identifying turfgrasses agents commercial ornamental horticulture in-service training - may, 2005

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  • Identifying TurfgrassesAgents Commercial Ornamental Horticulture In-service Training - May, 2005

  • Common Turfgrasses in TennesseeWarm-season

    BermudagrassZoysiaCentipedegrassSt. Augustinegrass


    Tall fescueFine fescuesKentucky bluegrassPerennial ryegrassAnnual ryegrass

  • Turfgrass Growth HabitTillersRhizomesStolons

  • Growth HabitBunch: spread by tilleringUniformity is problem long term or at low seeding ratesTall, Chewings and Hard Fescues, and Annual and Perennial Ryegrasses

  • Growth HabitRhizomatousBelow-ground lateral shootsStorage organsUniform turfsSod productionBermudagrass, Kentucky Bluegrass, Creeping Red Fescue and Zoysia

  • Growth HabitStoloniferousAbove-ground lateral shootsForaging organ; grow faster than rhizomesUniform turfsClose mowing preferredSod productionBermudagrass and Zoysia

  • A Turfgrass Plant

  • VernationFoldedRolled

  • Leaf TipRoundedBoat-shapedPointed

  • Ligule

  • Collar

  • Auricles

  • Tall FescueGrowth habit: bunchVernation: rolledLigule: med.(0.4 - 1.2 mm), bluntAuricles: short, blunt, hairsCollar: broad, divided, short hairs Blade: wide (5-10 mm), flat, stiff (coarse leaf)

  • Vernation: foldedLigule: membranous, 0.5 mm, bluntAuricles: noneCollar: narrow, continuousBlade: 11/2 - 3 mm, often remaining foldedRed fescue

  • Hard fescue (Festuca longifolia)Growth habit: bunchVery stiff leaves, wider than sheep fescueMore tolerant of moist, fertile soils than sheep fescueUses: shade mixtures and soil stabilization

  • Poa spp.Most commonly used temperate grassMore than 200 speciesVernation: foldedAuricles: noneLeaf blade: boat-shaped tip; distinct central vein + parallel light veinsGrowth habit: bunch, stoloniferous or rhizomatous depending on speciesCutting height: 1 to 4 inches

  • Ligule: membranous, very short (0.2 - 0.6 mm), bluntCollar: broad, dividedLeaf blades: smooth, central vein, boat-shaped tipKentucky bluegrass

  • Annual bluegrass (Poa annua)Damp/moist, fertile soilsSun to shadeMajor component of many golf greens (unintentionally) and lawns often form conspicuous patches

  • Ligule: long (0.8 3mm), membranous, pointedCollar: broad, dividedBlade: two - 3 mm wide; light- to dark-green ecotypesAnnual bluegrass

  • Wrinkled leavesLong liguleSeed producer (1,190,000 seeds / lb.)Annual bluegrass

  • Rough bluegrass(Poa trivialis)Growth habit: stoloniferousFine-textured, light greenDamp/moist, fertile soilsPoor heat/drought toleranceModerate to heavy shadeturns brown & thins out in sun during summer*Overseeding bermudagrass

  • Ligule: long (2 - 6 mm) membranous, pointed or notchedCollar: broad, dividedBlades: one - 4 mm wide; glossy surface; sheath has onion-skin lookRough bluegrass

  • Weak, small and shortstolonRough bluegrassRough bluegrass

  • Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)English ryegrassGrowth habit: bunchOrigin: British Isles Annual or perennial according to location

  • Vernation: foldedLigule: 0.5-2 mm, membranous, blunt to roundedAuricles: small, claw-likeCollar: broad, dividedBlades: flat, 2-5 mm wide; glossy undersidePerennial ryegrass

  • Other ID tips

    Very red at the base

    Seeds are widerabove the mid-pointPerennial ryegrassPerennial ryegrass

  • Italian ryegrassAnnual or short-lived perennialGrowth habit: bunchVernation: rolledLigule: - 2 mm, membranous, roundedAuricles: pointed, claw-likeCollar: broad, continuousAnnual ryegrass

  • Annual ryegrassPerennial ryegrass

  • Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.)Most common southern turfgrass; highly variable Several species and hybrids:Common = Cynodon dactylon (18 chromosomes)African = C. transvaalensis (36 chromosomes)Hybrids: C. dactylon x C. transvaalensis; Sterile

  • BermudagrassVernation: foldedLigule: fringe of hairsAuricles: noneCollar: continuous, narrow to broadBlades: flat, 1.5 - 4 mm wide, smooth or hairy above & belowGrowth habit: stoloniferous, rhizomatous

  • Bermudagrass

  • Zoysia

  • Zoysia (Zoysia spp.)Three species used for turf:Japanese lawngrass = Zoysia japonicaManilagrass = Zoysia matrellaMascarenegrass = Zoysia tenuifolia

  • ZoysiaVernation: rolledAuricles: noneLigule: fringe of hairsCollar: broad, continuous, w/ long hairsBlades: flat, 2-4 mm wide, stiff, long hairs on top (bottom)Growth habit: stoloniferous, rhizomatous

  • pointed, stiff,upright leavesZoysia

  • Centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides)Moderately coarse -texturedStoloniferousAdaptation and UsesCoastal, southern transition zoneLawns, rights-of-wayUse is increasing

  • Centipedegrass

  • Coarse-texturedStoloniferousLeaf blade constricted at the baseSt. Augustinegrass


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