Identification of Dyes on Textile Fibres

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  • Identification of Dyes on Textile Fibres ELLIS CLAYTON

    The systematic proccclure involvccl in t,he identifictLtion of dyes on comniercial dyeings iind print.s appmently hns undergone very little change, so fa.r as can be ascert,ainetl from publishcd literature, since 1!)05-7, when Green3 and his collaborators4 introduced t-heir schemes of analysis for use in the examina.tioii of dyeings on d t o n and animal fibres. It is scarcely to be expected, of course, that any particiilar systcm of analy~is can retain its position for an un- limited period as a widely recognised standard system, without undergoing various niodifica- tions, but, the fact that the first systematic series of dye-identification Tables has been used with lit& alterat.ion for 30$years through- out the world, is a remarkable tribute to the efficiency of the work of the authors. During this period, however, a large number of new dyes have been introduced into commerce and some of them belong to dyeing groups which were unknown when Green's Tables were first published. Apart, however, from a few (a) acid- mordant dyes, other than anthrayuinonoid dyes, not containing azo groups, ( b ) polymethine dyes, ( c ) dioxazine and aryl-substituted fluorindene substantive dyes, i.e. members of two sub- groups of the oxazine and azine series respect- ively, (d ) ranges of dyes used for the specific purpose of dyeing cellulose acet,at,e ra.yon, and (e ) a few dischargeable dyes containing a thiazole ring, the actual chemical classes into which dyes have been divided, almost sintedye chemistry becnnieiiri exact scierice, have undergone very few changes in the last 30 years. It is well-known that, many of the dyes given in Green's Tables are niore or less obsolete, whilst certain dyes which formerly were used only in conjunction with mordants, are now available as acid dyes which contain the mordant. (metal) as a co-ordinated part of the dye complex, but in these and almost all other cases of new dyes of modified types, the charac- teristic chromophoric groupings, represented in the original Tables, still serve as the controlling and limiting factors in the design of new schemes of identification. The present position, therefore, seems to indicate that thc general tendency in dye-research work during t,he last two or three decades has been directed mainly towards im- provement in the properties of established dyes and to thc syntheses of allied chemiatl com- pounds of much great,er molecular complexity. The modern vat dyes, in particular, illustrate this tendency. Another aim has been direct,ed towards the conversion of insoluble dyes into soluble derivatives which yield colour effects having the same valuable inherent properties it8 the parent dyes. The conversion of leuco-vat

    dyes into solublo siilpliiiric rs f vr ctcbriv;it iws, which can Isc applird to ;ill f i b ~ s in S I I C * ~ I i i \\';I>. that t81iey yield dyeings equivalent. to t lw piircltit dyeings, is an out.ntnnding rrsiilt of this work.

    Incident.ally, i t may be nobed thi1.t. tlic \ v d l - known method of introtlucing M U ~ I ' ~ I ~ I ~ O - ~ : ~ ~ I I I I ) S into higher aliphatic alcohols in ordcr t o iirodwc water-soluble products, 11;~s bcw ut ilisetl re- cently, in an indirect wity, t,o prodiiw vert ain t.ypes of wtter-soluble a m tlyes rsi i~~i;iI ly suit- able for cellulose acetate rayon. Thc Solawt. dyes of Imperial Cheniical Industrirs IAd. appear to be product,s of this t,yprx. Minor i i io ( l i - tications in chemical st,ruct,iires of \vcIl-Itno\\ I I dyes, therefore, have to be boriie in mind it1 i tny attempt t,o create new or niodified srhcmes of identification, but their influtvice on long- established analytical procedurc! is of little importa,nce, since no profoiind alt.erat ion in the characteristic chromophorie groupings is in- volved in most cases and the colour c:ffr:c:ts pro- duced with the modified dyes tire not t.o l)c regarded as offering much clifficwlty in plit(*itig them i n t,he correct. dyeing clnsses.

    Perhaps the most important iittribute of iltly scheme of analysis is simplicity, and the uoconi- panying Tables are now presented in the hope t,hibt. they will~erveasa contribution tosuch atlesirablc goal. At theout,set,, i t should hestntecl tlitrt. t,hc?new Ta.bles have been built up on the lincs oripitlillly employed by Professor A. G. Green. Since the multiplication of test,irig reilgellts i n ;I try sc*licnir of analysis is undehxldc. only o i i c i i i i i i i i reducing agcnt is reconiniciidrtl for twt in: t1yc.s on wool, etc. and celliilosic~ fibrw; t,liiH c*onsists of i t solution of Formowl cont iiining cdiylcric. glycol: in sonie wses of cotton tlyeiiigs it is necessary to usc it 3?k cmistic sotiii. solution, to which sniall amount,s of sodium hytlrc )sit1 phi t t' are added (luring testing. Only a vcry ftw rrdii- cible dyeings resist. alterittion when boilctl vigor- ously in the standard Fornioxul rea.pent for it maximum period of 2 tiiin. This r(bii.petit is termed Fonnosul G.

    The following notes are int.cntled iminly to amplify t,he detu.ils given in t tie iic*t~onipiiny- ing Tables. I t has not, been vonsitlrreci udvisable t.o inclucle, unrlcr th t . ( h w i ( ~ i ~ I anti dyeing groups in the Tables, ttiv tiittiics of representative commercial dyes, except in ii feu. ca.ses where cx;tmples are needctl. The 'olviir I n d e d " should be consulted on this Iwi i i t ;IS ~vell as for individual rcact,ionn of dyes belonging to the various chemical pmi ) s .

    Reagents-The chief reagents rtqtirc.rl in testing dyeings and prints on i l l1 kintls ot'iininiitl a.nd cellulosic fibres ttccordirig t.o t tie w l i t ~ i i e s presented in the acconipanying Tablcs mc-

  • May 1937 CLAYTON-IDENTIlICATION OF DYES ON TEXTILE FIBRES 179

    (1 ) Dilute Ammonia (1 C.C. ammonia, sp. gr. 0.880, made up to 100 C.C. with water); (2) 5% Cawtic Soda Solution; ( 3 ) 5% Sodium Carbonate Sotution; (4) 5% Ammonium Chloride Solution; (5) 3% Hydrogen Peroxide; (6) Vat Dye Developer (8 g. ammonium chloride and 2 g. ammonium persulphate are dissolved in 100 C.C. cold water); (7) Formosul G (20 g. Formosul are dissolved in 75 C.C. hot water and diluted with 75 C.C. cold water and 50 g. ethylene glycol); (8) Ethylenediamine (the commercial product is colourless, has sp. gr. 0.97 and b.p. 117 C.; it is readily soluble in water and contains 60-70% of base); and (9) Developer 0 (1 g. ammonium persulphate and 0.5 g. ammonium dihydrogen phosphate are dissolved in 100 C.C. cold water).

    Procedure-The tests are carried out in boiling tubes. About 2 in. of the dyeing, if in the form of yarn, or 4 sq. in. or less, if in the form of cloth, is sufficient material to use; a little more should be used, of course, if the sample is a parti-coloured print. It is inadvisable to use a large excess of any reagent.

    IDENTIFICATION OF DYES O N WOOL AND SILK The chief classes of dyes which are most

    likely to be present on wool fibres are ( a ) acid dyes and (b ) metallic dye-lakes produced by the use of acid-mordant dyes, dyes containing a co-ordinated metal, usually chromium, and a few true mordant dyes, Dyes used on a very much smaller scale are represented by members of the vat dye series, especially Indigo, and other members of the indigoid class, including also those dyes derived from the Indigosol, Soledon, etc. series, substantive and basic dyes. A few azoic dyes may be found occasionally on animal fibres. Acid and Substantive dyes are, perhaps, the most important dyes for silk, although mem- bers of all the classes used for wool may be found on this fibre.

    Basic Dyes on Wool and Silk-These dyes are extracted readily either with boiling acetic acid or alcohol. Brilliant pinks are produced occasionally on both fibres with Rhodamines, and bright blues with Turquoise Blues. Triaryl- methane basic dyes which have been transferred to wool from cotton are reduced readily with Pormosul G and reversion to the original colour tones occurs on warming the rinsed patterns in Developer 0.

    -4cid Dyes on Wool and Silk-No difficulty is experienced, as a rule, in detecting acid dyes on wool and silk. Most of the azo dyes of this class are reduced fairly readily to colourless compounds, although, in a few cases, the reduction product or products leave a yellow tint on the fibre; also, in some cases, the colour- less reduction products change to a pale yellow on treatment with weak hydrogen peroxide.

    Anthraquinonoid acid dyeings are easily re- duced to various tints of yellow, reddish-orange,

    A:,

    etc. which revert t o the colour tones of the original dyeings on a,iring, or in presence of weak hydrogen peroxide.

    Azine acid dyeings are reduced easily to colourless compounds, but revert to the original colour when placed in cold tap-water; the re- action liquids behave similarly.

    Triarylmethane acid dyeings a,lso are de- colorised, but considerable variation in the degree of resistance to Formosul G is shown by different members of this group of dyes. Furthermore, variation in the ease with which the fully reduced dyeings are oxidised to the carbinol bases by mild oxidising agents,* intro- duces a somewhat complicated problem. As a rule, some of the exceptionally bright blues, greens, and violets are peculiarly prone to give difficulty in this respect, especially when ex- amined in artificial light. When dyes of this type, e.g. Patent Blues, are suspected, the method of examination adopted by the present author is as follows-The dyeing is boiled for &l min. in 5% sodium carbonate solution. The extract may be deeply or only faintly coloured. If the former condition prevails, a small amount of caustic alkali is added to the extract and the liquid boiled until it is either decolorised or acquires a very pale lilac, etc. tint. Glacial acetic acid is then added, drop by drop, until the original colour of the dye develops. If the sodium carbonate extract is only faintly coloured and the dyeing shows a diminution in colour intensity, it is usually found that either addition of a slight excess of ammonium chloride and boiling for a few seconds, or addition of acetic acid, develops the original colour of the dye.

    Acid-mordant Dyes including Dyes contairhg a Co-ordinated Metal-A large number of the azo compounds in these groups are very resistant t.0 the action of Formosul C,; for ex- ample, most of t,he red and black cIvon~e dyeings can be distinguished from ordinary azo acid dyeings by this difference in behaviour. Preliminary boiling with 16% hydrochloric acid, however, breaks up the lakes of all azo metal- liferous dyes on wool, and, in most cases, there is sufficient of the metal-frec dye left on the sample, after rinsing well, to enable the analyst to detect easily t,he presence of the azo group. Similar tests hold good for metalliferous dyes on silk, although, in some cases, it may be necessary to use more highly concent,rated hytlrochloric acid than that recommended for uoo1 dyeings and to boil for a longer period. Thus, R Neolan Pink B dyeing on Tussah silk is extremely diffi- cult to reduce; boiling for 4 min. in 3096 hydro- chloric acid is necessary to eliminat,e the metal from the lake. A more satisfactory t,est is carried out as follows-The sample is warmed in ethyl- enediamine for & to 1 min., when a considerable portion of the dye is dissolved from the fibre

    * After rednetion with Forinosul Ci the pattern Is washed well i n cold water and placed in DrvrloperO. all leiico-compounds of triarylmethane acid dyes revert to the brivinal rolnur tonen of the dyeings and prints on gently warming the solution.

  • 180 CLAYTON-IDENTIFICATION OF DYES ON TEXTILE FIBRES .VaU 1937

    without alteration in colour; on addition of a little sodium hydrosulphite, permanent decolorisation of the solution takes place almost immediately, especially on warming. The chromium lake of the triarylmethane mordant dye, Eriochrome Azurol B, behaves like an oxazine dye after reduction, i.e. the original colour tone is restored quickly on airing or by tap-water, although the reversion does not occur so rapidly, and the inten- sity of the restored colour is not so pronounced as in the case of an oxazine dye. This distinctive behaviour seems to indicate that the chromium in the molecule is present in the form of an 0-co- ordina,ted colour-bearing link, since the reduced non-chromed dyeing behaves like those obtained from ordinary triarylmethane dyes, i.e. mild oxidation with w c e n t oxygen is needed to develop the p-quinonoid coloured structure.

    Substantive Dyu on Wool and Silk-Almost all substantive dyes on wool, whether after- treated or not, can be detected by boiling the dyeing in 5% sodium carbonate solution for about min. in presence of white cotton; the latter is stained readily, especially if allowed to remain in the cooling liquid, and little action occurs on boiling the stained cotton in 1% ammonia. Substantive dyeings on silk may be distinguished from acid dyeings in a similar manner, although in the cme of this fibre, it is best t o use 610% caustic soda solution. Even Frimuline Red on silk, stains white cotton in this test. Some exceptions to this general test are the azo dyes of the Coomassie Navy Blue and Black, or Sulphoncyanine, types. These are generally applied to wool and silk from neutral or very slightly acid baths, but, although closely allied to substantive azo dyes in chemical structures, they stain white cotton in this test to a comparatively slight extent. Identification of dyeings of this type, however, may be achieved by boiling the wool dyeings in 1% caustic soda solution when a dull, yellowish colour resulk8 A somewhat similar effect, except that the fibre is not disintegrated, is obtained with both wool and silk dyeings on boiling with 50 Tw. sodium bisulphite. The possibility of the presence on wool of other dyes sensitive to the action of a mild alkaline reduc- ing agent, viz. wool in presence of boiling alkali, should be borne in mind in carrying out the foregoing test.

    Vat Dyes 012 Wool and Silk-These are indicated by more or less pronounced colour changes on heating the samples in the standard reducing agent. I f excess of the latter is then removed and the pattern washed twice in nearly boiling water, the original colour tone of the aample is restored; the addition of a little 3% hydrogen peroxide to the last rinsing water facilitates this reversion. In many cases, the reducing solution obtained by heating the wool dyeing in 1% caustic soda solution is sufficiently strong to form the leuco-compounds of certain

    vat dyes, especially those of the indigoid series, and use may be made of this action in the differentiation between various members of the vat dye classes. The leuco-compounds obtained by the caustic soda-wool method, quickly revert to the parent dyes; if, e.g. a few drops of a vat formed in this way are poured on to filter paper, the colour of the parent dye is produced almost immediately. Vat dyeings on wool produced via Indigosol, Soledon, etc. dyes, often contain chromium; traces of this metal may be present also in similar d o u r effects, either prints or dyeings, on silk or cotton.

    The remarkable action of ethylenediamine on most classes of dyeings and prints affords a simple, hut excellent, means of removing them as solutions from the fibre for further examination. In suitable cases, dyes on wool and silk are cwiverted into their leuco- compounds, whilst in other cases, more or less complete dissolution and removal of the dye tak6 place. A detailed examination of this reagent as regards its behavioiir towards the various classes of textile dyeings and prints ia being made by the present author, as it seems probable that ethylenediamine may prove to be a valuable addition to the somewhat limited number of reagents at the disposal of the average dye chemist, whilst its possible future use for stripping dyes in large scale work is not to be ignored. Indigo, its halogeno-derivatives and many other indigoid dyes on wool are reduced to their leuco-compounds on standing for a short time a t room temperclture, and almost instantaneously on heating to nbout 60-600 C . . in presence of ethylenediamine. A considerable amount of dye appears to be removed first by dissolution, RO that a comparatively strong vat is formed, but sufficient Imro-compound is invariably left on the fibre to give the usiial colour-reversion effect on oxidation. This reversion effect is seldom a rapid one when the oxygen in water is uRed to produce it (distinction from oxilzine dyes, etr.), but i4 farilitated by pouring the reaction mixtiire into Vat, Dye Developer.

    Azoic Dyes on Wool and Silk-The presence of azoic dyes on wool and silk ia suspected when the results obtained in testing for the iisultl classes of dyes are negative. Hot ethylene- diamine extracts of the patterns are decolorised readily and permanently by sodium hydrosulphite (distinction from vat dyes). Most nzoic dytax on wool and xilk yield sliniy residues of the same intense colours as the original dyes on boiling patterns in 5% and 10% caustic soda solutions respectively (distinction from acid-mordant and mordant dyes), and most yellow dyeingx and prints change to orange or red rolours

    IDENTIFICATION OF DYES ON CELLITLOSIC FIBRES Ba&c Dyes on Various C!elluIo&r F ibm-

    The patterns are boiled first wit8h caustic nods

  • .Wau 1957 CLAYTON-IDENTIFICATION OF DYES ON TEXTILE FIBRES 181

    solution; the dyes are then transferred to wool as originally suggested by Greens, but instead of using the saline caustic soda method, the fol- lowing procedure gives excellent results and there is no need to touch the pattern in the boiling tube until the dye has been transferred to wool andits class determined. The sample is placed in a boiling tube, covered with I C.C. 5% caustic soda solution, and boiled for a few seconds 4 C.C. 5% ammonium chloride solution are then added and the whole boiled again. A piece of white wool is introduced next and the liquid allowed to cool; most of the dye is (taken up by the wool from the cooling liquid.

    Substantive Dyes on Cellulosic Fibres-Bac- tically all dyes of this class, whether after- treated or not, are stripped to a considerable extent on boiling for min. in 5% caustic soda solution. (In a few cases the colour of the dyeing alters distinctly or much of the colour may be discharged). If a little white mercerised cot- ton is then added to the extract, a fair amount of dye is absorbed by the cotton from the cooling solution and this dye is not stripped by boiling 1 yo ammonia. The readiness with which stripping in 5% caustic soda solution takes place and the degree of stripping, as judged by the depth of colour of the solution, are important clues in helping the analyst to distinguish between straight dyeings and those which have been after-treated. Primuline, after-treated with bleaohing powder solution, and several coupled, and diazotised and developed dyeings are ex- amples of substantive dyeings which are only slightly affected by 5% boiling caustic soda solu- tion; some patterns change colour; others yield solutions differing in colour from the patterns, and white cotton is not, or only very slightly, stained in the cooling liquids. In cases where it is desired to prove conclusively that the dye present ix substantive to cellulose, a pattern is shaken for some time with a little cold ethylcne- dinminr, the roloured extract diluted with water, 11 hit,e cotton introduced, the solution heated to 80 C., 5 little common salt added, and the whole allowed to cool. The cotton is stained and the htain is not removed by boiling 1 yo ammonia.

    During recent years a few substantive dyes which give straight shades of exceptional fast- ness to alkalis have been introduced. Amongst these, dyes giving pale blue dyeings are the most important,, e.g. Swius Supra Blue PFRL Rigan Sky Blue G, etc. Pale dyeings of these products on cotton and viscose rayon are not appreciably affected by boiling 5% caustic soda solution. They are stripped white, however, in about hr. by cold ethylenediamine. Rigan Sky Blue G dyeings change to red on boiling in Formosul G, but the colour reverts to the original colour tone in presence of alkali and tap-water. A dyeing of Sirius Supra Blue FFRL is decolorised on boiling in 1% caustic soda solution containing a little sodium hydrosulphite, but the white material de- velops the original colour tone on rinsing well in

    tap-water. Apparently, dyes of this type belong to the dioxazine series. In some cases an azo group or an anthraquinonoid ring may also be present in members of this and related new classes of substantive dyes. As a rule most sub- stantive dyeings are decolorised readily by boil- ing Formosul G. Some members of the diazo- tised and developed series are best boiled in 5% caustic soda solution to which a little sodium hydrosulphite is added. This procedure also should be adopted with discharge and resist prints on cotton and rayon; a pattern containing both ground and illuminating dyes should be boiled in the reagent until decolorisation and/or colour changes ofeach portion have occurred; the pattern is then rinsed and placed in Vat Dye Developer. Vat dye discharges on diazotised and developed azo dyeings are detected readily in this way.

    The possibility of the presence of a few diox- azine substantive dyes on viscose rayon dyeings should not be overlooked.

    Sulphur Dye8 on Cellulosic Fibres-Patterns are boiled for & min. in 16% pure hydrochloric acid and the liquid cooled. A few chips of pure magnesium are added, the tube covered with filter paper saturated with lead acetate or mercuric chloride solution, the reaction allowed to continue for a few minutes and the test paper examined for the presence of lead sulphide or mercuric sulphide. The usual reduction test generally gives a nearly colourless product which reverts at once in presence of tap-water to the colour tone of the original dyeing (dis- tinction from most vat dyes). Dyeings of the Indocarbon Black type are not decolorised on boiling in 3 Tw. sodium hypochlorite solution, and they yield reddish solutions (which revert immediately to the original colour tone on diln- tion with water) on boiling with ethylenediamine. Ordinary Sulphur Black dyeings yield .greenish solutions when treated in the same way. Sub- stantive dyes containing thiazole rings, and also vat dyes Containing twlphur, evolve hydrogen mlphide when reduced with hydrochloric acid and magnesium as described above. Some of the brown sulphur dyes are exceedingly difficult to reduce, but they are distiiiguiuhed by their Renxi- tivity in presence of boiling dilute sodium hypochlorite.

    dzoic Dyea on (e.!lulosic Fibres-Most of these are reduced to colourless or yellow com- pounds by vigorous boiling in Formosul G , especially in presence of a little caustic soda. If no signs of reduction appear after boiling for 1-2 min., the sample is placed in boiling 5yo caustic soda solution to which a little sodium hydrosulphite is then added. All azoic dyeings, including the yellow dyes fkom Naphtol AS-G, are reduced completely by this method. A re- agent consisting of equal volumes of 10% caustic soda solution and the monoethyl ether of ethyl- ene glycol is recommended in place of 5% caustic soda solution when examining dyeing

  • 182 CLAYTON-"IDENTIFICATION OF DYES ON TEXTILE FIBRES" Jlau 1937

    on viscose rayon. Most azoic dyeings are quickly attacked by cold 60-70% ethylenediamine, and this method of testing is used in the Tables. If the intensely coloured solutions are diluted with water and boiled for a few seconds they become turbid owing to separation of finely divided pig- ments; in some cases, the suspensions exhibit fluorescent effects and all of them yield flocculent coloured precipitates on standing. Azoic dyes in warm ethylenediamine solution are readily re- duced on addition of a few drops of water and a little sodium hydrosulphite. The absolute identification of individual azoic dyeings and prints is rendered possible by an extension of the method described by Rowe and Levine.

    Vat Dye8 on Cellulosic Fibrea-These generally give positive colour reactions on boiling in Formosul G, especially in presence of a little caustic soda; the original colour tones are restored either dowly or readily. The use of very hot rinsing water facilitates the change, whilst in some cases the addition of a few drops of hydrogen peroxide is effective. '(Vats" may be produced by heating the dyeings a t about 60" C, in 5% caustic soda solution to which a little sodium hydrosulphite is added; white cotton can be dyed in the vat, whilst the original colour is developed a t once if the contents of the tube are poured into an equal volume of Vat Dye Developer. Vat dyeings and prints may be distinguished quickly from azoic dyeings and prints by their negative or com- paratively slow reactivity (in most cases) in pres- ence of cold ethylenediamine.

    Some specific reactions of individual vat dyeings have been published by Green and Franks, Budel, Vajols, Jones and Kilby7, and Herzoge.

    ACTION OF ETHYLENEDIAMINE ON VARIOUS CUSSES OF DYEINGS AND PRINTS

    References have been made previously to the uses of commercial ethylenediamine as a dye- t,esting reagent. It is of especial service in the rapid differentiation between vat and azoic dye- ings and prints on cellulosic fibres. Ethylenedia- mine is one of the most powerful solvents of dyes known, but hitherto its application in this direction appears to have been overlooked. It is now obtainable commercially a t a reasonable price. In addition to its solvent action, the com- mercial product also possesses reducing proper- ties, possibly owing to the presence of organic impurities. A t the same time, the reagent may develop a mild reducing system in conjunction with organic fibrous materials on account of its alkaline reaction and moderately high b.p. of 117" C. A few vat dyes, both on wool and cotton, yield leuco-compounds when treated for some time with the cold reagent, but most anthraquin- onoid dyes on cellulosic fibres are only slightly affected; these are removed, however, more or less completely, either by direct dissolution in

    t.he reagent at or near its b.p., or i n solution as their leuco-derivatives, I n the l i i f k r case, SUE- cient leuco-compound is genrriilly left on t lie fibre to indicat,e the nature of t,hv dyeing by tlie usual re-oxidat,ion test. For exii.nlple. w 20" Caledon Jade Green XS dyeing on cotton loses much dye on boiling in t.he reagent for f to I niin. and the solution is the same colour as t,he dyeing. A medium dyeing of Caletlon Brilliant Purplc 2R is &ripped completely when treated in a. Yimilar manner. Some samples of cwniniercinl ethylenediamine appear to be slightly mow efi- cient than ot,hers in ttheir action on \ T i i t , dyes itnrl it is best, therefore, t,o ndd a litt,le glucnse to the reagent when testing for vat dycs on cotton. et,c. All vat dyeings and prints yield leuco-coitipoiinds readily when treated in this way.

    One of the most import,a.nt properbies of the reagent is its power of dissolving from wool i d silk fibres some of the fast,est co-ordinated chromium lakes, e.g the chrorniuni lakes of Eriochrome Black T Supra, a.ll tlie h'ro1a.n dyes, etc. The first named dyeing is capnblc of wit.h- standing considerable boiling in 1606 hydro- chloric acid without any sign of dye being removed, but it. i R attacked rapidly by ethylcne- diamine; indeed, the action appears t.0 prcccdc the hydrolytic action of the reagent on the wool fibre. Also the cold reagent exerts a distinct action on dyeings of this type, especially on standing for some time.

    Most rtienibers of other classes of tiyes a.re removed from different fibrous materials by t,he powerful solvent action of et.liylenediamine. The actions in all cases are extraordinarily rapid, whilst such fibres as wool and silk a.re gradiia.lIy disintegrated. Substantive dyeings on cotton and rayon are stripped readily, many of thrm in the cold; a dark shade of Primuliiie R . 4 is stripped by the boiling retigent, to a piiler yellow shade than the original Primuline dyeing. Basic dyes also are dissolved r e a d y and most sulphnr dyeings are stripped.

    Another powerful solvent appa.rently obt.ainetl as a by-product, in the manufacture of et11ylcn~- diamine is known commercially as Tetriimine.* It is amixt,ureof condensed low nioleciilar \wiglit., a.lkylenediamines, and idao ront.nins imino- compounds, etc. It has3(r400/btiva,ila.blenitrogen which is slightly higher than t,he amount. in ethylenedia.mine. Its odoir resembles a mixt,urc of acetamide mid aldehyde ammonia. The init,ial b.p. is 178" C. Tetramine strips all v i~t dyeing8 on heating, including indant.hrone and its drrira- tives. A mixture of 3 part,R etliylenediiiriiine n r ~ l 1 part Tetramine acts in i L siiiiilar wa.y; iLzoi(* dyeings also are stripped re~lily. There is no need, however, to ut,ilise Tctriirninc i n dye testing. Basic-nwrda~t Oyes-The iiienibers oft his chss

    are confined mainly to gidlocyiulinP deriv i1 t t v w , .

    ' l ' t i ~ r-iiniiwrvial ~ ~ t i t ~ l ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ l i ~ i ~ ~ i i ~ ~ ~ ! i u l i l 'r1.t n i l l i i l l , , m q I t i ~ ~ t i ~ ~ < l I n the t e x t were iiianufacturcd by Curbide and < ' : I ~ ~ I ~ I I I ctitmiic:iis C'ori)ornt ion.

    ~ ~~~

  • May 1037 CLAYTON-IDENTIFICATION OF DYES ON TEXTILE FIBRES 183

    etc. They are not often found on wool and silk dyeings, but are of considerable importance in printing, especially calico printing. They are u w t l l y fixed as purple and blue chromium lakes. Their weakly acid solutions do not yield pre- cipitatcs with tannic acid, whilst their chromium hkcs on cotton are easily broken up by boiling 5?& hydrochloric. acid. If the acid solution is made slightly alkaline with concentrated am- monia, and any excess of the latter removed by addition of a little solid magnesium sulphate, it will be found that white wool is stained deeply in the cooling solution.

    ill ixture Dye ings-Chroma togru phic A dqorpt ion Tests-An regards mixture dyeings, i.e. colour effects produced with two or more dyes, it is usually practicable to strip a fair amount of the dyes with boiling mild alkali, or other suitable reagent, and then to separate the individual dyes by means of the filter paper capillary test. During recent years, this and other adsorption methods have been developed, mainly in eonnexion with bio-chemistry, to such an extent that the latest practice in this work may prove to be of considerable use to the dye chemist in the separation and identification of dyes contained in dye mixtures or dyeings. The filter paper adsorption test i H too well-known, of course, to need nny description. The chromatographic adsorption method, which is said to be far more efficient than the older method, is carried out as follows-

    Procedure-In making a chromatogran?, i.e. zones of separated colouring matters, advantage is taken of the differential adsorption which occurs when a solution of several dyes is allowed to drop on to a column of adsorbent, and the column rinsed (developed) with a pure solvent which may be the original or a different solvent. The adsorbent mixture undergoes innumerable elutionH and re-adsorptions from particle to particle, thereby causing the individual dyes to pass downwards at varying rates, through the adsorbent, so that distinct coloured zones, each corresponding to a constituent of the original mixture, are obtained. The subsequent

    steps in the analysis consist in the isol- ation of the coloured constituents in the zones, either mechanically or by elutria-

    :--- tion with the aid of selected solvents. --:-. The method was introduced by TswetP --: in attempting to solve problems con- ,< cerned with the functions of chlorophyll

  • TABL

    E I

    (RED D

    YEX

    NCS

    AN

    D PRINTS)

    IDE

    NT

    IFIC

    AT

    ION

    OF

    DY

    ES

    ON

    WO

    OL

    , S

    ILK

    , A

    ND

    RE

    LA

    TE

    D

    FIB

    RE

    S

    -

    The

    dye

    ing

    or p

    rint

    is

    boile

    d fo

    r 1-

    2 m

    in.

    in d

    ilut

    e am

    mon

    ia (

    cf.

    Rea

    gent

    s, p

    . 17

    9).

    in p

    rese

    nce

    of w

    hite

    cot

    ton.

    The

    sol

    utio

    n is

    col

    oure

    d di

    stin

    ctly

    . T

    he c

    otto

    n is

    not

    sta

    ined

    -Aci

    d Dy

    e.

    A f

    resh

    pa

    tter

    n is

    boi

    led

    for

    1-2

    min

    . in

    Fo

    mo

    sul

    G.

    A li

    ttle

    dy

    e is

    ex

    - tr

    acte

    d; t

    he t

    one

    of

    the

    colo

    ur

    is

    un-

    alte

    red-

    X

    nnth

    cne

    Dye

    (Rho

    ahm

    ines

    ).

    Som

    e of

    th

    ese

    e.g.

    F

    aat

    dci

    d

    Vw

    kt

    A2R

    . ar

    e pa

    rtly

    di

    scha

    rged

    , b

    ut

    re-

    vert

    , to o

    rigi

    nal

    col-

    ou

    r to

    nes

    in

    pres

    - en

    ce o

    f 3O

    ;, hy

    dro-

    ge

    n pe

    roxi

    de.

    The

    pa

    tter

    n is

    dec

    olor

    - is

    ed;

    orig

    i-

    nal

    colo

    ur

    is

    rest

    or-

    ed b

    y ta

    p-

    wa

    ter

    -

    Azi

    nc Dy

    e.

    tt

    The

    pat

    tern

    is

    deco

    l-

    oris

    ed; o

    rigi

    nal c

    ol-

    our

    is r

    esto

    red

    by

    Dev

    elop

    er 0

    - T

    riar

    ylm

    etha

    ne

    Dye

    .

    "his

    is

    con

    firm

    ed

    by b

    oilin

    g a

    fres

    h pa

    tter

    n fo

    r 9 min.

    in 5

    % s

    odiu

    m car

    - bo

    nate

    so

    luti

    on,

    whe

    n pa

    rtia

    l or

    co

    mpl

    ete

    deco

    lori

    - sa

    tion

    occ

    urs ;

    ori

    - gi

    nal

    colo

    ur i

    s re

    - st

    ored

    on

    ad

    ding

    ex

    cess

    5%

    am

    mo-

    ni

    um c

    hlor

    ide solu-

    tion

    and

    boi

    ling

    for

    a fe

    w seconds.

    -

    The

    pat

    tern

    is

    deco

    l-

    oris

    ed p

    erm

    anen

    tly

    or

    chan

    ges

    to p

    ale

    yello

    w-A

    m

    Dye

    .

    Cer

    tain

    red

    , sc

    arle

    t, an

    d or

    ange

    sha

    des,

    e.

    g. th

    ose

    prod

    uced

    by

    Po&

    . Su

    pran

    ol,

    etc.

    , dy

    es,

    areo

    nly

    sl

    ight

    ly a

    ffec

    ted

    by

    boil

    ing

    1% a

    mm

    o-

    nia

    and

    are

    re-

    duce

    d by

    bo

    iling

    Fo

    rmos

    ul

    G

    firs

    t to

    com

    para

    tive

    ly

    sta

    ble

    y

    ello

    w

    shad

    -,

    whi

    ch

    are

    deco

    lori

    sed

    only

    by

    vigo

    rous

    boi

    ling

    in

    this

    rea

    gent

    .

    __

    __

    _

    The

    patt

    ern

    is c

    hang

    ed

    t,o

    yello

    w

    whi

    ch.

    re-

    vert

    s sl

    ow-

    ly .

    to

    the

    ori

    gin

    al

    colo

    ur

    in

    wat

    er

    or

    air - &

    p

    thra

    quin

    - on

    oid Dye.

    The

    solu

    tion

    is

    not,

    or

    only

    ver

    y sl

    ight

    ly, c

    olou

    red.

    Th

    e co

    tton

    is

    not

    stai

    ned

    (Mor

    dant

    , Ac

    id-m

    orh

    t, o

    r V

    at

    Dye),

    or m

    ay b

    e st

    aine

    d (S

    ubst

    anti

    ve Dye).

    A f

    resh

    pa

    t.te

    rn is

    boi

    led

    for

    1-2

    min

    . in

    For

    mos

    ul G

    .

    The

    Dat

    tern

    is la

    ) dec

    olor

    ised

    Der

    - I Th

    e pa

    tter

    n un

    derg

    oes a

    dist

    inct

    or

    sli

    ght

    colo

    ur c

    hang

    e: o

    rigi

    nal

    -1

    m

    inen

    tly*

    l- A

    zo

    Aci

    d-m

    or-

    dan

    t or

    Azo

    Sub

    stan

    tive

    Dye ;

    or

    (a) i

    s ch

    ange

    d to

    yel

    low

    or

    yello

    wis

    h-br

    own,

    whi

    ch r

    ever

    ts

    to o

    rigi

    nal

    co

    ~o

    ur*

    * in

    pr

    es-

    ence

    of

    3O,

    hydr

    ogen

    pe

    r-

    Ant

    hraq

    uino

    noid

    ox

    ide -

    Mor

    dant

    Dye

    ; al

    so C

    ochi

    neal

    S

    corl

    el.

    Tee

    ts f

    or a m

    orda

    nt

    are

    appl

    ied.

    A m

    orda

    nt i

    s ' A

    mor

    dant

    is

    not

    mes

    ent-

    or

    esen

    t-

    (ajA

    zoA

    eid-

    (a

    j AZO

    Subs

    tan-

    m

    or

    da

    nt'

    ti

    ve D

    ye.

    Dye

    ? or

    1 This

    isc

    on

    h-

    (b)

    Ali

    zar-

    ed

    by

    boil

    ing,

    a in

    R

    e d

    R

    fres

    h pa

    tter

    n in

    and

    Mar

    - I

    5% so

    dium

    car

    - O

    Ofl

    R.

    bona

    te s

    olut

    ion

    in

    pras

    enre

    of

    w

    hite

    co

    tton

    ; 1

    the

    cott

    on

    is

    stai

    ned

    dee

    ply

    colo

    ur

    is r

    esto

    red

    mor

    e or

    -les

    s re

    adil

    y by

    air

    , ts

    p-w

    -ate

    r, o

    r 30

    , hy

    drog

    en

    pcro

    xide

    - V

    at D

    ye.

    Chr

    omiu

    m

    may

    be

    pr

    esen

    t in

    so

    me

    woo

    l dy

    eing

    s pr

    oduc

    ed u

    ia

    Indi

    goso

    l, S

    olet

    lon,

    et

    c.,

    dyes

    . T

    race

    s m

    ay b

    e pr

    esen

    t in

    cor

    re-

    spon

    ding

    silk

    dye

    ings

    and

    pri

    nts.

    A

    va

    t dy

    eing

    is

    conf

    irm

    ed

    by

    heat

    ing

    a fr

    eah

    patt

    ern

    in e

    thyl

    - en

    edia

    min

    e;

    man

    y dy

    es

    yiel

    d le

    uco-

    com

    poun

    ds

    at

    abou

    t 70

    ' C

    .; ot

    hers

    are

    cha

    nged

    in

    colo

    ur

    on b

    oilin

    g; o

    r are

    part

    ly or

    com

    - pl

    etel

    y st

    ripp

    ed.

    Exc

    ess

    reag

    ent

    is r

    emov

    ed

    and

    Vat

    D

    ye

    De-

    ve

    lope

    r ad

    ded

    whe

    re n

    eces

    sary

    -O

    rigi

    n81

    colo

    ur

    tone

    is

    re

    - s t

    ore

    d .

    ttC

    f. f

    ootn

    ntr

    niar

    krd

    in T

    ahlr

    111

    .

    SW

    s 4

    1)

    Ba-

    ic

    red

    clyr

    s C

    IU

    woi

    il an

    d si

    lk

    give

    de

    eply

    'M

    nns

    am a

    cid-

    mor

    dant

    dye

    s 01

    1 w

    nrd

    an

    d si

    ili.

    part

    iriil

    arls

    **

    ('w

    liillr

    aI S

    varl

    rt 0

    11 t

    in i

    ii~Ir

    daIi

    t ir

    not

    rrst

    on~d

    to o

    rigi

    nal

    roln

    iired

    sol

    utio

    ns o

    n lm

    iling

    in

    Lo,

    aert

    ir a

    cid,

    or

    in a

    lroh

    ol.

    the

    reds

    and

    bla

    cks,

    arc

    ver

    y di

    ffir

    ult

    to r

    educ

    r.

    III

    siw

    h ('KQ(.P.

    vh

    ur

    by

    c~xi

    dlsi

    og n

    gm

    ta.

    Tli

    ry n

    rn. i

    drnt

    iflr

    d zq ii

    idir

    etrd

    In T

    able

    VII

    I.

    Bas

    ir a

    zlnp

    dye

    %

    the

    patt

    ern

    is b

    oilr

    d fo

    r t

    inin

    . in

    16

    % h

    rdro

    rhlo

    rir

    iu.id

    . ri

    nsri

    l r.

    g. S

    afra

    ii1nf

    .s. R

    hofl

    ulin

    e R

    cdz,

    etc

    . ar

    e ch

    ange

    d to

    urr

    rn h

    y w

    ell.

    and

    boile

    d in

    Fornimul

    G.

    wh

    tii

    ~~

    'rn

    ~a

    nen

    t cl

    c~co

    lori

    s~~t

    iol~

    t.4

    fw

    (lyt

    s cd

    thr

    suh

    st;r

    nIiw

    ~o

    ncc

    ntr

    atcd

    siilp

    hiir

    ir w

    id.

    Tri

    aryl

    met

    hane

    dye

    s. e

    .g.

    Mag

    mta

    tx

    kes

    plac

    r rr

    adily

    . A

    ra

    pid

    test

    is

    LUI

    fnlI

    nws-

    Tli

    ~~ d

    yvit

    ln i

    ? ar

    t' H

    xtd on u

    1~

    11

    ait.

    h ch

    ronl

    c.

    arr

    drro

    lori

    acil

    hy F

    orni

    o$ul

    G

    but

    the

    orig

    inal

    col

    our

    i8 r

    wto

    rrd

    heat

    ed f

    or +

    min

    . or

    Irs

    n in

    etl

    iylr

    nrdi

    aini

    nr a

    nd t

    hrn

    a lit

    tlr

    arid

    -nio

    rila

    iit d

    vi.in

    g* h

    y Ii

    nilin

    u on

    ly h

    ? w

    ti\r

    . (t

    xsur

    n. (

    Thr

    y'sr

    c se

    ldom

    fou

    nd n

    n u'

    nid.

    hut

    art

    ' sn

    diiim

    hy

    ilros

    ulph

    itc

    addr

    d to

    thr

    rlw

    ply

    rnlo

    ur~v

    l rxt

    rwt:

    w

    hit(

    , riit

    t

    nlro

    hol.

    The

    y ar

    c id

    nrtiR

    t.d a

    s in

    - di

    ratr

    d in

    Tab

    le M

    I.

    t Cf.

    foot

    note

    iiia

    rked

    **

    in

    Tab

    le IV.

    .V&

    --Ra&

    &

    tndg

    s ar

    e st

    ripp

    ed t

    o a

    cona

    idcx

    nble

    ex

    tmt

    by

    * Kap

    htho

    l G

    rew

    B,

    a ui

    tmso

    -con

    ipou

    nd,

    beha

    ves

    rim

    ilnr

    ly;

    it is

    onl

    y oc

    casi

    onal

    ly

    used

    . A

    pa

    ttrr

    n ch

    ange

    s to

    pa

    le t

    irow

    n rin

    boi

    ling

    for

    + niiil.

    in r

    onrr

    ntra

    trd

    Iiyd

    rwhl

    orie

    ari

    d.

  • TABLE

    VI

    IDE

    NT

    IFIC

    AT

    ION

    OF

    DY

    ES

    ON

    WO

    OL.

    S

    ILK

    , A

    ND

    RE

    LA

    TE

    D F

    IBR

    ES

    (B

    RO

    WN

    DY

    EIN

    CS

    AN

    D P

    RIN

    TS)

    The

    dye

    ing

    or p

    rint

    is

    boile

    d fo

    r 1-

    2 m

    in. i

    n di

    lute

    am

    mon

    ia (c

    f. Reagents,

    p. 1

    79),

    in p

    rese

    nce

    of w

    hite

    cot

    ton.

    -

    I

    The

    pat

    tern

    is d

    ecol

    oris

    ed p

    erm

    anen

    tly*-

    Azo

    Dye (cf. fo

    otno

    te

    mar

    ked

    * in T

    able

    I).

    A

    fre

    sh p

    atte

    rn i

    s bo

    iled

    for

    + min

    . w

    ith

    6y0

    sodi

    um c

    arbd

    nate

    sol

    utio

    n an

    d w

    hite

    cot

    ton,

    and

    al

    low

    ed t

    o co

    ol in

    the

    liqu

    id.

    _.

    The

    cot

    ton

    is n

    ot s

    tain

    ed;

    a T

    he c

    otto

    n is

    eta

    ined

    dee

    ply

    mor

    dant

    is

    pre

    sen

    tAci

    d-

    -Sub

    stan

    tive

    Dye. (

    Cop

    per

    mor

    dant

    Dye.

    and/

    or

    chro

    miu

    m

    may

    be

    p-

    nt).

    The

    solu

    tion

    is c

    olou

    red

    dist

    inct

    ly.

    The

    cot

    ton

    is n

    ot s

    tain

    ed-A

    cid

    Dye

    . A

    fre

    eh p

    atte

    rn is

    boi

    led

    for

    1-2 min. in

    For

    mos

    ul G

    .

    The

    pat

    tern

    is

    deco

    lori

    sed

    perm

    anen

    tly-

    Azo

    Dye;

    or c

    hang

    es t

    o a

    pale

    r sh

    ade

    whi

    ch r

    ever

    ts t

    ow-

    orig

    inal

    col

    our

    tone

    **

    in

    pres

    ence

    of

    ho

    t \'a

    t D

    ye

    Dev

    elop

    x-A

    nthr

    qubm

    id

    Dye.

    The

    sol

    utio

    n is

    not

    , or

    onl

    y ve

    ry s

    light

    ly,

    colo

    ured

    . T

    he c

    otto

    n is

    not

    sta

    ined

    (M

    orda

    nt, A

    cid

    mo

    dan

    t, or

    Vat

    Dye

    ) or m

    ay b

    e st

    aine

    d (S

    ubsb

    ntiv

    e Dye).

    A f

    resh

    pat

    tern

    is b

    oile

    d fo

    r 1-

    2 m

    in.

    in F

    orm

    osul

    G.

    The

    pat

    tern

    is n

    ot a

    lter

    ed;

    a m

    orda

    nt i

    s pr

    eeen

    t- h

    thra

    qu

    bo

    no

    id k

    hd-

    ant Dye, e

    .g. A

    nthr

    acen

    e B

    row

    n; o

    r C

    utch

    .

    The

    pa

    tter

    n ch

    ange

    s di

    s-

    tinc

    tly

    in colour; or

    igin

    al

    colo

    ur

    is restored

    by

    Vat

    Dye

    Dev

    elop

    er-V

    at

    Dye

    (cf.

    also

    last

    col

    umn

    of T

    able

    I).

    ~ ~~

    ** T

    he h

    omog

    enou

    s,dy

    e, A

    lizar

    in L

    ight

    Brown kL, ch

    ange

    s to

    pale

    yel

    low

    on

    redn

    ctio

    n an

    d th

    e or

    lgin

    al c

    olou

    r to

    ne d

    evel

    ops

    on

    oxid

    atio

    n. I

    n th

    e ew

    e o

    f ii m

    ixtu

    re t

    he c

    olou

    r to

    ne d

    evel

    oped

    on

    oxid

    stlo

    n m

    ay b

    e th

    at o

    f a

    corn

    pone

    &.

    Som

    e dy

    eing

    s ch

    ange

    to

    pale

    r an

    d ye

    llow

    er s

    hade

    s on

    boi

    ling

    Arst

    in 1

    0% h

    ydro

    chlo

    ric a

    cid

    and

    then

    in F

    omos

    ul G

    and

    rev

    ert

    part

    ly to

    orig

    inal

    col

    our

    ahen

    tre

    ated

    with

    3O;

    hydr

    ogen

    per

    - ox

    ide,

    e.g

    . th

    e br

    own

    chro

    mlu

    ni l

    ake

    froi

    n ch

    rom

    otro

    pic

    acid

    .

  • TAB

    LE V

    II

    IDE

    NT

    WIC

    AT

    ION

    OF

    DY

    ES

    ON

    \VOOL,

    SIL

    K.

    AN

    D R

    EL

    AT

    ED

    FIB

    RE

    S

    (BLA

    CK

    S A

    ND

    GREYS)

    The

    dye

    ing

    or

    prin

    t is

    boile

    d fo

    r 1-

    3 m

    in.

    in d

    ilut

    e am

    mon

    ia (

    cf. &

    agen

    ts,

    p. 1

    79).

    in p

    rese

    nce

    of w

    hite

    cot

    ton.

    of T

    able

    I).

    The

    solu

    tion

    is c

    olou

    red

    dist

    inct

    ly.

    The

    cott

    on i

    s no

    t st

    aine

    d-A

    cid

    Dye.

    A f

    resh

    pat

    tern

    is

    boile

    d fo

    r 1-

    2 m

    in.

    in F

    orm

    osul

    G.

    wit

    h w

    ater

    . C

    hrom

    ium

    or

    iron

    is

    pres

    ent - L

    ogw

    ood

    Bla

    ck.

    The

    dye

    ing

    chan

    ges

    to b

    row

    n -N

    apht

    hazP

    rin;

    o

    r is

    ne

    arly

    cl

    ecol

    oris

    rtl - In

    di-

    The

    pat

    tern

    is d

    ecol

    oris

    ed p

    erm

    anen

    tly*-

    A

    zo Dy

    e; o

    r is

    al

    mos

    t de

    colo

    rise

    d.

    but

    reve

    rts

    to

    orig

    inal

    co

    lour

    **

    in

    pres

    ence

    of

    hot

    Vat

    Dye

    Dev

    elop

    r-

    Ant

    hraq

    uino

    noid

    Dye, e

    g.

    Ali

    zari

    n Light

    Qre

    y G

    .

    The

    sol

    utio

    n is

    not

    , or

    onl

    y sl

    ight

    ,ly, c

    olou

    red.

    T

    he c

    ot,to

    n is

    not

    sta

    ined

    (M

    or

    ht,

    Aci

    d-m

    orda

    nt,

    or V

    at D

    ye)

    or

    may

    be

    stai

    ned

    (Sub

    stan

    tive

    Dye).

    4 f

    resh

    pat

    tern

    16

    boiled

    for

    1-2

    min

    . in

    For

    mos

    ul G

    .

    The

    pat

    tern

    is

    dec

    olo

    rid

    per

    man

    ently

    -Azo

    Dy

    e (c

    f.

    foot

    note

    mar

    ked

    * in

    Tab

    le I

    ).

    A

    fres

    h pa

    tter

    n is

    boiled f

    or 4 in

    in,

    wit

    h 5%

    sodi

    um c

    arbo

    nate

    sol

    utio

    n an

    d w

    hite

    cot

    ton.

    and

    allo

    wed

    to

    roo

    1 in

    th

    e li

    quid

    . _-

    The

    cot

    ton

    is n

    ot s

    tain

    ed;

    a m

    orda

    nt i

    s pr

    esen

    t-

    Aci

    d-m

    orda

    nt D

    ye.

    The

    cot

    ton

    is s

    tain

    ed d

    eepl

    y --

    Subs

    tant

    ive

    Dye.

    i

  • TA

    BL

    E

    VII

    I ID

    ES

    TIF

    ICA

    l'IO

    ~ (I

    F D

    YE

    S O

    K C

    OT

    TO

    N ;

    \NU

    O

    TH

    ER

    CE

    LL

    I'LO

    SIC

    F

    IBR

    E>

    (R

    ED

    DY

    EIN

    CS

    AN

    D P

    RIN

    TS)

    oure

    d di

    stin

    ctly

    an

    d, a

    fter

    aci

    di

    The

    dye

    ing

    or

    pri

    nt

    is b

    oile

    d fo

    r 1-

    2 ni

    in.

    in d

    ilut

    e am

    mon

    ia (

    cf. R

    eage

    nts,

    p.

    179)

    . T

    he s

    olil

    tion

    is

    not

    arm

    reci

    ahlv

    col

    oure

    d.

    A x

    mal

    / D

    atte

    rri

    is b

    oile

    d fo

    r a

    few

    sec

    onds

    in

    1 C

    .V.

    >?,,

    ciii

    lsti

    c so

    da.s

    olrl

    tir,

    n:

    ..._

    ____

    -.

    4 A B

    asic

    Dye

    is n

    ot p

    rcsf

    \

    larg

    e am

    ount

    of

    dye

    is s

    trip

    ped;

    th

    e so

    luti

    on i

    s th

    e fy

    9g

    wit

    h ac

    etic

    ac

    id

    and

    he

    at

    ing,

    dy

    es w

    hite

    w

    ool -

    Aci

    c Dye.

    (The

    woo

    dy

    eing

    is

    ex

    ai

    nine

    d as

    de

    sc

    ribe

    d in

    Tab

    lt 1)

    .

    sam

    e co

    lour

    aa

    tlie

    pat

    ter1

    i.j-t

    A

    few d

    rops

    of

    tann

    ic

    acid

    sol

    utio

    n ar

    e ad

    ded

    to t

    he

    wea

    kly

    acid

    ifie

    d so

    lu-

    ' A'

    ~~

    ~~~~

    ~~~~

    o

    ~~

    ~l

    ia

    ~~

    ti

    on.

    A c

    olou

    red

    prec

    ipit

    ate is

    obta

    ined

    -Bns

    ic

    Dye

    . ~

    Th

    e d

    ye

    is t

    rans

    ferr

    ed t

    o w

    ool

    (cf.

    p.

    181)

    an

    d b

    oile

    d ~

    ~p

    ~f

    ~l

    ~~

    ~l

    co

    ~~

    ll

    ~~

    ~

    ~ sa

    me

    tls

    that

    of

    th

    e fo

    r 1-

    2 m

    in.

    in F

    orm

    osul

    G.

    .-I

    dye

    an

    d d

    oes

    not

    alte

    r

    Ver

    y li

    ttle

    ch

    ange

    in

    co

    lour

    -

    Xan

    then

    e D

    ye

    (R

    ho

    da

    tnin

    e

    Gro

    up);

    als

    o th

    e P

    oJy-

    m

    eth

    ine Dye, r

    lstr

    a-

    phlo

    xine

    FF

    . rh

    e la

    ttm

    is f

    a) u

    ract

    ic-

    The

    pa

    pw

    n is

    deco

    lori

    sed

    ; or

    igin

    al

    col-

    ou

    r is

    re

    - st

    ore

    d

    by

    t a

    p-w

    ater

    - A

    rine

    Dye.

    ally

    un

    affe

    ect'e

    d by

    bo

    ilin

    g co

    ncen

    trat

    ed

    hydr

    ochl

    oric

    aci

    d, a

    nd

    (b

    ) th

    e al

    coho

    lic

    soh

    - 1

    tion

    is

    not

    fluo

    resc

    ent,

    w

    hen

    view

    ed b

    y

    the

    ca

    rbo

    n

    arc

    li

    gh

    t (d

    isti

    nc

    tio

    n

    fro

    m

    Rho

    dom

    ine B).

    I

    The

    pat

    tern

    is 1

    deco

    lori

    sed;

    or

    igin

    al

    col-

    , o

    ur

    is

    re-

    sto

    red

    h

    yl

    Dev

    elop

    er 0

    -Tri

    ary

    l-

    I m

    eth

    an

    e1

    appr

    ecia

    bly

    duri

    ng th

    e te

    st.

    The

    alk

    alin

    e so

    l-

    utio

    n st

    aim

    whi

    te c

    ot-

    ton

    de

    eply

    ,, T

    he

    wea

    kly

    acid

    ifie

    d so

    lu-

    tion

    do

    es n

    ot

    give

    a

    prec

    ipit

    ate

    wit

    h ta

    n-

    nic

    acid

    so

    luti

    on -

    Sub

    stan

    tive

    D

    ye.

    A

    fres

    h p

    atte

    rn is

    hoi

    led

    in F

    orni

    osnl

    G.

    ~ T

    he p

    atte

    rn i

    s (a) d

    e-

    colo

    rise

    d pe

    rman

    entl

    y -A

    t0

    Dye:*

    or (

    b) is

    I

    redu

    ced

    to

    a D

    ale

    I I

    ! ye

    llow

    - ~

    hia

    zo~

    Za

    zo

    ~ I I

    1 I I

    Dye,

    e.g.

    P

    rim

    ulitw

    1

    Red

    **.

    I

    I I

    I I

    I

    I I

    .I

    I I

    I 1 ,

    1 1

    1

    ~t

    .

    Afr

    esh

    pat

    tern

    is h

    oih

    lio

    r 1-

    2 ni

    in. i

    n3

    "~

    cau

    stic

    si~

    da

    s~~

    lilt

    ioii

    . \.w

    y li

    ttle

    . if

    any

    . dy

    e is

    Bt,r

    ippe

    d-A

    zoic

    or

    T

    he c

    aust

    ic s

    oda

    ~ V

    at D

    ye,

    A

    fres

    h p

    atte

    rn i

    s bo

    iled

    vig

    or-

    solu

    tion

    is

    pale

    ' u

    iisl

    y fo

    r 1-

    2 ni

    in. i

    n F

    orm

    osu

    l Gco

    ntai

    ning

    vi

    olet

    .; a

    mor

    d-

    ! a

    few

    tlr

    ops

    700

    ~w

    .

    caus

    tic

    sod

    a.

    ant

    (all

    ~I1

    lin

    i~l

    1 Th

    e p

    att

    ern

    is

    , T

    he p

    atte

    rnid

    - o

    rch

    oln

    ium

    ) is

    1 pa

    rtly

    o

    r cu

    m-

    or

    alte

    red

    in

    shad

    e;

    pres

    ent-

    --A

    nth-

    pI

    et,e

    Iy d

    ecol

    or-

    the

    solu

    tion

    is

    \wllo

    w.

    raq

    uin

    on

    oid

    e ,it

    : t

    h e

    Mor

    dant

    D

    ye,

    e.g.

    A

    liz

    ari

    n

    Red.

    v an

    d M

    ar-

    oo

    m;

    Tur

    key

    Red

    , et

    c.

    chan

    ge

    is

    per-

    m

    anen

    t-A

    zoic

    D

    ye.

    Thi

    s is

    conf

    irm

    ed

    bx

    stee

    ping

    a

    pat

    tern

    in

    cold

    et

    hyle

    nedi

    amin

    ; io

    rafe

    amin

    ute

    s a

    cons

    ider

    able

    an

    iou

    nto

    fdy

    eis

    extr

    acte

    d.

    The

    co

    lour

    ed e

    xtra

    ct,

    is d

    ivid

    ed i

    nto

    two

    port

    ions

    . A

    lit

    tle

    sodi

    um

    hydr

    osul

    phit

    e is

    adde

    d to

    on

    e po

    rtio

    n - P

    er-

    man

    ent d

    ecol

    or .

    isat

    ion

    occu

    rs

    in t

    hec

    old

    oro

    n

    war

    min

    g.

    The

    ot

    her

    port

    ion

    is

    dil

    ute

    d w

    ith

    w

    ater

    an

    d b

    oile

    d -T

    heli

    quid

    be

    - co

    mes

    tu

    rbid

    an

    d fl

    akye

    ggre

    ga

    teso

    fcol

    oure

    d ,

    pip

    en

    t se

    ttle

    '

    out.

    on st

    andi

    np.

    !

    blui

    sh-r

    ed.

    etc.

    ; or

    igi-

    na

    l co

    lour

    is

    rest

    ored

    by

    air

    or

    mor

    e re

    adil

    y by

    Vat

    Dye

    Dev

    elop

    er

    (cf.

    Rea

    gent

    s) - V

    at

    Dye.

    Thi

    s is

    co

    nfir

    med

    by

    bo

    ilin

    g a

    fres

    h p

    atte

    rn

    in

    ethy

    lene

    diam

    ine

    cont

    aini

    ngal

    ittl

    e so

    lid

    gluc

    ose.

    T

    he

    leuc

    o-

    coin

    poun

    d is

    pro

    duce

    d a

    t on

    ce a

    nd

    rev

    ersi

    on

    to o

    rig

    ina

    l co

    lori

    r oc

    curs

    on

    ad

    ding

    a

    port

    ion

    to a

    few

    c.c

    V

    at D

    ye D

    evel

    oper

    .

    **C

    onfir

    med

    by

    rrdi

    azot

    ivin

    g th

    e re

    duce

    d dg

    ring

    and

    det

    elop

    ing

    with

    S

    Bas

    ic t

    oppi

    ng d

    yes

    on s

    ubst

    anti

    vr d

    yein

    g8 a

    re r

    emov

    ed b

    y bo

    iling

    glacial a

    ceti

    c ac

    id.

    t C

    f. fo

    otno

    te m

    arke

    d t

    in T

    able

    1x.

    tt D

    ccol

    oris

    atio

    n oc

    curs

    in s

    ome

    case

    s du

    ring

    the

    init

    ial

    boili

    ng

    Als

    o In

    CB

    SBS

    of d

    yein

    g3 t

    oppe

    d w

    ith

    in c

    amti

    c so

    da

    solu

    tion

    . ba

    sic

    dyes

    , th

    e fln

    al s

    olut

    ion

    msy

    onl

    y be

    slig

    htly

    col

    oure

    d.

    Chr

    orui

    um o

    r co

    pper

    may

    be

    pres

    ent

    in s

    ome

    dyei

    ngs.

  • TAB

    LE I

    X

    IDE

    NT

    IFIC

    AT

    ION

    OF

    DY

    ES

    ON

    CO

    TT

    ON

    AN

    D O

    TH

    ER

    CE

    LL

    UL

    OSI

    C F

    IBR

    ES

    '

    (OR

    AN

    GE

    AN

    D YELLOW

    DY

    EIN

    CS

    AN

    D P

    RIN

    TS)

    T

    he d

    yein

    g or

    pri

    nt is

    boi

    led

    for

    1-2

    min

    . in

    dil

    ute

    amm

    onia

    (cf

    . Rea

    gent

    s, p

    . 17

    9).

    The

    sol

    utio

    n is

    not

    app

    reci

    ably

    col

    oure

    d.

    A s

    mal

    l pa

    tter

    n is

    boi

    led

    for

    a fe

    w s

    econ

    ds i

    n 1

    C.C

    . 5%

    cau

    stic

    sod

    a so

    luti

    on:

    4 C

    .C.

    5OL

    amm

    oniu

    m c

    hlor

    ide

    solu

    tion

    are

    then

    add

    ed,

    and

    t.he

    who

    le b

    oile

    d ag

    ain

    for

    a fe

    w s

    econ

    ds.

    The

    pat

    tern

    is n

    ot a

    ffec

    ted-

    Sulp

    hur,

    T

    biuo

    lc, h

    ol

    e-

    u

    o, A

    zoic

    , or

    Vat

    Dye.

    X f

    wsh

    pat

    tern

    is

    boile

    d fo

    r 4-

    1 m

    in.

    or

    long

    er i

    n F

    orm

    osul

    G, c

    onta

    inin

    g a

    few

    dr

    ops

    of 7

    0" T

    w. c

    aust

    ic s

    oda.

    rhe

    patt

    ern

    is (

    A)

    part

    ly d

    ecol

    oris

    ed**

    (S

    ulph

    ru o

    r T

    bhzo

    + sll

    brt.n

    tive Dye);

    (B)

    slig

    htly

    aff

    ecte

    dt o

    r de

    colo

    rise

    d (A

    zoic

    Dye

    ); or

    (C) a

    lter

    ed d

    isti

    nctl

    y in

    co

    lour

    (V

    at D

    ye].

    T

    he o

    rigi

    nal c

    olou

    r to

    ne is

    res

    tore

    d on

    (A

    ) (S

    ulph

    ur

    Jlye

    onl

    y) a

    nd

    &

    stor

    ed

    alm

    ost

    com

    plet

    ely

    on (

    C)

    by m

    ild

    oxid

    atio

    n.

    Th

    e s

    olu

    tio

    n i

    s co

    lou

    red

    d

    is-

    tinc

    tlya

    nd, a

    fter

    ac

    idif

    ying

    w

    ith

    acet

    ic a

    cid

    and

    heat

    ing,

    dy

    es

    whi

    te wool -

    Aci

    d Dye. (

    The

    w

    ool

    dyei

    ng

    is

    exam

    ined

    as

    de-

    sc

    ribe

    d in

    Tab

    le

    11).

    c 'he

    patt

    ern

    is

    A l

    arge

    am

    ount

    of

    dve

    is s

    triu

    ued.

    d

    e c'o

    lo

    ris

    e d

    quic

    kly-

    A

    ura-

    m

    ines

    , T

    hio-

    @

    vine

    T, et

    c.

    Aur

    amin

    e dy

    e-

    ings

    are

    deco

    lor-

    is

    ed a

    t on

    ce b

    y cold 5

    "/b c

    aust

    ic

    soda

    so

    luti

    on;

    orig

    inal

    co

    lour

    is

    re

    stor

    ed

    on

    addi

    ng

    exce

    ss

    5% a

    inm

    oniu

    m

    chlo

    ride

    so

    lu-

    tion

    . D

    ecol

    or-

    isat

    ion

    is

    pr

    - m

    an

    en

    t o

    n

    boili

    ng

    in

    5%

    ca

    ust

    ic s

    od

    a

    solu

    tion

    . rh

    iofl

    avin

    e T

    dye

    . in

    gs a

    re n

    ot a

    f-

    fect

    ed

    by

    cold

    5%

    cau

    stic

    sod

    a so

    luti

    on

    , b

    ut

    are

    deco

    lori

    sed

    perm

    anen

    tly

    on

    boili

    ng.

    he

    fina

    l so

    luti

    on,

    wh

    iZ

    is

    yello

    w,

    is s

    ligh

    tly

    acid

    ifie

    d w

    ith

    5%

    acet

    ic a

    cid

    and

    a fe

    w d

    rops

    of

    tan

    nic

    acid

    sol

    utio

    n ad

    ded-

    A

    co

    lou

    d p

    reci

    pita

    te is

    for

    med

    o

    n s

    tand

    ing-

    Bas

    ic

    Dye

    . T

    he

    dye

    is t

    rans

    ferr

    ed t

    o w

    ool

    (cf.

    p.

    181

    ) and

    boi

    led

    for

    1-1

    min

    . in

    For

    mos

    rtl G

    . ~~

    The

    pat

    tern

    is u

    n-

    The

    pat

    tern

    is

    alte

    red

    -Ac&

    de

    colo

    rise

    d d

    ine

    Dye

    . pe

    rman

    entl

    y T

    his

    is c

    onfi

    rmed

    -A

    zo

    Dye.

    by

    sp

    otti

    ng

    a pa

    tter

    n w

    ith

    cold

    co

    nce

    n-

    trat

    ed s

    ulph

    uric

    ac

    id.

    A f

    luor

    - es

    cent

    so

    luti

    on

    is ob

    tain

    ed.

    __

    __

    $3

    A B

    .sic

    Dpa

    is n

    ot p

    rese

    nt.

    -4 fr

    esh

    patt

    ern

    is b

    oile

    d fo

    r 1-

    7min

    . iii

    SD,,

    caus

    tic

    soda

    sol

    ucio

    n.

    A c

    onsi

    dera

    ble

    or s

    mal

    l am

    ount

    , of

    dye

    is s

    trip

    ped;

    the

    col

    our

    of t

    he s

    olu-

    ti

    on, w

    hich

    doe

    s no

    t al

    ter !j

    appr

    eci-

    ab

    ly d

    urin

    g th

    e te

    st,

    is t

    he

    sam

    e in

    m

    ost

    cwee

    as

    that

    of

    the

    dyei

    ng.

    The

    wea

    kly

    acid

    ifie

    d so

    luti

    on d

    oes

    not

    give

    a p

    reci

    pita

    te w

    ith

    tann

    ic

    acid

    sol

    utio

    n.

    A m

    orda

    nt m

    ay b

    e pr

    eaen

    t-Su

    bsta

    ntiv

    e or

    A

    cid-

    m

    orda

    nt D

    ye.

    A f

    resh

    pat

    tern

    is

    boile

    d fo

    r +I

    m

    in.

    in 5

    % c

    aust

    ic

    soda

    sol

    utio

    n to

    whi

    ch R

    Zi

    trle

    solid

    so

    dium

    hyd

    rosu

    lphi

    te is

    add

    ed.

    The

    pat

    tern

    is (a) de

    colo

    rise

    d pe

    rman

    - en

    tly-A

    zo

    Dye:

    or

    (6

    ) is

    o

    nly

    sl

    ight

    ly

    affe

    cted

    -Thi

    azol

    e Dy

    e.

    A f

    resh

    pat

    tern

    is

    boile

    d w

    ith

    5%

    ca

    usti

    c so

    da s

    olut

    ion,

    whi

    te c

    otto

    n,

    and

    a li

    ttle

    sod

    ium

    chl

    orid

    e.

    The

    whi

    te c

    otto

    n i

    s

    sta

    ine

    d

    deep

    ly - A

    ZO

    Su

    bs

    tan

    tiv

    e

    DP

    .

    rhe

    whi

    te c

    otto

    n is

    no

    t st

    aine

    d;

    a m

    orda

    nt

    ie

    pre

    sen

    t (a

    ) -A

    zo

    Ae

    id-

    mor

    dant

    Dye

    * ;

    or (

    h)

    Thi

    azol

    e S

    ub

    sta

    nti

    ve

    D

    ye (

    a m

    orda

    nt

    is n

    ot p

    rese

    nt).

    (A)

    (B)

    I (C

    ) h

    pat

    tern

    is b

    oile

    d 1

    A

    pa

    tte

    rn

    is

    A

    Vat

    Dy

    e is

    fo

    r 4

    min

    . in

    di

    uued

    in l

    iaui

    d co

    nfir

    med

    bv

    l6qb

    h

    yd

    ro-

    chlo

    ric

    ac

    id,

    cool

    ed

    and

    R

    litt

    le

    inag

    ne-

    si

    um

    ad

    de

    d.

    Hyd

    roge

    n so

    l-

    phid

    e is

    evo

    lved

    (a

    ) re

    adilv

    -

    p&no

    l, sq

    uG

    zed

    li

    ghtl

    y,

    laid

    on

    w

    hit

    e

    fil

    ter

    pa

    per

    whi

    ch

    is

    then

    fol

    ded,

    and

    pr

    esse

    d ei

    ther

    w

    ith

    a ho

    t iro

    nor

    azai

    nst

    a st

    eam

    S

    ulph

    ur

    "Dye

    ; py

    pe.

    Yel

    low

    - or

    (6) l

    as

    read

    i-

    ly-T

    h

    ia z

    o 1 e

    S

    ub

    sta

    nti

    ve

    D

    ye.

    stai

    n on

    pa

    per

    -Azo

    ic

    Dye.

    Thi

    s is

    con

    firm

    ed

    by h

    eati

    ng a

    pat

    - te

    rn in

    eth

    ylen

    e-

    diam

    ine,

    di

    vid-

    in

    g th

    e co

    lour

    ed

    extr

    act

    into

    tw

    o p

    ort

    ion

    s a

    nd

    te

    stin

    g th

    em a

    s de

    scri

    bed

    in t

    he

    the

    ethy

    lene

    - di

    amin

    e te

    st

    (c

    f.

    la

    st

    c

    olu

    nin

    o

    f T

    able

    V

    III,

    an

    d p.

    182

    ).

  • TABL

    E X

    (VIO

    LET

    DY

    EIN

    CS

    AN

    D P

    RIN

    TS)

    ID

    EN

    TIF

    ICA

    TIO

    S O

    F D

    YE

    S O

    N C

    OTT

    OK

    A

    ND

    OT

    HE

    R C

    EL

    LIJ

    LO

    SIC

    F

    IBR

    ES

    The

    pat

    tern

    is

    stri

    pped

    sl

    ight

    ly a

    nd th

    e co

    lour

    of

    th

    e so

    luti

    on

    is o

    f m

    oder

    ate

    inte

    nsit

    y.

    Whi

    te

    woo

    l is

    st

    aine

    d sl

    ight

    ly o

    n st

    andi

    ng in

    th

    e co

    olin

    g so

    luti

    on.

    The

    ac

    idif

    ied

    solu

    tion

    The

    sol

    utio

    n is

    colo

    ured

    dis

    - ti

    nctl

    y an

    d,

    afte

    r ac

    idif

    y-

    in

    g w

    it

    h

    acet

    ic

    acid

    an

    d h

    eati

    ng,

    dyes

    w

    hite

    w

    ool - A

    cid

    woo

    l dy

    eing

    is

    ex

    amin

    ed

    as

    desc

    ribe

    d in

    Tab

    leII

    I).

    Dye

    . (T

    he

    ' 9:

    A h

    ic

    or B

    uim

    mor

    dant

    ye

    is n

    ot p

    rese

    nt. -4 fr

    esli

    patt

    ern

    is b

    oile

    d fo

    r 1-

    2 in

    in.

    in 5

    yi

    caus

    tic

    soda

    sol

    utio

    n.

    The

    dye

    ing

    or p

    rint

    is

    boi

    led

    for

    1-2

    inin

    . in

    dilu

    te a

    mm

    onia

    (cf

    . Rea

    gent

    s, p

    . 17

    9).

    Th

    e so

    luti

    on is

    no

    t ap

    prec

    iabl

    y co

    lour

    ed. A

    8MII.

    U p

    atte

    rn is

    boi

    led

    for

    a fe

    w s

    econ

    ds i

    n 1

    C.C

    . S

    yo c

    aust

    ic s

    oda

    solu

    tion

    ; 4

    C.C

    . 50

    b am

    mon

    ium

    chl

    orid

    e so

    luti

    on a

    re th

    en a

    dded

    , and

    th

    e w

    hole

    boi

    led

    agai

    n fo

    r a

    few

    sec

    onds

    . -

    I The

    pat

    tern

    is

    stri

    pped

    to

    a

    grea

    t ex

    tent

    , an

    d t

    he

    solu

    - ti

    on is

    col

    oure

    d de

    eply

    . A

    fter

    ac

    idif

    ying

    the

    sol

    utio

    n w

    -ith

    ac

    etic

    aci

    d,

    it y

    ield

    s a

    col-

    ou

    red

    prec

    ipit

    ate

    wit

    h ta

    nnic

    ac

    id s

    olut

    ion-

    Bas

    ic

    Dye.

    The

    dve

    is t

    rans

    ferr

    ed t

    o w

    ool

    ~ (c

    f. "

    p. 1

    81)

    and

    boile

    d fo

    r 1-

    2 ni

    in.

    in F

    onno

    sul

    G.

    The

    pat

    tern

    is

    deco

    lori

    sed;

    or

    igin

    al c

    ol-

    ou

    r is

    re

    - I

    sto

    red

    b

    y

    -wat

    er--

    ~

    Zn

    e D

    ye.

    i

    The

    pa

    tter

    n is

    dec

    olo

    r-'

    ised

    : ori

    gina

    l

    does

    not

    gi

    ve a

    pre

    - ci

    pita

    te

    wit

    h ta

    nnic

    ac

    id

    solu

    tion

    , an

    d ch

    rom

    ium

    is in

    the

    ash

    -Bas

    ic-m

    orda

    nt

    Dye

    .

    Thi

    s is

    co

    nfir

    med

    by

    bo

    iling

    the

    sam

    ule

    for

    colo

    ur L re

    - ,

    sto

    red

    by

    D

    evel

    oper

    0 I

    -Tri

    aryl

    - methane'

    Dye.

    - 1-

    2 ru

    in. i

    n hy

    dro-

    ch

    lori

    c ac

    id,

    then

    m

    akin

    g th

    e so

    luti

    on

    alka

    line

    wit

    h co

    ncen

    - tr

    ated

    am

    mon

    ia

    and

    addi

    ng

    a li

    ttle

    so

    lid

    mag

    nesi

    um

    sulp

    hate

    . W

    hite

    woo

    l is

    sta

    ined

    4 co

    nsid

    erab

    le o

    r,

    smal

    l am

    ount

    of

    Ver

    y li

    ttle

    , if

    any

    , dy

    e is

    str

    ippe

    d**-

    Mor

    dPnt

    , Su

    lphu

    r, A

    zoic

    , or

    Vat D

    ye.

    dye

    is s

    trip

    ped

    and

    whi

    te c

    ot-

    ton

    is

    stai

    ned

    deep

    ly

    in

    the

    cool

    ing

    solu

    tion

    - S

    ubst

    anti

    ve

    Dye

    . A

    fr

    esh

    patt

    ern

    is b

    oile

    d fo

    r 1-

    2 m

    in.

    in

    For

    mos

    ul G

    .

    rhe

    patt

    ern

    is d

    e-

    colo

    rise

    d pe

    r-

    ma

    ne

    n t

    1 y *-

    A

    z

    o,D

    y e

    (Chr

    orm

    um

    or

    copp

    er m

    ay b

    e pf

    esen

    t, on

    '

    solu

    tion

    . 1

    viol

    et

    suhs

    tan-

    de

    eply

    in

    the

    cool

    ing

    1 j ti

    re d

    yein

    gs).

    -4

    pat

    tern

    is

    boile

    d fo

    r ,

    1-2

    niin

    . in

    F

    orm

    o- 1

    , S

    lll

    G.

    I

    The

    pat

    tern

    is

    deco

    lor-

    is

    ed:

    orig

    inal

    co

    lour

    is

    re

    stor

    ed

    by

    tap

    - w

    ate

    r-h

    rin

    e

    Dye,

    e.g.

    Mod

    ern

    Vio

    let,e

    tc.

    A f

    resh

    pat

    tern

    is

    boile

    d vi

    goro

    usly

    fo

    r 1-

    2 m

    in.,

    or l

    onge

    r, i

    n F

    orm

    osul

    G c

    onta

    inin

    g a

    few

    dro

    ps 7

    0" T

    w.

    caus

    tic

    soda

    .

    I T

    he c

    olou

    r of

    th

    e ' T

    he

    pa

    tte

    rn ,

    The

    pat

    tern

    is d

    e-

    The

    pat

    .tern

    an

    d

    patt

    ern

    is

    not

    ! is

    de

    colo

    r-

    colo

    rise

    d;

    orig

    - so

    luti

    on c

    hang

    e al

    tere

    d - X

    .n-

    ' is

    edpe

    rman

    - in

    al

    colo

    ur

    is

    to

    a ye

    llow

    ish

    acn

    e Dye, e.

    g. 1

    shad

    e, o

    r t,h

    ere

    Ga

    lle

    in;

    or

    ! Azoic

    Dye.

    wa

    ter-

    S

    ul-

    is

    lit

    tle

    alte

    ra-

    chan

    ges

    to

    a ph

    ux D

    ye.

    tion-

    Vat

    Dye.

    da

    rke

    r sh

    ad

    e I Th

    is

    is

    con-

    ' A

    pat

    tern

    is b

    oile

    d T

    his

    is c

    onti

    rmed

    w

    hich

    re

    vert

    s fi

    rme

    d b

    y

    for$

    min

    .in 16?,

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    eeth

    ylen

    e-

    to th

    e or

    igin

    al

    stee

    ping

    a

    hy

    dro

    ch

    lori

    c

    diam

    inet

    est(

    cf.

    shad

    e o

    n a

    irin

    g'

    patt

    ern

    in

    acid

    , coo

    led

    and

    , la

    st

    colu

    mn

    of

    -An&

    raqu

    in-

    , co

    ld

    ethy

    l.

    a li

    ttle

    mag

    ne- '

    T

    able

    VII

    I. a

    nd

    onoi

    d M

    or

    bt

    ~ en

    edia

    min

    e.

    niu

    m

    ad

    de

    d.

    1'.

    182)

    . D

    ye.

    A m

    ord-

    1 di

    vidi

    ng t

    he

    Hyd

    roge

    n su

    l.

    an

    t,

    usu

    all

    y ~

    colo

    ured

    ex.

    ph

    idei

    sevo

    lved

    ch

    rom

    ium

    , is

    tr

    act

    into

    re

    adil

    y - Sul-

    pres

    ent

    on b

    oth

    ~ tw

    o po

    rtio

    ns

    phur

    Dye

    . cl

    asse

    s of

    dy

    e-'

    an

    d te

    stin

    g' A

    p

    att

    ern

    is

    , in

    gs.

    1 th

    em a

    R d

    e-

    stri

    pped

    rea

    dily

    sc

    ribe

    dint

    he

    by

    b

    oil

    ing

    1 5t

    h co

    liii

    iiii

    e

    thy

    l~n

    ed

    ia- ,

    en

    t 1 y

    t -

    rest

    ored

    by

    hot

    , o

    f T

    ab

    le

    min

    e.

    I i V

    III.

    1 I I

    t Ci.

    foot

    note

    mxr

    k~d t

    in

    Tab

    le IS.

    ** C

    f. fo

    otno

    te m

    arke

    d in

    Tah

    lr X

    I.

    5 C'

    f. fo

    otno

    w iu

    arkr

    d s i

    n T

    al~l

    t. \

    111.

    +

    A

    liear

    iii 01

    1 ir

    on m

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    iole

    t so

    luti

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    angi

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    an

    oran

    ge c

    olou

    r; f

    inal

    ly.

    the

    patt

    ern

    is d

    ecol

    orie

    ed.

    \%hi

    t,. w

    tttw

    Is

    not

    sta

    ined

    011 b

    oilin

    g a

    uar

    iip

    li~ i

    ii 5

    'o r

    awti

    c so

    dn s

    olut

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  • TA

    BL

    E X

    I ID

    EN

    TIF

    ICA

    TIO

    N O

    F D

    YE

    S O

    N C

    OT

    TO

    K A

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    HE

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    EL

    LV

    LO

    SIC

    FIB

    RE

    S

    (BL

    UE

    DY

    EIN

    CS

    AN

    D PRINTS)

    The

    dye

    ing

    or

    prin

    t is

    boi

    led

    for

    1-2

    Inin

    . in

    dilu

    te a

    mm

    onia

    (cf

    . Rea

    gent

    s. p

    . 17

    9).

    __

    ~

    __

    ~

    ~ -_

    Th

    e s

    olu

    tio

    n

    is c

    olo

    ure

    d

    dist

    inct

    ly a

    nd,

    afte

    r ac

    idif

    y-

    in

    g w

    it

    h

    acet

    ic

    acid

    an

    d he

    atin

    g,

    dyes

    w

    hite

    w

    ool - Ac

    id

    woo

    l dy

    emg

    is

    exam

    ined

    as

    desc

    ribe

    d in

    Tab

    le I

    V).

    Dye.

    (The

    The

    sol

    utio

    n is

    not

    app

    reci

    ably

    col

    oure

    d.

    A a

    mdl

    sam

    ple

    is b

    oile

    d fo

    r a

    few

    sec

    onds

    in 1

    C.C

    . 57

    4 ca

    usti

    c so

    da s

    olut

    ion;

    4

    C.C

    . 5%

    am

    mon

    ium

    chl

    orid

    e so

    luti

    on a

    re th

    en a

    dded

    , and

    th

    e w

    hole

    boi

    led

    agai

    n fo

    r a

    few

    sec

    onds

    .

    k de

    eply

    col

    oure

    d so

    luti

    on

    is o

    btai

    ned.

    T

    he

    wea

    kly

    acid

    ifie

    d so

    luti

    on y

    ield

    s a

    prec

    ipit

    ate

    wit

    h ta

    nnic

    aci

    d so

    lutio

    n-B

    asic

    Dye.

    The

    d

    ye

    is t

    rans

    ferr

    ed t

    o w

    ool

    (cf.

    p.

    181)

    an

    d bo

    iled

    for

    1-2

    min

    . in

    For

    mos

    ul G

    .

    L'he

    pat

    tern

    is

    deco

    lori

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    ri

    gi

    na

    l

    colo

    ur is

    re-

    sto

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    b

    y

    tap-

    wat

    er-

    Az+

    . O

    X-

    az

    ine

    or

    T

    hia

    zin

    e

    Dy e.

    l'he

    patt

    ern

    is

    deco

    lori

    sed;

    o

    ri

    gi

    na

    l

    colo

    ur i

    s re

    - st

    ore

    d

    by

    D

    evel

    oper

    0

    -Tri

    aryl

    - m

    et h

    a n

    e

    Dye.

    Th

    e

    patt

    ern

    chan

    ges

    to

    pink

    or

    red

    firs

    t a

    nd

    th

    en

    be

    -

    com

    esco

    lour

    le

    as; r

    eddi

    sh

    colo

    ur i

    s re

    - st

    ore

    d

    by

    ta

    p-w

    ater

    -

    Safr

    anin

    e-

    azo

    Dye

    .

    Str

    ippi

    ng o

    ccur

    s to

    a

    med

    ium

    ext

    ent a

    nd

    wh

    ite

    wo

    ol

    is

    stai

    ned

    slig

    htly

    on

    stan

    ding

    in

    th

    e 1 X

    con

    side

    rabl

    e co

    olin

    g so

    luti

    on.

    ~ o

    r si

    n a I

    1 T

    he a

    cidi

    fied

    sol

    u-

    amou

    nt

    of

    $ A

    Bas

    ic o

    r B

    asic

    -mor

    dant

    Dye

    is n

    ot p

    rese

    nt.

    A f

    resh

    pat

    tern

    is b

    oile

    d fo

    r 1-

    2 m

    in.

    in SO,;

    caus

    tic

    soda

    sol

    utio

    n.

    tion

    doe

    s no

    t yi

    eld

    dye

    is s

    trip

    - a

    prec

    ipit

    ate

    -with

    ta

    nnic

    ac

    id

    solu

    - ti

    on;

    chro

    miu

    m i

    s pr

    esen

    t in

    th

    e as

    h -B

    asic

    -mor

    dan

    t

    Thi

    s is

    conf

    imrn

    ed b

    y bo

    ilin

    g a

    patt

    ern

    for

    1-2

    min

    . in

    506

    hydr

    ochl

    oric

    ac

    id,

    then

    m

    akin

    g th

    e so

    luti

    on

    alka

    line

    w

    ith

    conc

    ent r

    ated

    am

    mon

    ia a

    nd e

    dd-

    ing

    a

    litt

    le

    solid

    m

    agne

    sium

    su

    l-

    phat

    e.

    Whi

    te w

    ool

    is

    stai

    ned

    deep

    ly

    in t

    he c

    oolin

    g so

    lrr-

    ti

    on.

    Dye.

    p?

    * a

    id

    whi

    te c

    otto

    n is

    st

    aine

    d de

    eply

    in t

    he

    cool

    ing

    solu

    - t i

    on - S

    ub-

    sta

    nti

    ve

    fres

    h pa

    tter

    n is

    boi

    led

    for

    1-2

    min

    . in

    F

    orin

    osul

    G.

    Dye

    : A

    rhe

    patt

    ern

    is

    deco

    lori

    sed

    perm

    anen

    tly

    -AZ

    O

    Dye

    .

    Ver

    y li

    ttle

    , if

    any,

    dy

    e is

    st

    ripp

    ed-M

    orda

    nt,

    Sul

    phur

    , A

    zoic

    , or

    Vat

    Dye.

    A f

    resh

    pat

    tern

    is b

    oile

    d vi

    goro

    usly

    for

    1-2

    ini

    n.,

    or lo

    nger

    , in

    For

    mos

    ul G

    con

    tain

    ing

    a fe

    w d

    rops

    of

    70"

    Tw

    . ca

    usti

    c so

    da.

    The

    pat

    tern

    is '

    Lit

    tle,

    if

    any,

    de

    colo

    rise

    d;

    . o

    ri

    gi

    na

    l

    co

    lou

    r is

    re

    stor

    ed

    on

    expo

    sure

    to

    ai

    ;-Su

    lphu

    r Dye.

    This is

    con

    firm

    - ed

    by

    boili

    ng

    rnan

    ge

    oc-

    curs

    . A

    lum

    - in

    ium

    or

    ch

    roru

    ium

    is

    pre

    sen

    t-

    Ant

    hraq

    uin-

    on

    oid

    Mor-

    da

    nt D

    ye.

    a pa

    tter

    n fo

    ; 4

    rnin

    . in

    16

    % ,h

    ydro

    - ch

    lori

    c ac

    id,

    cool

    ing

    and

    ad

    din

    g

    a 1 i

    ttle

    mag

    nes

    ium

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    ro-

    gen

    sulp

    hide

    is

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    -olv

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    lead

    i 1 v.

    ' X p

    atte

    rn

    is

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    r I-

    ? m

    in.

    in

    , The

    pa

    tter

    n is

    de

    . I

    colo

    rise

    d :

    orig

    inal

    For

    mos

    ul G

    .

    The

    dye

    ing

    is

    colo

    ur

    is

    rest

    ored

    1 '

    str

    ipp

    ed

    q

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    iam

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    Oxa

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    Dye

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    iling

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    rman

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    Az

    oic

    Dye.

    C'hihis

    is c

    onfi

    rm-

    ed

    ing

    a by pa

    tter

    n st

    eep-

    inco

    ldet

    hyl-

    en

    e di

    aiiii

    ne.

    divi

    ding

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    ro

    lour

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    tra

    ct

    into

    tw

    o po

    rtio

    ns

    and

    test

    ing

    them

    as

    des-

    cr

    ibed

    in th

    e 7t

    h co

    lum

    n o

    f T

    ab

    le

    VII

    I.

    The

    pat

    tern

    and

    solu

    tion

    ar

    e ye

    llow

    ish

    in

    sh

    ad

    e,

    or

    litt

    le

    alte

    ra-

    tion

    oc

    curs

    -V

    at

    Dye

    . rh

    is is

    co

    nfi

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    by

    the

    eth

    yle

    ne

    -

    dian

    iine

    tes

    t (c

    f. l

    ast

    col-

    umn of

    Tab

    le

    VII

    I,

    an

    d

    p. 1

    82).

    __ _

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  • TABL

    E X

    I1

    IDE

    hTIF

    IC.1

    TIO

    S O

    F D

    YE

    S OX C

    OT

    TO

    S A

    KD

    OT

    HE

    R C

    EL

    L1

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    ES

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    RE

    EN

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    EIN

    CS

    AN

    D P

    RIN

    TS)

    obta

    ined

    . The

    wee

    kly

    acid

    ifie

    d '

    solu

    tion

    yie

    lds

    a pr

    ecip

    itat

    e w

    ith

    tann

    ic

    acid

    sol

    utio

    n-

    Bas

    ic

    Dye

    . T

    he d

    ye

    is

    tran

    sfer

    redt

    owoo

    l (c

    f.~

    . 181)

    The

    dye

    ing

    or p

    rin

    t is

    boi

    led

    for

    1-2

    min

    . in

    dil

    ute

    amm

    onia

    (cf

    . Rea

    gent

    s, p

    . 17

    9).

    stri

    pped

    sli

    ght-

    ly

    . T

    anni

    c ac

    id

    solu

    tion

    do

    es

    not

    caus

    e p

    w-

    1

    The

    sol

    utio

    n is

    co

    lonr

    ed d

    is-

    tinc

    tly

    and,

    af

    ter

    acid

    ify-

    i

    ng

    wi

    th

    ac

    etic

    ac

    id

    and

    heat

    ing,

    dy

    es

    whi

    te

    woo

    l - A

    cid

    Dye

    . (T

    he

    w

    ool

    dyei

    ng

    is

    exam

    ined

    as

    desc

    ribe

    d in

    Tab

    le I

    V).

    The

    sol

    utio

    n is

    not

    app

    reci

    ably

    col

    oure

    d.

    .A s

    md

    l pa

    tter

    n is

    Im

    iled

    for

    a fe

    w s

    econ

    ds i

    n 1

    C.C

    . .iv

    b re

    nsti

    c bo

    da s

    olk

    itlo

    ll;

    4 C

    .C.

    50,b

    am

    mon

    ium

    chl

    orid

    e so

    luti

    on a

    re th

    en a

    dded

    , and

    the

    who

    le b

    oile

    d ag

    ain

    for

    a fe

    w s

    econ

    ds.

    and

    boile

    d fo

    r 1-

    2 &

    n.

    in

    For

    mos

    ul G

    .

    The

    pat

    tern

    is

    deco

    lori

    sed;

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    igin

    al c

    ol-

    ou

    r is

    re

    - st

    ored

    by

    ta

    p-w

    ater

    - A

    zin

    e,

    Ox-

    a

    zin

    e,

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    iaz

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    Dye.

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    rhe

    patt

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    is

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    igin

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    r is

    re

    - st

    ore

    d

    by

    D

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    oper

    0

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    ar

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    me

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    Dye

    .

    5 A %

    sic

    or B

    aric

    lmor

    durt

    Dye

    is

    not

    pres

    ent.

    A f

    resh

    pat

    tern

    is

    boile

    d fo

    r 1-

    2 In

    in.

    in J

    O/b

    caus

    tic

    soda

    sol

    utio

    n.

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    tid

    n;

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    rom

    ium

    is

    ' pr

    esen

    t in

    th

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    is

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    irm

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    a p

    att

    ern

    fo

    r 1-

    2 m

    in.

    in 5

    %

    hy

    dro

    ch

    lori

    c

    acid

    , the

    n ni

    ak-

    ing

    the

    solu

    tion

    al

    kal

    ine

    wit

    h

    con

    cen

    tra

    t e

    d

    amm

    onia

    an

    d ad

    ding

    a

    litt

    le

    soli

    d

    mag

    ne-

    si

    um

    sulp

    hate

    . W

    hite

    w

    ool

    is

    A c

    onsi

    dera

    ble

    Ver

    y li

    ttle

    , if

    any.

    dye

    is s

    trip

    ped*

    -Mor

    dant

    , S

    ulph

    ur,

    Azo

    ic,

    or V

    at Dye

    . - .

    or

    sm

    all

    1

    amou

    nt

    uf ~

    stai

    ned

    deep

    ly

    in

    the

    cool

    ing

    solu

    tion

    . A

    pa

    tter

    n is

    de-

    co

    lori

    sed

    o

    n

    1 bo

    ilin

    ginF

    orm

    - os

    nl G

    ; or

    igin

    al

    co

    lou

    r is

    re

    - st

    ored

    by

    tap

    - ,

    wat

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    -

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    pe

    d a

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    w

    hite

    cot

    ton

    1

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    resh

    pat

    tern

    is b

    oile

    d vi

    goro

    usly

    for

    1-2

    niin

    ., o

    r lo

    nger

    , in

    For

    mos

    ul G

    and

    a

    few

    dro

    ps o

    f 70

    ' T

    w. c

    aust

    ic s

    oda.

    is

    sta

    ine

    d

    ~

    deep

    ly in

    the

    cool

    ing

    solu

    - ti

    on -Su

    b-

    sta

    nti

    ve

    Dye.

    Sfr

    eshp

    atte

    rn ,

    is b

    oile

    d fo

    r 1-

    2 m

    in.

    in '

    For

    mos

    ul G

    . , T

    he p

    atte

    rn i

    s de

    colo

    rise

    d;

    orig

    inal

    col

    - o

    ur

    is

    re-

    stor

    edon

    ex-

    ~o

    sure

    to

    air

    -SU

    lp h

    ur

    Dye

    . T

    his

    is

    co

    n.

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    me

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    by

    b

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    a

    rhe

    patt

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    rman

    entl

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    zo

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    : o

    r ch

    ange

    s to

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    llow

    - T

    hi8

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    kO

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    e M

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    re.

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    co

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    r ch

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    s to

    a

    b r

    o w

    n i

    s h

    shad

    e; o

    rig-

    in

    al

    colo

    ur

    is

    rest

    ored

    on

    ai

    ring

    . A

    m

    orda

    nt

    (chr

    om i u

    ni

    or

    nick

    el)

    is

    pre

    sen

    t -

    '

    patt

    zrn-

    for

    A

    n t h

    r a

    - 4

    min

    . in

    q

    uin

    on

    oid

    16

    % h

    ytk

    o-,

    Mo

    rd

    an

    t ch

    lori

    c ac

    id.

    Dye

    , e.

    5.

    rool

    ing

    and

    A 1

    z 2

    u r

    I 71

    a

    dd

    ing

    a

    Gre

    enP

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    li

    ttle

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    ne-

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    n t

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    n e

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    ydro

    - D

    y e ,

    e . g .

    gen

    sulp

    hitl

    e ,

    C'o

    prul

    cin.

    is e

    vcih

    ed.

    rhe

    c

    olo

    ur

    1 The

    patt

    ern

    is 'T

    hepa

    tter

    ncha

    nges

    ch

    ange

    s to

    ' de

    colo

    rise

    dt ,

    to

    r e

    dd

    i s h

    - r

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    dis

    h-

    1

    brow

    n; o

    rig-

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    al

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    isre

    stor

    edby

    ac

    tive

    o

    ry-

    pen.

    Chr

    oni-

    iu

    ni i

    s p

    m-

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    t- A

    nthr

    a-

    qu

    ino

    no

    id

    Aci

    d - m

    or-

    dan

    t D

    ye,

    e.g.

    A1i

    :ari

    n V

    irid

    inr .

    perm

    anen

    tly

    oran

    ge, g

    reen

    ish-

    -A

    zoic

    Dye

    . ve

    llow

    or

    blac

    k,

    Chi

    s is

    co

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    ori

    ssca

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    yaf

    - fi

    rme

    d b

    y

    fect

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    at Dye.

    .ste

    epin

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    in

    '(C

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    rlon

    Jad

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    reen

    co

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    ened

    iam

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    -red

    whe

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    divi

    ding

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    ated

    in

    For

    m-

    rolo

    urrd

    cx

    - ~

    osu

    l C:

    to w

    hich

    tr

    act

    into

    1 a

    litt

    le

    sodi

    um

    two

    port

    ions

    hi

    sulp

    hite

    ha

    s an

    d te

    stin

    g be

    en a

    dded

    .).

    them

    afi

    tle

    - ! vat.

    dy

    eing

    s ar

    e sv

    rib

    ed

    in

    I co

    rlfi

    rrne

    dbyt

    he

    the

    7th

    col.

    ; et

    hyle

    nedi

    amin

    e un

    inof

    Tab

    Ie 1

    test

    (c

    f.

    last

    V

    III.

    co

    lum

    n of

    Tab

    le

    1 V

    III.

    andp

    .182

    ).

    Z C

    f. f

    ootn

    ote

    inat

    krd

    Z in

    'ra

    bk

    VII

    I.

  • TABL

    E XI

    11

    IDE

    KT

    IFIC

    AT

    IOK

    O

    F D

    YE

    S O

    h' C

    OT

    TO

    X A

    ND

    OT

    HE

    R C

    EL

    LU

    LO

    SIC

    FIB

    RE

    S

    (BRO

    WN D

    YEI

    NC

    S A

    ND

    PR

    INTS

    )

    The

    dye

    ing

    or

    prin

    t is

    boi

    led

    for

    1-2

    nun.

    in

    dilu

    te a

    mm

    onia

    (cf

    . Rea

    pent

    s. p

    . 17

    9).

    The

    solu

    tion

    is col.

    oure

    d di

    stin

    ctly

    en

    d, a

    fter

    aci

    di-

    fyin

    g w

    ith

    acet

    ic

    acid

    and

    hea

    ting

    . dy

    es w

    hite

    woo

    l -A

    cid

    D

    a.

    (me w

    ool

    dye-

    in

    g is

    exa

    min

    ed

    as

    desc

    ribe

    d in

    T

    able

    VI)

    .

    The

    sol

    utio

    n is

    not

    app

    reci

    ably

    col

    oure

    d.

    A

    sam

    ple

    is b

    oile

    d fo

    r a

    fern

    sec

    onds

    In

    1 C

    .C.

    5yo

    caua

    tic

    soda

    sol

    utio

    n:

    4 C

    .C. 50

    ,; am

    mon

    ium

    chl

    orid

    e so

    luti

    on a

    re t

    hen ad

    ded.

    and

    the

    who

    le b

    oile

    d ag

    ain

    for

    a fe

    w s

    econ

    ds.

    Che

    so

    luti

    on i

    s co

    l-

    oure

    d de

    eply

    , an

    d .

    .-

    afte

    r ac

    idif

    yin

    g

    wit

    h ac

    etic

    ac

    id,

    A

    cons

    ider

    able

    or

    V

    ery

    litt

    le, i

    f an

    y, d

    ye is

    str

    ippe

    d*-M

    ord.

    nt,

    Sulp

    hur,

    Azo

    ic, o

    r V

    at D

    ye.

    yiel

    ds

    a co

    lour

    ed,

    smal

    l am

    ount

    of

    p

    mip

    itat

    e w

    ith

    , dy

    e is

    str

    ippe

    d an

    d

    tann

    icac

    idso

    lutio

    n -B

    ark

    be.

    T

    he

    stai

    ned

    dw

    dv

    in

    9 A

    Bu

    ic Dye

    is n

    ot

    pres

    ent..

    -4

    fre

    sh p

    atte

    rn i

    s bo

    iled

    for

    1-2

    min

    . in

    Sqo

    cau

    stic

    sod

    a so

    luti

    on.

    .-

    ~.

    -__

    __

    ~

    ~.

    Whi

    te

    cott

    on

    i8 ~

    A f

    resh

    pat

    tern

    is b

    oile

    d vi

    goro

    usly

    for

    1-2

    min

    ., or

    long

    er, i

    n Fo

    rtno

    sill

    G c

    onta

    inin

    g a

    few

    dro

    ps o

    f 70

    ' T

    w.

    caus

    tic

    soda

    . dy

    e is

    tr

    am

    fe

    d '

    the

    cool

    inn

    s&tio

    n

    The

    pa

    tter

    n is

    de

    - ----'

    co

    lori

    d

    perm

    an-

    The

    pa

    tter

    n is

    de

    - I

    entl

    y - A

    zo

    Dye

    , co

    lori

    sed

    perm

    an-

    '

    e.g

    . R

    istt

    ka

    rck

    en

    tly-

    AZ

    o D

    ye.

    Bro

    wn.

    (C

    oppe

    r or

    chro

    m-

    iuni

    may

    be

    pres

    - en

    t).

    ora

    ng

    e

    co

    lou

    r;

    fibr

    e is

    dul

    l yel

    low

    ; a

    mor

    dant

    (ch

    rom

    - iu

    m,

    iron

    an

    d/or

    al

    umin

    ium

    ) is p

    m-

    en

    t-A

    du

    a

    uin-

    onoi

    d M

    arl

    an

    t Dye,

    e.g.

    br

    owns

    de

    rive

    d fr

    om -

    4li:-

    a

    ritr

    , A

    1i:

    ari

    n

    Ora

    ttge,

    et

    c.

    wit

    h m

    ixtu

    res

    of a

    bove

    m

    orda

    nts.

    __

    - .

    -~

    ~

    The

    colo

    ur

    chan

    ges

    Lit

    tle

    , if

    a

    ny

    , T

    he

    patt

    ern

    is

    to

    yello

    w,

    etc.

    or

    chan

    geoc

    curs

    ;a

    de

    co

    lori

    sed

    t m

    ay b

    edec

    olor

    ieed

    ; m

    orda

    nt

    (chr

    o-

    prni

    anen

    tly-

    or

    igin

    al

    colo

    ur

    is

    miu

    m o

    r co

    pper

    A

    zoic

    Dye.

    rest

    ored

    on

    ex-

    or b

    oth)

    is p

    m-

    Thi

    s is

    co

    nfin

    ied

    , Thi

    s is

    con

    firm

    ed b

    y I

    boil

    ing

    a pa

    tter

    n '

    for 4

    min

    . in

    16?

    , I

    hydr

    ochl

    oric

    ac

    id,

    , ro

    olin

    g an

    d ad

    ding

    a

    litt

    le m

    egne

    sium

    . H

    ydro

    gen

    sulp

    hide

    is

    wol

    ved.

    IS.

    sent

    - (a

    )Ant

    hzo-

    ce

    ne

    Brm

    m o

    r (b

    ) Cu

    fck;

    (a)

    is

    utri

    pped

    by

    5%

    hy

    dro

    ch

    lori

    c

    acid

    , b

    ut

    (6) i

    s on

    ly s

    ligh

    tly

    af-

    fect

    ed.

    by

    stee

    ping

    ca

    patt

    ern

    in c

    old

    ethy

    lene

    diam

    ine.

    di

    vidi

    ngth

    erol

    - ou

    rmi

    extr

    act

    into

    t.w

    o po

    r-

    tion

    s an

    d te

    st-

    ing

    th

    em

    a

    s

    indi

    cate

    d in

    the

    7t

    h ro

    luni

    n of

    T

    abla

    \-IT

    T.

    Cf.

    foo

    tnot

    r m

    arke

    d *

    in T

    ablr

    SI.

    $ C

    f. fo

    otiin

    tr m

    arke

    d S

    in T

    ablr

    VII

    J.

    The

    pat

    tern

    is

    not.

    appr

    ecia

    bly

    af-

    fect

    ed;

    or

    it

    ch

    an

    ge

    s to

    a

    pale

    r or y

    ello

    a-

    ish

    sh

    ad

    e-

    Vat

    Dye

    . T

    his

    is c

    onfi

    nuet

    l hy

    the

    eth

    ylen

    e-

    dia

    min

    e t

    .eR

    t (r

    f.

    last

    co

    l-

    umn

    of

    Tab

    le

    TII

    I.an

    dp.1

    82).

  • TA

    BL

    E X

    IV

    IDE

    ST

    IFIC

    AT

    IOS

    OF

    DY

    ES

    OK

    CO

    TT

    OS

    -4X

    D O

    TH

    ER

    CE

    LL

    CL

    OSI

    C F

    IBR

    ES

    (B

    LA

    CK

    AN

    D G

    RE

    Y D

    YE

    ING

    S A

    ND

    PR

    INT

    S)

    e0i-

    q w

    ith

    acet

    ic a

    cid

    and

    he

    ati

    ng

    , d

    ye

    s w

    hit

    e w

    ool -

    The

    dye

    ing or p

    rint

    is

    boile

    d fo

    r 1-

    2 ni

    in.

    in d

    ilut

    e am

    mon

    ia (

    cf. R

    eage

    nts,

    p.

    179)

    .

    The

    so

    luti

    on

    is

    The

    clo

    lutio

    n is

    $

    A Buic Dy

    e or

    Log

    woo

    d is

    not

    pre

    sent

    . A

    fre

    sh s

    ampl

    e is

    boi

    led

    for

    1-2

    min

    . in

    so,

    cau

    stic

    sod

    a so

    luti

    on.

    co

    lo

    d

    and,

    af

    ter

    acid

    ifyi

    ng

    wit

    hace

    tica

    cid,

    ferr

    rd

    to

    wo

    ol

    (cf.

    p.

    181)

    and

    bo

    iled

    for

    1 niin

    . in

    Formosul

    G.

    Hy

    dro

    gen

    su

    l-

    phid

    eise

    rolv

    ed

    read

    ily - S

    u1-

    phur

    D

    ye.

    Thi

    sisc

    onfi

    rmed

    The

    pa

    tter

    n is

    d

    ec

    olo

    ri s

    ed

    : or

    igin

    al

    colo

    ur

    is

    rest

    ored

    by

    ta

    p - w

    a t.

    e r -

    Azi

    nc Dye

    , e.g

    . M

    ethy

    lene

    Qre

    y.

    (Bla

    ck

    dyei

    ngs

    of

    basi

    c dy

    es

    , ar

    e ao

    met

    imes

    I

    mix

    t.ure

    s.)

    Hy

    dro

    ge

    n

    sul-

    ph

    ide

    is

    not

    I ev

    olve

    d - A

    ni-

    1ine

    Bla

    ck.

    I T

    he

    c

    ol

    ou

    r

    __

    re

    d a

    nd

    :-

    chro

    miu

    m o

    r ir

    on i

    s pp

    es-

    ent

    in

    the

    p a

    t t e

    rn-

    Lo

    gw

    oo

    d.

    The

    pat

    tern

    w

    hen

    boile

    d in

    5%hy

    dro-

    ch

    lori

    c ac

    id,

    give

    s a

    red

    so

    lu t.

    i o n

    , ch

    angi

    ng t

    o

    v

    i o

    lo

    t

    on

    ad

    din

    g

    8 t.

    a n n

    o u

    s

    c.11

    lo

    r i d

    e.

    \ co

    nsid

    erab

    le

    or

    sma

    ll

    amou

    nt

    of

    dye

    is s

    trip

    - p

    ed

    a

    nd

    w

    hite

    cot

    ton

    is

    sta

    ine

    d

    deep

    ly in

    the

    cool

    ing

    soh

    - ti

    on - S

    ub-

    at

    an

    ti

    re

    D

    ye

    . A

    p

    att

    ern

    is

    bo

    iled

    for

    1- 2

    min

    . in

    FO

    ITIlO

    sUl G

    .

    Ver

    y li

    ttle

    , if

    any

    , dy

    e is

    str

    ippe

    d-M

    orda

    nt,

    Sul

    phur

    , A

    roic

    , V

    at.

    01'

    Phc

    nyla

    zoni

    um

    (rl?

    din

    e B

    lack

    ) Dye.

    A f

    resh

    pat

    tern

    is

    boile

    d vi

    goro

    usly

    for

    1-2

    m

    in.,

    or l

    onge

    r. i

    n F

    orm

    osul

    G c

    onta

    inin

    g a

    few

    dro

    ps of 7

    0' T

    w.

    caus

    tic

    soda

    . -

    -

    -

    .- _

    _

    The

    col

    our

    chan

    ges

    to a

    brow

    nish

    ! L

    ittl

    e.

    if a

    nv

    . T

    he

    oa

    tte

    rn i

    s L

    ittl

    e ch

    ange

    oc-

    , The

    pat

    tern

    is

    deco

    lori

    sed

    perm

    anen

    tly

    i -A

    ZO Dy

    e.

    chan

    ge o

    ccur

    s;

    chro

    miu

    m

    is

    pres

    ent - A

    n-

    tbra

    qu

    ino

    uo

    id

    Mor

    dant

    Dye,

    B.R

    . A

    liza

    rin

    de

    co

    lnri

    sed

    t cu

    m.

    altK

    ough

    pe

    rman

    entl

    y-

    the

    so

    1 u t

    io n

    Azo

    ic

    Dye

    . m

    ay b

    e oo

    lour

    ed

    slig

    htly

    - V

    at

    by s

    teep

    ing

    a,

    Dy?

    patt

    ern

    in c

    old

    I Thi

    s is

    co

    nfir

    med

    C

    'Gni

    ne

    Bla

    ck.

    et h

    yle

    ne

    dia

    - by

    thee

    tliy

    lene

    - m

    ine,

    di

    vidi

    ng '

    dia

    nii

    ne

    te

    st

    ~ th

    e ro

    lour

    ed e

    x-

    (cf.

    las

    t co

    lum

    n tr

    act

    into

    tw

    o of

    Tab

    le

    VII

    I,

    ' p

    ort

    ion

    s a

    nd

    an

    d 1'.

    189)

    . te

    stin

    g th

    em as

    ' de

    scri

    bed

    in t

    he

    ith

    rol

    unin

    in

    Thi

    s is

    con

    firr

    ned

    I T

    ahle

    \-ITT.

    t Cf.

    foo

    tiio

    tt.

    inar

    krd t

    In T

    ahle

    IS.

    5 Cf. f

    ootn

    ote

    iiutr

    lit.d

    3 in

    Tab

    le Y

    III

    N&

    --.uL

    Urr

    iu

    Bla

    ck

    wv

    OC

    C~S

    IOM

    U~ b

    e fo

    und

    oil

    Iir

    iuts

    . *

    Iiic

    loca

    rhou

    B

    larl

    in

    uith

    atai

    id t

    he

    acti

    on of

    IwU

    iug

    dUuk

    so

    diui

    ii I

    iypr

    hlor

    itr so

    lutii

    iii: i

    wlia

    lly t

    hey

    clll

    nge

    to p

    ale

    rlat

    e-

    It c

    hang

    ea to

    brow

    n ou

    boh

    oy i

    n Fo

    riiio

    sul

    G, b

    ut th

    e or

    igin

    al

    wlo

    ur la

    res

    tore

    d b

    y ar

    tlvr

    oxy

    urii

    . C

    hroi

    iiiu

    tii

    16 p

    rtw

    iit.

    blue

    .

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