Ice Cream Research

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<p>SENSORY ANALYSIS OF LOW FAT STRAWBERRY ICE CREAMS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT FLAVOR CHEMICALS AND FAT MIMETICS ____________________________________________________________ A Dissertation presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School University of Missouri-Columbia ____________________________________________________________ In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy ____________________________________________________________ by BO-KANG LIOU Dr. Ingolf U. Gruen, Dissertation Supervisor</p> <p>DECEMBER 2006</p> <p>The undersigned, appointed by the Dean of the Graduate School, have examined the thesis entitled SENSORY ANALYSIS OF LOW FAT STRAWBERRY ICE CREAMS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT FLAVOR CHEMICALS AND FAT MIMETICS</p> <p>presented by Bo-Kang Liou</p> <p>a candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy</p> <p>and hereby certify that in their opinion it is worthy of acceptance.</p> <p>________________________________________ Ingolf U. Gruen, Ph.D., Associate Professor Department of Food Science</p> <p>________________________________________ Koushik Adhikari, Ph.D., Assistant Professor Department of Human Nutrition, Kansas State University</p> <p>________________________________________ Andrew Clarke, Ph.D., Associate Professor Department of Food Science</p> <p>________________________________________ Mark R. Ellersieck, Ph.D., Professor Experiment Station Statistics</p> <p>________________________________________ Fu-Hung Hsieh, Ph.D., Professor Department of Food Science</p> <p>ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI would first like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to my advisor, Dr. Ingolf U. Gruen for providing me with the wonderful experiences to work in the research area of flavor/food chemistry, for his expert guidance and mentorship, and for his patience, understanding, support and encouragement at all levels to proceed through the doctorial program and complete my dissertation. I would also like to thank Dr. Koushik Adhikari, Dr. Andrew Clarke, Dr. Mark Ellersieck and Dr. Fu-Hung Hsieh for their guidance and helpful suggestions over the past years and for serving on my committee. Special thanks to Dr. Hildegarde Heymann for providing me the best training and expanding my knowledge in the field of sensory science. Additionally, thank you to Dr. Yong Li for his assistance in life and academic suggestions. I appreciate sincerely Rick Linhardt JoAnn Lewis, Lakdas Fernando and Harold Huff for all their assistance throughout my research and coursework. I had met many challenges in life over the past years. Many friends gave me all supports in the U.S. life and academic work. A special thank you to Chang-Yi Wu, Chih-Hao Cheng and his wife, Jennifer Chen, Long-Cheng Chen, Ning Ko, Chun-Yu Chen, Ting-Ning Lin, Luxin Wang, Meng Xie, Jasmine Tang, Juhee Ann, Madana M Moragudivenkata, Vanillin Lu, Yi-Chun Chen, Ya Guo, Yong Wei, and Yajun Ding, who accompanied me throughout my life. No matter where I go to I'll keep all these precious memories. Lastly, I would like to extend my sincerest thank you and dedication of this dissertation to my parents for your unlimited love and support. Your encouragement during the bad times and your enthusiasm during the good times gave me constant inspirations in my life. ii</p> <p>TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...ii LIST OF TABLES ......vii LIST OF FIGURES...ix ABSTRACT xiii Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 BACKGROUND .......1 1.2 OBJECTIVES ..4 1.3 REFERENCES ......6 2. LITERATURE REVIEW .9 2.1 ICE CREAM ....9 2.1.1 Definition &amp; Classification ....9 2.1.2 Composition &amp; Quality Factor ...11 2.1.2.1 Nonfat Milk Solids .....11 2.1.2.2 Milk Fat ..13 2.1.2.3 Sweeteners ....14 2.1.2.4 Emulsifiers ....16 2.1.2.5 Stabilizer ...16 2.1.2.6 Flavorings ..17 2.1.2.7 Defects ...19 2.1.3 Manufacturing ..20 2.1.3.1 Pasteurization ....20 2.1.3.2 Homogenization ....21 2.1.3.3 Aging .21 2.1.3.4 Freezing and Hardening ....22 2.1.3.5 Shelf Life .....23 2.2 STRAWBERRY FLAVOR .24 2.2.1 Introduction ........24 2.2.2 Artificial Strawberry Flavor ..25 2.2.2.1 cis-3-Hexen-1-ol ...25 2.2.2.2 -Undecalactone ....27 2.2.2.3 Ionone ....29 2.2.2.4 Ethyl-3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate .......30 2.2.2.5 FuraneolTM .....31 2.2.3 Effect of Strawberry Compounds on Different Fat Systems 34 2.3 FAT REPLACERS ......35 2.3.1 Introduction ....35 2.3.2 Category of Fat Mimetics ....38 2.3.2.1 Carbohydrate-based Fat Mimetics ....38 2.3.2.1.1 Litesse .........39 iii</p> <p>2.3.2.2 Protein-Based Fat Mimetics .......42 2.3.2.2.1 Simplesse ..43 2.4 LOW-FAT ICE CREAM ..45 2.4.1 Challenge.....46 2.4.2 Formulating Reduced-Fat Ice Cream .46 2.4.3 Relationship Between Flavor Release and Fat Content in Ice Cream ..49 2.4.4 Relationship Between Full-Fat Ice Cream and Low-Fat Ice Cream....51 2.4.5 Relationship Between Fat Mimetics and Low-Fat Ice Cream ...52 2.5 REFERENCES ..56 3. EFFECT OF FAT LEVEL ON THE PERCEPTION OF FIVE FLAVOR CHEMICALS IN ICE CREAM WITH OR WITHOUT FAT MIMETICS BY USING A DESCRIPTIVE TEST ..71 3.1 INTRODUCTION..................71 3.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS ....75 3.2.1 Materials ....75 3.2.2 Methods....76 3.2.2.1 Ice Cream Manufacture ....76 3.2.2.2 Sensory Evaluation of Ice Cream ...77 3.2.2.2.1 Descriptive Panel and Training of Panelists....77 3.2.2.2.2 Computerized Descriptive Test ..78 3.2.2.3 Color Measurement 79 3.3 DATA ANALYSIS ...79 3.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 85 3.4.1 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 85 3.4.2 Color Analysis .....102 3.4.3 Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) ..105 3.4.4 Principal Component Analysis (PCA) ......107 3.4.5 Stepwise Discriminant Analysis 119 3.4.6 Canoncial Variate Analysis (CVA) ...125 3.5 CONCLUSIONS ...133 3.6 REFERENCES .....141 4. DESCRIPTIVE SENSORY ANALYSIS OF STRAWBERRY ICE CREAMS CONTAINING SIMPLESSE AND FLAVORINGS REFORMULATED FOR REDUCED FAT ICE CREAMS ..146 4.1 INTRODUCTION 146 4.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS ..149 4.2.1 Materials .149 4.2.2 Methods ..150 iv</p> <p>4.3 4.4</p> <p>4.5 4.6</p> <p>4.2.2.1 Flavor Formulation 150 4.2.2.2 Ice Cream Manufacture ..151 4.2.2.3 Sensory Evaluation of Ice Cream .152 4.2.2.3.1 Descriptive Panel and Training of Panelists.152 4.2.2.3.2 Computerized Descriptive Test153 DATA ANALYSIS .....154 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .....160 4.4.1 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) ...160 4.4.2 Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) ......163 4.4.3 Principal Component Analysis (PCA) ...165 4.4.4 Canoncial Variate Analysis (CVA) .......178 4.4.5 Cluster Analysis (CA) .......187 CONCLUSIONS ...192 REFERENCES ..194</p> <p>5. CONSUMER SENSORY ANALYSIS OF STRAWBERRY ICE CREAMS CONTAINING SIMPLESSE AND FLAVORINGS REFORMULATED FOR REDUCED FAT ICE CREAMS ......196 5.1 INTRODUCTION .....196 5.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS ..199 5.2.1 Materials ...199 5.2.2 Sample Choices and Preparation ..200 5.2.3 Consumer Tests ..... 204 5.3 DATA ANALYSIS .......205 5.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ...207 5.4.1 Consumer Acceptance for Hedonic Test ..207 5.4.2 Consumer Preference ...211 5.4.3 Partial Least Square (PLS) ...213 5.4.4 Internal Preference Mapping ....220 5.4.5 External Preference Mapping ..227 5.5 CONCLUSIONS ..........230 5.6 REFERENCES .........234 6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ..237 APPENDICES A. Sampling plan of quantitative descriptive test for 30 ice creams with or without fat mimetics .....241 B Complete block design of quantitative descriptive test used on 30 ice creams with or without fat mimetics ...242 v</p> <p>C Mean intensity value (mixed model ANOVA) for 30 ice creams with or without fat mimetics ........245 D Sampling plan of quantitative descriptive test for reformulated ice creams 258 E Complete block design of quantitative descriptive test for reformulated ice creams .259</p> <p>F Mean intensity value (mixed model ANOVA) for reformulated ice creams262 G SAS code for statistical analysis ....275 H Example of consent form for descriptive test .280 I J Example of score sheet for descriptive test ..........................281 Example of consent form for consumer test .....285</p> <p>K Example of ballot sheet for consumer test ......286 L Sampling plan of consumer test for 6 ice creams ........288</p> <p>VITA 290</p> <p>vi</p> <p>LIST OF TABLES Table 2-1. 3-1. 3-2. 3-3. 3-4. 3-5. 3-6. 3-7. 3-8. 3-9. Page The composition of some typical ice creams .. 11 Ice cream formulation per 100g basis for 10% and 4% ice cream with or without fat mimetics ....... 82 Flavor formulation for 10% and 4% ice creams with or without fat mimetics ..... 83 Attribute reference and definition for descriptive panel . 84 Summary of mixed-ANOVA of ice cream and flavor formulation effects for each attribute measure ... 99 The mean values of attributes for the ice cream with or without fat mimetics .. 100 The mean values of attributes for ice cream at six different flavor formulations .... 101 Color values (L,a,b) of ice cream without or with fat mimetics (control samples) reported as L,a,b ... 104 Pearson coefficients of instrumental parameters (L a b value) with the pink color attribute (n=5) 104 Statistics and significance of various effects on all attribute measures... 106</p> <p>3-10. Pearson correlation of ice cream without and with fat mimetics (n=30) 118 4-1. 4-2. Flavor formulation and its percentage for 10% and 4% ice creams with Simplesse .. 156 Ice cream formulation per 100g basis for 10% and 4% ice cream with Simplesse ... 157 vii</p> <p>4-3. 4-4. 4-5. 4-6. 4-7. 5-1. 5-2. 5-3.</p> <p>Attribute reference and definition for descriptive panel . 158 Summary of mixed-ANOVA of 37 ice creams for each attribute measure .......... 159</p> <p>Statistics and significance of various effects on all attribute measures for 37 ice creams ... 164 Pearson correlation of 25 sensory attributes for ice cream and ice cream with Simplesse (n=37) .. 176 Proximity matrix (Euclidean distance) of ice cream and ice cream with Simplesse with flavor, texture and aftertaste attributes .... 177 Flavor formulation for 10% ice cream and 4% ice creams with Simplesse .... 202 Ice cream formulation per 100g basis for 10% and 4% ice cream with Simplesse .... 203 F value and significance of the effects of source of variation (product) for the analysis of variance in fixed and mixed model for the 6 ice creams .. 210 Mean score of overall liking, overall flavor, overall texture and overall appearance derived from mixed ANOVA model for consumer hedonic data of the 6 ice creams ... 210 Analysis of consumer ranking data by Friedman test with LSRD test and Wilcoxon rank sum with Kruskal-Wallis test 212</p> <p>5-4.</p> <p>5-5.</p> <p>viii</p> <p>LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 2-1. Molecular structure of five flavor compounds... 35 3-1. Principal component analysis of 26 sensory attributes on PC I vs PC II (Covariance model) ... 112 3-2. Principal component analysis of 26 sensory attributes on PC I vs PC III (Covariance model) .. 113 3-3. Principal component analysis of 26 sensory attributes on PC II vs PC III (Covariance model) ..... 114 3-4. Principal component analysis of 30 ice creams with sensory attributes on PC I vs PC II (Covariance model) ... 115 3-5. Principal component analysis of 30 ice creams with sensory attributes on PC I vs PC III (Covariance model) .. 116 3-6. Principal component analysis of 30 ice creams with sensory attributes on PC II vs PC III (Covariance model) . 117 3-7. Stepwise discriminant analysis of ice cream type with stepwise selection of variables on Disc I and Disc II .. 121 3-8. Stepwise discriminant analysis of ice cream type with stepwise selection of variables on Disc I and Disc III . 122 3-9. Stepwise discriminant analysis of ice cream type with stepwise selection of variables on Disc II and Disc III 123 3-10. Stepwise discriminant analysis of flavor formulation with stepwise selection of variables on Disc I and Disc II .. 124 3-11. Sensory attributes space by CVA for 30 ice creams on CVI vs CV II . 135 3-12. Sensory attributes space by CVA for 30 ice creams on CV I vs CV III .. 136 ix</p> <p>3-13. Sensory attributes space by CVA for 30 ice creams on CV II vs CV III .... 137 3-14. Canonical variate analysis for 30 ice creams on CV I vs CV II ... 138 3-15. Canonical variate analysis for 30 ice creams on CV I vs CV III .. 139 3-16. Canonical variate analysis for 30 ice creams on CV II vs CV III . 140 4-1. Principal component analysis of 25 sensory attributes for 37 ice creams on PC I vs PC II (Covariance model) ... 170 4-2. Principal component analysis of 25 sensory attributes for 37 ice creams on PC I vs PC III (Covariance model) ...... 171 4-3. Principal component analysis of 25 sensory attributes for 37 ice creams on PC II vs PC III (Covariance model) 172 4-4. Principal component analysis of 37 ice creams with sensory attributes on PC I vs PC II (Covariance model) ... 173 4-5. Principal component analysis of 37 ice creams with sensory attributes on PC I vs PC III (Covariance model) .. 174 4-6. Principal component analysis of 37 ice creams with sensory attributes on PC II vs PC III (Covariance model) . 175 4-7. Sensory attributes space by CVA for 37 ice creams on CVI vs CV II ... 181 4-8. Sensory attributes space by CVA for 37 ice creams on CVI vs CV III .. 182 4-9. Sensory attributes space by CVA for 37 ice creams on CVII vs CV III ..... 183 4-10. Canonical variate analysis for 37 ice creams on CV I vs CV II ... 184 x</p> <p>4-11. Canonical variate analysis for 37 ice creams on CV I vs CV III .. 185 4-12. Canonical variate analysis for 37 ice creams on CV II vs CV III . 186 4-13. Cluster analyses of 37 ice cream products including 23 attributes categorized by flavor, texture and aftertaste attributes . 190 4-14. Cluster analyses of 37 ice cream products including 10 corresponding attributes from the five flavor compounds 191 5-1. PLS regression of the integrated data of descriptive (all 25 sensory attributes) and hedonic data (overall liking) for the 6 ice cream products . 216 5-2. PLS regression of the integrated data of descriptive (5 texture attributes) and hedonic data (overall texture) for the 6 ice cream products . 217 5-3. PLS regression of the integrated data of descriptive (18 flavor attributes) and hedonic data (overall flavor) for the 6 ice cream products . 218 5-4. PLS regression of the integrated data of descriptive (2 appearance attributes) and hedonic data (overall appearance) for the 6 ice cream products . 219 5-5. Internal preference maps of overall degree of liking of 6 ice creams for all consumer panels . 223 5-6. Internal preference mapping of degree of flavor liking of 6 ice creams for all consumer panels ... 224 5-7. Internal preference mapping of degree of texture liking of 6 ice creams for all consumer panels . 225 5-8. Internal preference mapping of degree of appearance liking of 6 ice creams for all consumer panels. 226 xi</p> <p>5-9. External preference mapping of consumer perception of overall liking for 6 ice creams using descriptive data and hedonic data. .. 231 5-10. External preference mapping of consumer perception of flavor liking for 6 ice creams using descriptive data and hedonic data 232 5-11. External preference mapping of consumer perception of texture liking...</p>