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mUSLlms MASJIDAL-NOORIslamic Community ofNonbem CaJIftwnII. P.O. Box410186..J CAM141.()186------JI K.J.AhDlad LIBRARYOFISLAM P.o. Box1923,Des Plaines, IL 60017-1923(U.S.A.) HunOAEO

mUSLlms MASJIDAL-NOORIslamic Community ofNonbem CaJIftwnII. P.O. Box410186..J CAM141.()186------JI K.J.AhDlad LIBRARYOFISLAM P.o. Box1923,Des Plaines, IL 60017-1923(U.S.A.) Firstpublished1987 byLibrary ofIslam P.O. Box1923 DesPlaines,I L 60017-1923(U.S.A.) Copyright 1987Library of Islam Allrights reserved.No part of this pUblication maybereproduced ortransmittedinany formorbyany means, electronic or mechanical, Including photocopy, recordingoranyinformation retrlllValsystem without permissioninwriting fromthe publisher. DISTRIBUTOR: 'Kazi Publications Inc. 3023West :BeImont Avenue . e n i ~ , IL60618 (U.S.A.) AUTHOR: Ahmad,Kh. Jamil HUNDRED GREAT MUSLIMS ISBN:0-93351116-7 TYPESETTING& COVER DESIGN: A-1Typesetting, Chicago Printed intheUnitedStatesof America 1 2 3 4 5 678 910 DEDICATION ToHis Majesty Shah Faisal Shaheed The most conscientiousand courageous,sagacious and respected Muslim ruler since the time of Salahuddin the Great - one who was asymbol of Muslim unity and solidarity,piety and strength during the present century. CONTENTS Foreword byL.F.Rushbrook Williams PrefacetoFirstEdition I.Muhammad (PBUH),theProphet of Islam II.Great Leaders: 1.AbuBakr 2.UmartheGreat 3.Usman 4.Ali (TheLionHearted) 5.AbuzarGhaffari 6.ImamHussain 7.Umar binAbdulAziz III.Great Women: 1.Khadijatal-Kubra 2.Aisha Siddiqa 3.Fatima az-Zahra 4.Rabia Basri IV.Religious Teachers, Legists and Traditionists : 1.ImamJafarSadiq 2.ImamAbu Hanifa 3.Imam Malik 4.ImamShafii 5.ImamHanbal 6.ImamBukhari 7.ImamMuslim 8.ImamGhazali 9.Imam ibnTaimiya Page IX xii 3 12 19 34 40 48 53 57 67 69 72 76 81 84 92 96 99 102 105 10C) 113 v vi Contents V.Sufisand Saints:Page 1.Abdul QadirJilani119 2.BayazidBustarni123 3.DataGanjBakhsh125 4.KhawajaMueenuddin Chishti128 5.Ibrahim binAdham132 6.NizamuddinAulia135 VI.Thinkers and Scientists: 1.Muhammad binMusa Al-Khawarizmi141 2.Jabir ibn Hayyan145 3.AbuIshaq Kindi149 4.Zakrriya al-Razi152 5.AbuAli Sina157 6.Al-Biruni163 7.Ibn al-Haitham166 8.Ibn al-Baitar170 9.Ibn Rushd174 10.Al-Mawardi180 11.Nasir al-DinToosi183 12.AbulQasimal-Zahrawi188 13.SirShah Muhammad Sulaiman191 VB.Poets and Writers : 1.Mutanabbi197 2.Firdausi200 3.Sa'adi206 4.HafizShirazi212 5.Maulana JalaluddinRumi218 6.Vmar Khayyam223 7.MirzaAsadullah Khan Ghalib229 8.MaulanaAltaf Husain Hali234 9.Maulana ShibliNomani237 10.Iqbal241 11.Maulvi Abdul Haq252 12.SyedSulaiman Nadvi256 VIII.Artists andMusicians: 1.AbuNasrFarabi263 2.AmirKhusrou268 3.MianTansen274 4.Sinan277 ContentsVII Page 5.Behzad279 6.Ibn al-Bawwab282 7.Bundoo Khan284 IX.Refonners, Revolutionaries and Patriots: 1.The Saint of Sirhind291 2.ShahWaliullah297 3.Shaikh Abd al-Wahhab304 4.Syed Ahmad Barelvi307 5.Jamaluddin Afghani313 6.Syed AhmadKhan319 7.MustafaKamal326 8.Maulana MuhammadAli333 9.Maulana Hasrat Mohani339 10.MuhammadAli Jinnah345 X.Rulers, Statesmenand Administrators: 1.Waleed-The Umayyad Caliph359 2.Haroon-ar-Rashid362 3.Yahya Barrnaki367 4.Mamoon-ar-Rashld370 5.Abdur Rahman al-Nasir379 6.Nizamul MulkToosi384 7.Sultan Mahmood of Ghazni387 8.Zahiruddin Babur391 9.Sher ShahSuri395 10.Sulaiman the Magnificent401 11.AurangzebAlamgir405 12.Tipu Sultan412 13.Malik Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud420 14.MalikFaisal ibn Abd al-Aziz424 XI.Soldiers,Generals and Conquerors: 1.Sa'ad ibn Wakkas431 2.Khalidbin Waleed434 3.Musa ibn Nusair443 4.Tariq ibn Ziyad446 5.Muhammad bin Qasim449 6.Sultan Bayazid Yildirim452 7.Tirnur,the World Conqueror457 8.Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi465 viii Contents Page 9.Muhammad II,TheConqueror, (Seventh Rulerof the471 Ottoman dynasty.) 10.Yusuf ibnTashfin475 11.KhairuddinBarbarossa479 12.Ahmad ShanAbdali481 XII.Historians, Geographers and Explorers: I.Tabari489 2.Al-Masudi492 3:IbnKhaldun496 4.IbnBatuta500 S.Sulaiman al-Mahiri507 Index513 FOREWORD Kh waja J amil Ahmad is well known inPakistan as a journalist with long andvariedexperienceofnewspaperwork,broadcastingandfeature articles. He isalso agoodscholar, trained in myUniversity of Allahabad, and apupil of the savants like Dr. Ishwari Prasad and Dr. Tripathi whom, in their early years I was privileged to recruit to work inthe Department of Mughal Studies which I founded. I have known Mr. Jamil Ahmad for many years through his writings; and itwas with great pleasurethat I was able to make his personalacquaintance while hewas inGovernment service as InformationOfficer.During more than oneofmyvisits toPakistan as a government guest, heacted as myConducting Officer, and helped me in a number ofways. I was, therefore, veryinterested to learn that he has now written a book on HundredGreatMuslims,and that heisembodying in this book,among otherpieces,someofhisadmirablebiographicalstudiesofprominent Muslimpoets,philosophers,scientists,scholastics,statesmen,warriors and explorers. One of the remarkable features of the Great Men whom Islam has given birth to is the wide range of their genius. History can show many examples ofwarriors whohave also been distinguished men of letters, of statesmen whohave been excellent poets, and of scholars who have risen to the positions ofgreat power and responsibility. Nearly ageneration ago, I edited abook entitled GreatMenof India, in whichInaturallyincludedstudies,eachwrittenbyadistinguished specialist, of a number of prominent Muslims from Mughal times to our own day.Thisbookhas long beenout ofprint, althoughIstill receive letters asking fromwhere copies can beobtained. Thus I am quite sure that there willbeasteady demand of the book which Mr.Jamil Ahmad has written, angledasitis from the stand-point of apatriotic Pakistani, proud ofhis country's great traditionofMuslimculture.Ihave read anumber of the individualbiographieswhichwillbeincludedinthisbook,andam impressed with their excellence. I feel confident that the book will appeal to many readers both inPakistan and outside. SILCHESTER September 26,1967. L.F.RUSHBROOK WILLIAMS IX PREFACE Muhammad(PBUH) theProphetofIslam andthegreatestbenefactorof mankind,hadaccomplishednotonlyanimpossibletaskof unitingthesavage andwarringArabstribesbutalsogave birthtoasocietywhichcreatedthe greatestrevolutionintheannalsof mankind-arevolutionwhich embracedall spheresofhumanactivity.Inlessthanthirtyyears,afterthedeathofthe Prophet,theArabssweptovertwoofthemightiestempiresofthosetimesPersians andRomans-and laterbecame pioneers in therealm of artandlearning. Thememorablewordsof theHolyProphetof Islam,"Seekknowledge even unto thedistantChina,"awakened a love of learning anda spirit of enquiry amongtheMuslimswhichhithertolaydormantin them.They were responsible forrevivingnotonlythedeadGreekandIndianlearnings butalso made lasting contributionstoalmostall branchesofsciences andartsandthusprovidedthe necessary linkbetweentheancientandmoderncivilizations.The light of learning which illuminatedCordova, theseat of Arab culturein Spain, at last dispelled thegloomthathadenvelopedtheMediaeval Europe,giving birthtoWestern Renaissance. TheArabs,beingpracticalpeople,hademployedbothobservationand experimentintheirpursuitsof science-anadvanceovertheGreekscientists whoconfinedthemselvestoobservationonly.Theireffortsintherealmof science were, therefore, crowned withgreater success. TheinventionoftheMarinersCompassenabledthesea-faringArab marinerstoexplorethedistantseas.Thelatestresearchbythecelebrated SouthAfricananthropologist,Dr.Jefferys,hascreditedtheArabswiththe discovery of theNew World-America-five centuries ahead ofColumbus. Theteachingsof theHolyProphetofIslamhadgiven birthtoanideal society,composedof agroupofselfless people,whoforthirtyyears successfOllyexperimented in truedemocracy in theworld-based onequality,fraternity andjustice-which hasnoparallelintheannalsof mankind.In that ideal democracy,therewasnomaterialdistinctionbetweentheCaliphandanordinary citizen. Xl Prefacexu Someof themostoutstanding andcharmingpersonalities of Islam come fromamongtheCompanionsof theProphet,wholivedduringthisperiodof idealdemocracy.Itisverydifficulttomakeaselectionfromthisgroupof selfless devoteestoIslam, whostakedtheirallfortheglory of theirNew Faith. But,thescopeof thebookdemandedalarger canvas forselectionwhich was provided bytheoutstanding scientists and scholars, historians and explorers, artistsandwriters,statesmenandrulers,revolutionariesandreformersof later Islam. TheinspirationtowritethisbookIgotfromOne Hundred Great Lives publishedbytheHomeLibraryoftheTimes of IndiaPress,Bombay,inthe earlythirtiesof thepresentcentury. HundredGreatMuslimshas been modelled on thesame lines and has beendivided into12 biographical categories. TheEditorsandthePublishers of theOneHundred GreatLives have done greatmjusticetotheMuslims byincludingonlytwobiographies of thesons of Islam-Muhammad(PBUH)theProphetofIslamandKamalAtaturk.Itis strangethatsomeofthegreatestconquerorsof theworldlikeTimur,Khalid, TariqandSalahuddinAyyubi;greatrulerslikeHarun,Mamun,Sulaiman,the MagnificentandAbdurRahmanal-Nasir; greatscientistsandscholarslikeIbn Khaldun,ibnSina,Baroni,RaziandKhwarizmi; greathistoriansandexplorers likeTabari,Masudi, IbnBatutaandSulaimanal-Mahiri; greatwritersandpoets likeHafiz, Saadi,Firdausi,OmarKhayyam andIqbal did notfind a place in this book. Itis onlytocounterthis utter injusticetothesons of Islam thatI decided towrite thisbook.There is another reason as well. Theignoranceof oureducatedclasstowardstheachievementsof their ancestorsindifferentspheresofhumanactivity,especiallyintherealmof sciences andartsimpelled metoraise thecurtainwhichhungovertheglorious achievements of thesons of Islam. TheWestern educationisresponsibleforcreatinganinferioritycomplex amongoureducatedclasses wholinktheentiredevelopmentof sciencesand artstotheWest.Theyaremuchfamiliar withWestern ScientistslikeNewton andStephenson,Harvey andMasconi butnotwith greater Muslimscientists like Khwarizmi andIbnSina,Baruni and