Hypnosis & meditation

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<ul><li>1.Hypnosis</li></ul> <p>2. What is Hypnosis? 3. Hypnosis A social interaction in which one person(the hypnotist) makes suggestions aboutperceptions, feelings, thoughts, orbehaviors, and another person (thesubject) follows those suggestions Hypnotist serves as a coach or tutorshowing you the way. 4. Hypnosis State of awareness Highly focused attention Increased responsiveness to suggestion Vivid imagery Willingness to accept distortions of logic People do NOT lose control of their behavior.Instead, they remain aware of where they are, whothey are, and what is transpiring. Alteration of sensation and perception 5. Is Hypnosis a Special State of Consciousness? State view Hypnosis is a special or alteredstate of consciousness (see Hilgardsneodissociation). Non-State view Hypnosis is not a special stateand similar effects can be produced whenpeople are properly instructed and motivated. Social-cognitive view subject responds tosocial demands of the situation. Play the role ofwhat is expected from a good hypnotic subject. 6. Social Influence Theory Powerful social influences produce astate of hypnosis. This theory notes that a personsphysiological state does not changeunder hypnosis. Social factors influence people tobelieve hypnosis will work. 7. Divided Consciousness Theory During hypnosis our consciousness splits so that oneaspect of consciousness is not aware of the role thatother parts are playing. Promoted by Ernest Hilgard (1904-2001) People experience dissociation the splitting ofconsciousness into two or more simultaneous streams ofmental activity. Neodissociation theory of hypnosis a hypnotizedperson consciously experiences one stream of mentalactivity that is responding to the hypnotistssuggestions. A second dissociated stream known as thehidden observer is processing info that is unavailable tothe consciousness of the hypnotized subject. 8. A woman doesnt notice the smell of ammonia.How can this be explained? 9. Evidence Supporting Hypnosis Role-Playing hypnotics drop the act when not observedwhile actually hypnotized subjects maintain the act whennot observed. PET Scans reveal activity increased in the left and righthemisphere color areas when they were told they wereseeing color. Activity decreased in the left and righthemisphere color areas when they were told to see grayrectangles regardless of what color they were. Only theright hemisphere color areas were activated in people nothypnotized. This shows hypnosis is a mental state. Imaginative suggestibility the degree to which a person isable to experience an imaginary state of affairs as if it werereal. Many people are open to suggestion even when notunder hypnosis. 10. Hypnotic Techniques 11. Hypnotic Induction The process by which a hypnotistcreates a state of hypnosis in a subject Usually done by voicing a series ofsuggestions Voice is usually calm and of a rhythmictone 12. Hypnotizability Differences in the ability of people tobecome hypnotized Varies from person to person Varies from situation to situation Most adults are moderately hypnotizable. Children are easier to hypnotize. People who have positive, receptive attitudestowards hypnosis and expectations that theyrespond tend to hypnotize easier. 13. Hypnotizability 14. Hypnotic Techniques:Hypnotic Suggestions 15. Limits to Hypnotic Suggestions Suggestions usually involve sensations,thoughts, emotions, and a wide varietyof behaviors. Hypnosis does not cause behaviors. Hypnosis can lead people to certainbehaviors but so can ordinarysuggestions. 16. Hypnotic Techniques: PosthypnoticSuggestions 17. Posthypnotic Suggestions A suggestion, made during a hypnosissession, that the subject will carry outwhen no longer hypnotized Technique can be used to encouragehelpful behavior changes, such asstopping smoking or losing weight. Most only last for a few hours or days. 18. Hypnosis andMemory 19. Hypnosis and Memory There are isolated cases of hypnosishelping recall. Cannot be sure if the memory cameback due to hypnosis Cannot be sure if the memory isaccurate or one that is created to pleasethe hypnotist 20. Hypnosis and Memory Posthypnotic Amnesia person is unable torecall specific info or events that occurred before orduring hypnosis. Produced by a hypnoticsuggestion. Effects are usually temporary and where off either spontaneously with a posthypnotic signal. Hypermnesia Enhancement of memory for pastevents using hypnotic suggestion. Not proven to work and can lead to distortions and inaccuracies or pseudomemories. Age Regression Recall or reexperience anearlier developmental period. Often distorted and not accurate. 21. Hypnosis and PainControl 22. Pain and Hypnosis Hypnosis does work as a means tocontrol pain. Hypnosis can cause temporaryblindness, deafness, or complete loss ofsensation in a part of the body. Becauseof this, hypnosis can be used as a formof pain therapy (see Time article) 23. Hypnosis Play Hypnotic Dissociation and PainRelief (3:03) Segment #2 from TheMind: Psychology Teaching Modules(2nd edition). If Time Allows. Watch this &amp; read Time article on thissubject. Our cerebral cortex allows to filter outcertain info and focus on other info. 24. Other Hypnotic Claims 25. Placebo Effect Improvement due only to the power ofpositive expectations People think they will get better so theydo 26. Feats of Strength Many feats of strength done underhypnosis can be accomplished withouthypnosis. 27. Feats of StrengthThe "amazing"hypnotized"human plank"Actually,unhypnotizedpeople canalso performthis feat. 28. Limits to Hypnosis You cannot be hypnotized against yourwill. Hypnosis cannot make you performbehaviors that are contrary to your moralsand values. Hypnosis cannot make you stronger orgive you new talents. 29. MEDITATION 30. Meditation Aim to control or retrain attention. Two general categories.1. Concentration Techniques focusing on a visual image, your breathing, a word or phrase. Often a mantra is repeated mentally.2. Opening-up Techniques Present-centered awareness of the passing moment, without mental judgment. Concentrate on the here and now withoutdistractive thoughts. Zazen or just sitting technique of Buddhism is aform of this. 31. Effects of Meditation Most use Transcendental Meditation (TM) Concentrative meditation that does not require anylifestyle changes and follows a simple format. Sitwith eyes closed and say a mantra over an over intheir mind allowing distracting thoughts to fall away. People experience a lowering of psychologicalarousal by lowering heart rate, blood pressure, andchanges in to alpha-brain-waves similar to the stateof drowsiness that precedes stage 1 sleep. SPECT scans show increased blood flow to bothfrontal lobes and decreased blood flow to the leftparietal lobe during meditation. Frontal lobes areinvolved in attention focusing tasks and parietallobes are involved in visual-spatial tasks, which arenot needed in mediation. </p>


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