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Human Geography of Latin America Chapter 10

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Human Geography of Latin America. Chapter 10. Mexico: A Human Perspective. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Human Geography of Latin AmericaChapter 10

  • Mexico: A Human PerspectiveQuetzalocatl (keht-SAHL-koh-AHT-l) was a god worshiped by The Toltec and Aztec peoples of Mexico and Central America. According to Native America legend. Quetzalcoatl traveled east across the sea. It was said that he would return some day, bringing peace. One day, messengers brought Montezuma, the Aztec emperor news that strangers had arrived from across the sea. Montezuma thought that these strangers might be Quetzalcoatl and his servants. Instead, it was Hernando Cortes and his soldiers, who would claim the land for Spain. When the Spanish landed, the cultures of two widely separated regions came into contact, which forever changed the Aztec and spanish worldsand made Mexico what it is today.

  • Mexico:

  • Colonialism & IndependenceHistory of Mexico is a story of conflict between the native people & settlers from Spain.Mexico was first occupied by the Toltecs, the Maya, & Aztecs.In 1519, Hernando Cortes landed on the coast of Mexico. He and his man marched into the interior of the Aztecs city of Tenochititlan.In 1521 he had conquered the Aztecs.

  • Cont.For 300 yrs. Spanish had work the native to get abundant resources, gold & silver.Peninsulares, Criollos, Mestizos, & Natives.Haciendas were given to the conquistadors & they set up encomienda system.In 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo, led a revolt against Spanish rule.In 1821, Mexico achieved independence from Spain under Agustin de Iturbide.In the 1850 Benito Juarez let the War of Reform.He was succeeded by Porfirio Diaz who was a dictator for 30 years.

  • The Mexican RevolutionPeople were not happy with his dictatorship because he favored rich owners, no education for the people, & favored the church.1910, Mexico Revolt.Madero ran against Diaz in the 1910 election. To quiet Madero, he is imprisoned by Diaz. Diaz won the election but was force to resigned.Madero took over as president but not strong enough to end political & military rule.Emiliano Zapata & Francisco (Pancho) Villa rebel against Madero.Victoriano Huerta, head of the Madero army, conspired with the rebel leaders to seized control of Mexico City. Huerta becomes dictator. He has Madero murder four days after taking office

  • Zapata & Villa dont agree with Huerta ideas & revolt against him.Venustiano Carranza is supported by Villa & Zapata. Huerta resigned in 1914. Carranza takes power in that same year.Villa at once declared war on Carranza. Beside the ambitions of rival between leaders, intervention by foreign government trying to protect their interests added to the confusion.U.S. recognized Carranza as the new President.In 1920 three leading generals, Plutarco Elias Calles, Alvaro Obregon, & Adolfo de la Huerta, revolted against Carranza. Carranza is killed. Obregon becomes president in 1920.1924 Calles becomes prsident of Mexico.1928, Obregon is reelected president but is killed by a religious fanatic.1929, a new political party Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)

  • byJ.C.Orozco Late one September evening the name of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla became forever engraved in Mexico's history. Since that night, his life as well as that of Mexico, changed radically.

  • Jos de la Cruz Porfirio Daz was unsuccessful in two tries at the presidency of Mexico in 1867 and 1871, but in 1876 he overthrew President Sebastin Lerdo de Tejada and became president the following year. He served as Mexicos president for all but four of the next 35 years.

  • A 1913 issue of the Mexican Herald reported that whole villages would be emptied of women by soldiers who kidnapped them. Many women enlisted in order to stay with their husbands. Others joined to take revenge for the death of a family member.The name Adelita comes from an old corrido or folk song about a woman who was so in love with a sergeant that she followed him off to battle. The womans name was Adelita and as the legend surrounding the soldaderas became more myth than fact, the name Adelita was used to describe women soldiers. In these legends the role of the Adelitas was seriously down-played and their true role in the Mexican Revolution was almost forgotten.

  • Mexican revolutionary leader Francisco Indalcio Madero criticized the dictatorship of Porfirio Daz and in 1911 led a successful revolt and assumed the presidency. In 1913 Madero was killed after being deposed by a military coup.

  • A Mexican revolutionary hero who rose up against President Porfirio Daz, Zapata enjoyed an enormous following because of his ideas regarding agrarian reform. In the Plan of Ayala, Zapata proposed dividing among poor Native Americans the lands held by large privately-owned estates. With Pancho Villa, Zapata occupied Mexico City in 1914. Zapata continued to resist the series of presidents who held office after the fall of the Porfirio Daz dictatorship because he felt their reforms were too weak. He was assassinated in 1919 by an agent of President Venustiano Carranza.

  • Born Doroteo Arango, Francisco Villa, known as Pancho Villa, became one of the great revolutionary heroes of Mexico during the early 20th century. A rebel leader, Villa aided Francisco Indalcio Madero and then Venustiano Carranza to win control of the country, but each time he broke ranks with them. Villa ran raids against his enemies primarily from northern Mexico and entered the United States several times.

  • Victoriano Huerta seized Mexicos presidency in February 1913, during the Mexican Revolution. He resigned in July 1914 after his actions angered the United States government and prompted U.S. intervention in the war.

  • Mexican revolutionary and statesman Venustiano Carranza served as president of Mexico from 1914 to 1920, during some of the most turbulent years in Mexican history. As leader of the more conservative wing of revolutionaries, Carranza was unable to balance the competing interests in Mexican politics. He was overthrown by an army revolt and killed.

  • This photograph shows men, women, and children who fought in the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920). Many segments of Mexican society were drawn into the conflict, in which a number of factions vied for control of the nation.

  • Plutarco Elas Calles was a political activist in Mexico who was president from 1924 to 1928.

  • President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924, Obregn is shown here recovering from the amputation of his right arm following the battle of Santa Rosa (1915). (p. 507)

  • A Meeting of CulturesBefore the arrival of the Spanish , Mexico was a place of many advanced native cultures.When Cortes and the Spanish conquered the Aztec empire, they destroyed almost everything & built on top of Tenochtitlan.Spanish brought their language & Catholic religion.Indian heritage remains strong.

  • Social Changessecularization nationalization of all Church property universal, secular elementary education no Church officials could hold public office Economic Changesguaranteed workers right to strike and bargain collectively maximum eight-hour workday day of rest each week minimum wage double pay overtime women were promised equal pay and leave of absence for childbearing Employers were liable for occupational hazards unemployment insurance, medical, and pension plans responsibility of employer Political Changesfreedom of speech freedom of the press universal suffrage security of opposition parties all land subject to public welfare water and subsoil wealth owned by nation not individuals ejido lands inalienable land taken by haciendas to be returned foreigners could not own land maximum size of private ownership of land to be limited by the government

  • People

  • Mexican Painters & Architectural Heritage.In the 20th century, Mexicos tradition of painting was done in public art.Many important painter portrayed the history of Mexico in walls in public buildings.Jose Orozco, Diego Rivera, David Siqueiros, & Juan OGorman.Frida Kahlo was known for her self portraits.Native Americans built beautiful temples & public buildings, often in shape of pyramids.Spanish building included beautiful missions.Large cathedrals.

  • Painter & Architectural

  • Economics: Cities and FactoriesFirst problem: Large gap between rich & poor.Second problem: it is attempting to develop a modern industrial economy.Traditionally an agricultural society.Mexican are moving to cities because they see better economic opportunities.Economy includes a large industry based on oil reserves in the Gulf of Mexico.Manufacturing is the most important part of Mexicos recent economic development. (Maquiladoras)NAFTA: North America Free Trade Agreement between Canada, U.S. & Mexico. Import tariffs on manufactured goods are being slowly reduced & creating jobs for millions of people.

  • What is NAFTA?

    The North American Free Trade Agreement between the United States, Canada and Mexico became effective on January 1, 1994. Having been designed to bring down tariffs and to increase international competitiveness, it will eventually create the world's largest market which will be comprised of 370 million people and 6.5 trillion dollars of production from the "Yukon to the Yucatan." January 1, 2004 marks the tenth anniversary of the North American Free Trade Agreements implementation. NAFTA promoters - including many of the worlds largest corporations - promised it would create hundreds of thousands of new high-wageU.S. jobs, raise living standards in the U.S., Mexico and Canada, improve environmental conditions and transform Mexico from a poor developing country into a booming new market for U.S. exports. NAFTA opponents - including labor, environmental, consumer and religious groups - argued that NAFTA would launch a race-to-the-bottom in wages, destroy hundreds of thousands of good U.S. jobs, undermine democratic control of domestic policy-making and threaten health, environmental and food safety standards.

  • Mexican Life Today: the people of Mexico face big challenges in jobs, emigration, & education. Gap between rich & poor.Mexico shares with the U.S. 2,000 mile of border.Many people leave Mexico for the United States in search of work.Separates families, many sent money to their native village & often return after they save enough money.Shortage of jobs. Without education and training people can not find decent work.Education will become more important as Mexico becomes more industrial.

  • People