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  • ICE CREAM

    Namratha Kollu

  • Ice cream

    • Different kinds of frozen deserts.

    1. Dairy ice cream

    2. Non dairy ice cream

    3. Gelato

    4. Frozen yoghurt

    5. Milk ice

    6. Sorbet

    7. Sherbet

    8. Water ice

    9. Fruit ice

  • Ice cream

    • Frozen Dessert / Frozen Confection(hereafter referred to as the said product) means the product obtained by freezing a

    pasteurized mix prepared with milk fat and / or edible vegetable oils and fat having a melting point of not more than 37.0

    degree C in combination and milk protein alone or in combination / or vegetable protein products singly or in combination

    with the addition of nutritive sweetening agents e.g. sugar, dextrose, fructose, liquid glucose, dried liquid glucose,

    maltodextrin, high maltose corn syrup, honey, fruit and fruit products, eggs and egg products coffee, cocoa, chocolate,

    condiments, spices, ginger, and nuts. The said product may also contain bakery products such as cake or cookies as a separate

    layer/or coating, it may be frozen hard or frozen to a soft consistency. It shall have pleasant taste and flavor free from off

    flavor and rancidity and may contain food additives permitted

  • Ice cream

    • Ice Cream, Kulfi, Chocolate Ice Cream or Softy Ice Cream(hereafter referred to as the said product) means the product

    obtained by freezing a pasteurized mix prepared from milk and /or other products derived from milk with or without the

    addition of nutritive sweetening agents, fruit and fruit products, eggs and egg products, coffee, cocoa, chocolate, condiments,

    spices, ginger and nuts and it may also contain bakery products such as cake or cookies as a separate layer and/or coating.

    The said product may be frozen hard or frozen to a soft consistency; the said product shall have pleasant taste and smell free

    from off flavour and rancidity; the said product may contain food additives permitted

  • Ice cream

    "ICE LOLLIES OR EDIBLE ICES" means the frozen ice produce which may contain sugar, syrup, fruit, fruit

    juices, cocoa, citric acid, permitted flavors and colors. It may also contain permitted stabilizers and/or emulsifiers not

    exceeding 0.5 per cent by weight. It shall not contain any artificial sweetner. Ice Candy means the product obtained by

    freezing a pasteurized mix prepared from a mixture of water, nutritive sweeteners e.g. sugar, dextrose, liquid glucose,

    dried liquid glucose, honey, fruits and fruit products, coffee, cocoa, ginger, nuts and salt. The product may contain food

    additives permitted

    It shall conform to the following requirement:—

    Total sugars expressed as Sucrose ... Not less than 10.0 percent

    • All the definitions are taken from the FSSA, ACT

  • Different classification of ice creams

    Component Economy Standard Premium Super premium

    Fat Legal Minimum usually 8-10% 10-12% 12-15% 15-18%

    Total solids Legal Minimum usually 35-36% 36-38% 38-40% >40%

    Over run Legal Maximum 100-120% 60-90% 25-50%

    Ice cream

  • Different Ingredients in Ice cream and their functions and limitations

    Constituent Functions Limitations

    Milk Fat Increases the richness of flavor Relatively high cost

    Lubricates and insulates the

    mouth Smoothness of texture hinders whipping

    May limit the consumption due to high calories and satiating effect

    Non Dairy Fats

    Provides good structure and

    texture at lower cost than milk fat,

    if appropriate solid fat content Contributes little to flavor and may impart the off flavors

    May contribute to greasy texture

    Milk solids not fat

    Improves the body and texture

    through emulsification and water

    holding capacity High content may cause cooked or salty flavor

    Whey protein

    concentrates Promotes development of overrun Potential for sandiness (lactose crystallization) at high concentration

    Whey solids

    Less expensive than the

    conventinal sources of MSNF High amount of lactose causes freezing point depression

    Potential for sandiness greater than for conventional sources of MSNF

  • Different Ingredients in Ice cream and their functions and limitations

    Constituent Functions Limitations

    Sugar Lowers freezing point Excess sweetness possible

    Imparts sweetness to the ice

    cream Lower hardening temperature needed

    Improves flavor/texture

    Ice cream is softer , affecting scooping and the potential for greater

    recrystallization

    Corn syrup solids Lower cost than sugar Impart off flavor and chewy texture when overused

    Improve body and texture

    Increase the stability of ice cream

    Stabilizer Enhance smooth texture Excess chewiness may occur

    Provide body Increase the melt resistance

    Enhance shelf life

    Egg yolk solids Improve whipping ability Foamy melted product

    Impart the custard flavor Egg flavor may be undesirable

    Emulsifiers

    Promote fat destabilization,

    leading to dryness, smoothness

    and good melting properties Increase potential for churning of fat

  • Different Ingredients in Ice cream and their functions and limitations

    Constituent Functions Limitations

    Total solids Smoother texture Heavy, soggy or sticky body

    Firmer body Reduces coldness

    High nutrient content

    Lessen excess coldness

    Flavoring Increases acceptability Intensities and harshness may be unacceptable

    Coloring Improves attractiveness Artificial shades

    Aids Flavor identification Allergic reactions

    Dislike of consumers to added colors

  • Schematic diagram of ice cream processing:

  • Flow chart of ice cream processing

  • Points to be noted for mix

    • MILK SOLIDS-NON-FAT (MSNF)

    • MSNF consist of proteins, lactose and mineral salts

    derived from whole milk, skim milk, condensed milk,

    milk powders and/or whey powder. In addition to its

    high nutritional value, MSNF helps to stabilize the

    structure of ice cream due to its water-binding and

    emulsifying effect. The same effect also has a

    positive influence on air distribution in the ice cream

    during the freezing process, leading to improved

    body and creaminess.

    In a well-balanced recipe, the quantity of MSNF

    should always be in proportion to the water content.

    The optimal level is 17 parts MSNF to 100 parts

    water:

    Standard formulations

  • The Mix Process:

    High shear and High temperature(85 degree centigrade)

    Formation of mix involves 3 major processes

    1. Dispersion- High shear

    2. Hydration of dry ingredients - High temperature

    3. Emulsification

    Ice cream

  • Ice cream

    Order of addition :

    1. Potable water

    2. Emulsifier and stabilizer mix + sugar

    3. Proteins

    4. SMP

    5. Remaining Sugar

    6. Liquid Glucose

    7. Fat

  • Ice cream

    Double stage Homogenization Individual Homogenization

    Homogenization: 1. Stable suspension

    2. Reduction of particle size of fat

  • • In the homogenizer the hot mix (> 70 C) is forced through a small valve under

    high pressure (typically up to about 150 atm). The large fat droplets are

    elongated and broken up into a fine emulsion of much smaller droplets (about

    1 pm in diameter), greatly increasing the surface area of the fat.

    • Sometimes a second homogenization step is used with a lower pressure

    (about 35 atm) to reduce clustering of the small fat droplets after the first

    stage.

    • Recently, very high pressure homogenization (up to 2000 atm) has been

    shown to produce even smaller fat droplets, and therefore a higher fat surface

    area for a given volume.

    • Proteins are very good at stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions against

    coalescence because they provide a strong, thick membrane around the fat

    droplet. Interactions between the proteins on the outside of the droplets make

    it harder for the droplets to come into close contact. This is known as steric

    stabilization.

    Homogenization

  • Pasteurization: Minimal Time and Temperature combinations for ice cream mixes:

    Source:Grade A Milk ordinance FDA , 2011

    Ice cream

  • Ice cream

    Schematic diagram of Pasteurization in Plate Heat Exchanger

  • Aging:

    1. Temperature – 4 degree centigrade

    2. Time - 4 hours to 24 hours.

    •Emulsifiers adsorb to the surface of the fat droplets replacing

    protein

    •Crystallization of the fat

    •Continuous re arrangement of the fat globules to form a

    structure.

    Ice cream

  • Freezing: Ice cream mix at approximately 4 degree C is pumped from the ageing

    tank into the barrel, where it is aerated and frozen, before being pumped

    out from the other end.

    Ice cream

  • Cup filling

    Cone filling

    Cup and cone products:

    Ice cream

  • Moulded Products:

    Ice cream