifically sound, culturally

    appropriate, ecologically and hydrologically integrated, cognisant of full life-cycle

  • 40

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Thank you – Merci

    Greetings from the next generation of Europeans Greetings from the next generation of Europeans inheriting orphaned and abandoned mine issuesinheriting orphaned and abandoned mine issues