[IEEE First Annual Workshop on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking Computing. MobiHOC Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing - Boston, MA, USA (11 Aug. 2000)] 2000 First Annual Workshop on Mobile and Ad Hoc Networking and Computing. MobiHOC (Cat. No.00EX444) - Low power rendezvous in embedded wireless networks
Post on 10-Feb-2017
Low Power Rendezvous in Embedded Wireless Networks
Terry Todd', Frazer Bennett2 and Alan Jones3 'Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
McMaster University Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, L8S 4K1
Wireless Technology PA Consulting Group Melbourn, Herts, UK
3AT&T Laboratories Cambridge 24a Trumpington Street
Absrracr-In the future, wireless networking will be embedded into a wide variety of common, everyday objects [l]. In many embedded net- working situations, the communicating nodes will be very small and bat- tery powered. For this reason, it is crucial that power consumption is as low as possible. A technique for reducing power consumption is to place nodes into a sleep mode whenever possible, and have them occasionally awaken to interact with other nodes. This type of action is referred to as a node rendezvous, and can be used in a variety of different ways.
In this paper we consider power-efficient service rendezvous in embed- ded wireless networks with external triggering. We first define two basic rendezvous mechanisms, namely, server beaconing and client beaconing. We show that server beaconing is preferred when the client arrival rate is below a parameter dependent threshold. Above this level, the use of client beaconing results in lower power consumption. We also consider a hybrid technique whereby server nodes independently select the beaconing mode so that total power consumption is reduced over a wide range of system parameter values. The operation of the client nodes is transparent to this selection.
We also introduce the use of adaptive server beaconing. In a static server beaconing system, the optimum beaconing rate is an increasing function of the client loading level. It is shown that by adapting the server beacon rate in an intelligent way, total power consumption can be greatly reduced over a large range of traffic loading conditions. A very simple method is introduced for performing this adaptation.
Several other innovations are discussed which can be used to reduce power consumption in embedded networks. We investigate the use of an AC mains-powered rendezvous server for power reduction, and we discuss a distributed power reduction technique referred to as client beacon prox- ying. It is shown that by performing rendezvous in an inteagent manner, total power consumption may be greatly reduced in many situations.
I. INTRODUCTION In the future, embedded wireless networking will be in-
cluded in many common, everyday objects. It is expected that this added functionality will enable an enormous variety of applications and services which have yet to be achieved or envisioned [l]. Possible examples of such embedded net- works include sensor systems which monitor and control the environment, smart toys and games, smart appliances, elec- tronic access control, and a myriad of other in-home, busi- ness, and manufacturing applications. At AT&T Laboratories Cambridge for example, the Prototype Embedded Networking Project (PEN) is a testbed for the provisioning of embedded wireless networks for many of these uses [ 11.
A unique aspect of embedded wireless networking is its
deemphasis on classical performance measures such as MAC channel capacity, and an increasing focus on low cost and re- duced node power consumption. It should be noted that even in standard networks such as IEEE 802.1 1 and HIPERLAN, fea- tures have already been included which explicitly sacrifice ca- pacity performance in favor of reduced power consumption , [31.
We can view embedded wireless networks to be configured in either dense mode or sparse mode applications. In sparse mode, the typical number of server nodes per wireless cover- age area is very small. There are many applications of this kind, meter reading, temperature and heat sensors, are possible examples. Sparse mode systems consist of islands of service offerings whose performance is clearly not constrained by the available channel capacity.
In dense mode, there is typically a much larger number of embedded nodes per wireless coverage area. An example of this is a bookshelf where each book contains an embedded node which periodically announces the title of the book. In dense mode systems there are often opportunities for collabo- rative node operation. Even in dense mode systems however, many of the applications will be such that node interactions will be very short-lived and infrequent, so that channel capac- ity performance is not an important factor.
An important issue in embedded wireless systems is the se- lection of the objective function used as a basis for power opti- mization. In this paper we will employ an average total power (ATP) criterion, i.e., we will assess various systems on the ba- sis of average total power dissipated. One can argue that this criterion approximates the cost of battery replacement, assum- ing a constant battery drain when the node is active. However, in many cases other criteria may be just as appropriate.
A technique for reducing power consumption this is to place nodes into a low power sleep (or doze) mode whenever pos- sible, and have them occasionally awaken to communicate with other nodes . This type of action is referred to as a node rendezvous, and can occur in a number of different ways. A service rendezvous is when nodes first communi- cate for the purposes of exchanging application information.
0-7803-6534-8/00/$10.00 0 2000 IEEE
Activated client Unactivated dient
Server coverage area
Fig. 1. Embedded Server System Model
Service rendezvous includes the act of determining a point in time where a desired node service is available so that it can be accessed. Once this happens, the nodes involved can engage in a clientherver session. This involves the exchange of user information in accordance with the application that is being run. In many systems the session may consist of a very short interaction between the nodes involved. An example of this would be where a node queries and records the reading from a power meter node. Conversely, the session may involve a long- term association between the client and server. An example of this would be a wireless door locWsensor which communicates over a long time period to a control panel in the same room. In this case, the session itself could involve repeated instances of node rendezvous for the purpose of occasional information exchange. This type of rendezvous is referred to as session rendezvous. The use of session rendezvous normally implies a relatively long-term association between the nodes in ques- tion. The IEEE 802.1 1 standard includes a session rendezvous mechanism where stations in sleep mode awaken simultane- ously and listen to the channel for the duration of an ATIM time window .
In embedded systems of this type, it is often important to distinguish between service rendezvous and service discovery. A mobile node arriving at a new location may engage in a ser- vice discovery process where it learns of the services offered by nodes within its radio coverage area. Once it determines this information, it may decide to use those services that it is interested in. On the other hand, service rendezvous is the act of initiating a cliendserver interaction once the desired service is known to exist. In many applications, service discovery is inherent in the design of the system and the nodes are pre- programmed to access the service for which they are intended. In this case, service discovery is unnecessary and a client node directly initiates a service rendezvous to access the service. In systems of this kind, beaconing is a term used to describe a packet broadcast which is used by an awakening node to ad- vertise or solicit an interaction between two or more nodes.
In systems with long-term cliendserver associations, the to-
tal energy dissipated due to service discovery and service ren- dezvous is likely to be very small compared with that dissi- pated due to the session itself. On the other hand, there are many applications for which the total power dissipated due to service rendezvous can be much higher than that associated with the cliendserver session. An example of this would be where a hand-held client node queries the contents of a ship- ping carton. In this case the actual transfer of application data may take just a few milli-seconds, whereas, the service ren- dezvous may expend node energy for several seconds. In such cases there can often be many orders of magnitude difference between the rendezvous and session energy dissipations. In this paper we consider this latter type of system, i.e., where the energy expended due to service rendezvous is a significant fraction of the total. When this is the case, the techniques used for service rendezvous are very important from a power saving viewpoint.
To further reduce power consumption in embedded systems, nodes may use a form of external triggering. Consider for ex- ample, an application where an operator uses a wireless wand to read the output of a power meter. Rather than having the client node consuming power at all times, the operator may push a button on the wand to activate the node. Upon receiving this external signal, the node would power up, and engage in a service rendezvous with the power meter node. After down- loading the pertinent information, the node would then switch its power off until the next activation trigger. Many other types of external triggers may be employed in such systems. Light sensing, magnetic induction, control-channel power sensing, and physical movement are a few examples of other types of external triggers. In this paper we will focus on systems which use external triggering to initiate service rendezvous.
There has been other recent work which considers the gen- eral issue of low power MAC protocols for wireless networks. In , techniques were considered for error recovery under dif- ferent channel fading conditions. In [ 5 ] and  , comprehen- sive studies of the power dissipation performance are given for various wireless ATM MAC protocols. Good discussions are
provided on how to reduce portable station power consump- tion under basestation control. In , a MAC protocol is pro- posed which uses reservatiodscheduling for power reduction in the portable stations. Similar techniques have been proposed in El, PI.
In this paper we consider power-efficient rendezvous in em- bedded wireless networks using the ATP criterion discussed
' above. We first define two basic beaconing mechanisms, namely, server beaconing and client beaconing. A simple sys- tem model is used to characterize the power performance for these classes of embedded networks. We find that when client nodes contend for a single service, server beaconing is the pre- ferred mechanism when the client arrival rate is below a pa- rameter dependent threshold. This result implies that it is im- portant that the network operating characteristics are known sufficiently well in advance, if power efficient operation is de- sired. A hybrid technique is introduced whereby server nodes can independently select the mode of operation so that total power consumption is reduced over a wide range of system parameter values.
Adaptive Server Beaconing is also introduced in this paper. We show that by adapting the server inter-beacon times in an intelligent fashion, a server beaconing system can greatly re- duce total power consumption over a large range of client ar- rival rates. A simple method is introduced for performing this adaptation.
Several other innovations are discussed which can be used to reduce power consumption in embedded networks. We in- vestigate the use of an AC mains-powered rendezvous server. The rendezvous server provides timing information to arriving clients so that the power dissipated in performing the service rendezvous can be reduced. Our results show that this method performs extremely well across a wide range of client loading. When loading is very high however, lower power consumption is attained by client beaconing.
Finally, we discuss a technique referred to as client beacon proxying. This is a method where arriving clients co-operate to reduce total power consumption. By performing rendezvous in an intelligent manner, total power consumption may be greatly reduced in many situations.
11. EMBEDDED SYSTEM MODEL
In Figure 1 we show the system model used in this paper. We consider the case where an embedded node provides a service to a possibly large population of client nodes. We will assume a sparse mode situation where the coverage area of the server node does not overlap significantly with that of other server nodes. However, we will also present results which consider the system in the presence of contending node traffic. As dis- cussed in the introduction, we assume that an arriving client is externally activated at some point after entering the wireless coverage area of the server. In the figure we have shown both unactivated and activated client nodes inside the server cover- age area. Upon being activated, the client node would proceed
to initiate contact with the server node, i.e., perform a service rendezvous. As mentioned previously, it is assumed that the application is such that service discovery is not needed. Once the client node makes contact with the server, they engage in a clienvserver interaction session. We assume that following this exchange, the client node powers down and leaves the system.
Normally in such a system, one would specify a response time target in attaining the service rendezvous. In a sensor reading application for example, the design would try to ensure that under light loading conditions, the time to initiate contact with the server is bounded by some factor, denoted by D,,,. Of course, when the loading is higher than this, users will ex- perience a degradation in this performance, as is commonly the case in packet-switched systems. Also, because of channel errors, this bound is normally a statistical one.
111. CLIENT AND SERVER BEACONING
In this section we introduce two basic beaconing mecha- nisms, namely, Client Beaconing (CB), and Server Beaconing (SB). To aid in the description, we will focus on the actions of a particular server node and the client nodes which arrive to its radio coverage area. As discussed in Section 11, we con- sider the common case where the visiting clients are enabled through external activation after having arrived at the coverage area. Accordingly, we assume that the system is designed so that service discovery is not required. The objective is to per- form service rendezvous so that a service interaction can occur between each client and the server. Client and server beacon- ing both accomplish this in the following manner. Server Beaconing (SB): Under the SB mechanism, the server sleeps and awakens periodically, every tss seconds. Upon awakening, the server sen...