human body systems section 35–1. human body systems

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  • Human Body SystemsSection 351

  • Human Body Systems

  • Organization of the Body List the levels of organization in a multicellular organism, from smallest to largest. Cells Tissues OrgansOrgan systems

  • Nervous system Coordinates the bodys response to changes in its internal and external environmentsSkeletal system Stores mineral reserves and provides a site for blood cell formationIntegumentary system Serves as a barrier against infection and injury Endocrine system Eliminates wastes and maintains homeostasis Lymphatic/Immune systemsHelps protect body from disease.Muscular system Helps produce voluntary movement, circulate blood, and move food Reproductive system Produces reproductive cellsRespiratory system Provides oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Excretory system Eliminates wastes and maintains homeostasis Circulatory system Brings materials to cells, fights infection, and helps to regulate body temperature Digestive system Converts food so it can be used by cells

  • Maintaining Homeostasis The process of maintaining a controlled, stable internal environment is called

    homeostasis

  • Maintaining HomeostasisWhat happens if nerve cells sense that the core body temperature has dropped below 37C?The hypothalamus produces chemicals that signal cells throughout the body to speed up their activities, which causes a gradual rise in body temperature.

  • Maintaining Homeostasis What happens if the body temperature rises too far above 37C? The hypothalamus slows down cellular activities, minimizing the production of heat.

  • Negative Feedbackwhen a change in the normal state occurs a negative feedback mechanism causes the body to return to the normal state. Most common way for the body to return to homeostasis.

    Examples: You get overheated, so your body starts to sweat, and you cool back off

  • What mechanisms are there to cool the body down?

    SweatingWhen your body is hot, sweat glands are stimulated to release sweat.The liquid sweat turns into a gas (it evaporates)To do this, it needs heat.It gets that heat from your skin.As your skin loses heat, it cools down.

  • Negative FeedbackBlood pressure gets too high, so your heart beats slower, and blood pressure returns to normal.

  • More examplesYour glucose (sugar) levels in your blood get to high, so the pancreases secretes insulin, causing your bodys cells to store the glucose, until levels return to a normal level.

  • *DigestionProcessing of foodTypesMechanical (physical)ChewTearGrindMashMixChemicalCatabolic reactionsEnzymatic hydrolysisCarbohydrateProteinLipid

  • Digestion- the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods for use by the bodys cells. Absorption- the passage of digested food from the digestive tract into the cardiovascular system. Elimination- the expulsion of undigested food or body wastes.Digestion includes both mechanical and chemical processes. The mechanical portion involves chewing, mashing, and breaking food into smaller pieces.The chemical process involves digestive juices that change food into simpler substances. The Nervous and cardiovascular systems also play a major role in the digestion process. The nervous system triggers the digestive process Nutrients are carried through the body by the cardiovascular system.

  • Food processing starts with ingestion (eating).Teeth- mechanical digestion by masticating (chewing) food. 2. Upon entering esophagus, peristalsis (wave-like contractions) of smooth muscle carries the bolus (food ball) toward the stomach. 3. From the esophagus, bolus passes through a sphincter (muscular ring) into the stomach.

  • 5. Gallbladder contains Bile from liver that emulsifies (breaks into small particles) lipids (fats), which helps mechanical digestion of fats.

    6. Tiny villi (finger-like projections) cover walls of small intestine. This increased surface area causes more efficient food absorption 4. In the stomach, food undergoes chemical and mechanical digestion.

  • Points of InteractionFood leaves the digestive system and enters the circulatory system in the small intestine at points called villi. Process called absorption.

  • Things your Cell needs to get dailyFrom your digestive system: NutrientsMineralsLipidsCarbohydratesProtiensWaterFrom your respiratory system: OxygenEnzymes: are proteins that help speed up chemical reactions and help your body get these things.

  • Then the Cell needs to get rid of C02 using the respiratory system.

    Extra water, minerals, and other cellular waste though the excretory system.

    This process is called EXCRETION.

  • The Respiratory System

    Section 4Breathing The Diaphragm Breathing is done by the diaphragm and rib muscles. The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle beneath the lungs.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Oxygen In cellular respiration, oxygen is used by cells to release energy stored in molecules of glucose. When you breathe, you take in oxygen. Oxygen diffuses into red blood cells and is carried to tissue cells. The cells in turn use the oxygen to carry on normal life processes. This process is illustrated on the next slide.Breathing and Cellular Respiration

  • The Respiratory SystemSection 4Respiration and the Respiratory SystemCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Nose, Pharynx, and Larynx Your nose is the main passageway into and out of the respiratory system. From the nose, air flows into the pharynx, or throat. The larynx is the part of the throat that contains the vocal chords.

    Trachea The larynx guards the entrance to a large tube called the trachea, or windpipe.

    Bronchi and Alveoli The trachea splits into two branches called bronchi. One bronchus connects to each lung. In the lungs, each bronchiole branches to form thousands of tiny sacs that are called alveoli. Oxygen enters the blood when CO2 enters the alveoli, completing the exchange with the capillaries.

  • The Role of Blood in Respiration

    Section 4Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

  • The Cardiovascular System

    Section 1Your Cardiovascular System Main Components of the Cardiovascular System The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and the three types of blood vessels that carry blood throughout your body.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Cardiac Muscle Your heart is an organ made mostly of cardiac muscle tissue. It is about the size of your fist and is almost in the center of your chest cavity. The next slide shows the flow of blood through the heart.The Heart End of Slide

  • The Flow of Blood Through the HeartSection 1Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

  • Makeup of HeartHas two sides(left and right) that are separated by a thick wall.Each side has an upper(Atrium) chamber and a lower(Ventricle) chamber.The blood enters the Atriums first. The left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs. The right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from the body.

  • Makeup ContinuedWhen the Atria contract they squeeze blood into the ventricles.Blood from the right ventricle goes to the lungs. Blood from the left ventricle goes to the body.

  • The Beating HeartOn body sides of the heart located between the Atriums and the Ventricles are valves. These valves open and close to prevent blood from flowing backwards. The opening and closing is what causes the beating of the heart.

  • The Cardiovascular System

    Section 1Blood Vessels tubes that blood travels throughout the body in. Arteries A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart is an artery. Artery walls are very thick which allows them to change shape due to blood pressure. As your heart beats it pumps blood into your arteries. This is what causes blood pressure.

    Capillaries A capillary is a tiny blood vessel that allows nutrient, oxygen, carbon dioxide , and waste exchanges between body cells and blood.

    Veins A vein is a blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart from the contraction of the skeletal muscles.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

  • The Cardiovascular System

    Section 1Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Pulmonary Circulation This circulation of blood between your heart and lungs is called pulmonary circulation.

    Systemic Circulation The circulation of blood between the heart and the rest of the body is called systemic circulation. Both systemic and pulmonary circulation are illustrated on the next slide.Two Types of Circulation End of Slide

  • The Flow of Blood Through the Body

    Section 1Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

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