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  • Human Body Page 1

    Human Body

    (FOSS)

    and

    Alignment Lessons

  • Human Body Page 2

    Table of Contents NC Essential Standards and Clarifying Objectives ......................................................................................... 3

    Unit Essential Question(s) ............................................................................................................................. 3

    Pre-Unit Assessment ..................................................................................................................................... 3

    Notes About the Human Body Unit (includes list of materials needed for Alignment Lessons) .................. 3

    FOSS Investigation 1, part 1 Counting Bones ............................................................................................. 5

    FOSS Investigation 1, part 2 Mr. Bones Puzzle........................................................................................... 7

    FOSS Investigation 1, part 3 Owl Pellets .................................................................................................... 9

    FOSS Investigation 2, part 1 Looking at Thumb Joints ............................................................................. 11

    FOSS Investigation 2, part 2 Doing Joint Tasks ........................................................................................ 13

    FOSS Investigation 2, part 3 Naming Joints ............................................................................................. 15

    FOSS Investigation 2, part 4 Comparing Bones ........................................................................................ 17

    FOSS Investigation 3, part 1 Making a Leg Model .................................................................................... 18

    FOSS Investigation 3, part 2 Making A Thumb Model ............................................................................. 20

    FOSS Investigation 3, part 3 Making an Arm Model ................................................................................ 22

    The Structure of Skin (Alignment Lesson) ................................................................................................... 24

    The Function of Skin (Alignment Lesson) .................................................................................................... 26

    FOSS Investigation 4, part 1 Stimulus Response ...................................................................................... 28

    FOSS Investigation 4, part 2 Response and Practice ................................................................................ 30

    FOSS Investigation 4, part 3 Timing Your Responses ............................................................................... 32

    Investigating Gravity and Forces (Alignment Lesson) ................................................................................. 34

  • Human Body Page 3

    NC Essential Standards and Clarifying Objectives 3.L.1 Understand human body systems and how they are essential for life: protection, movement and support.

    3.L.1.1 Compare the different functions of the skeletal and muscular systems.

    3.L.1.2 Explain why skin is necessary for protection and for the body to remain healthy.

    3.P.1 Understand motion and factors that affect motion. 3.P.1.1 Infer changes in speed or direction resulting from forces acting on an object. 3.P.1.2 Compare the relative speeds (faster or slower) of objects that travel the same distance in different amounts of time. 3.P.1.3 Explain the effect of Earths gravity on the motion of any object on or near the Earth.

    Unit Essential Question(s) How do the bones, joints, and muscles work together?

    What are the roles of skin?

    Pre-Unit Assessment A formative assessment probe called Is It a System? is available on page 81 of Uncovering Student

    Ideas in Science Volume 4 (Green Cover), by Page Keeley et al. This probe elicits students ideas about

    systems and is designed to find out whether students can recognize that things with parts that interact

    or influence each other are systems. In 3rd grade, it is appropriate to eliminate these choices from the

    probe: A+B=C, water cycle, electrical circuit, and Density = Mass/Volume.

    Notes About the Human Body Unit Alignment Lessons about skin have been added to this unit to address Clarifying Objective 3.L.1.2 and

    to reinforce the concepts of force, relative speeds, and gravity (Clarifying Objectives 3.P.1.1, 3.P.1.2, and

    3.P.1.3). Alignment Lessons require additional materials that are not available in the Human Body kit.

    This chart lists materials needed for Alignment Lessons as well as recommended quantities:

    Investigation CMAPP

    Day Additional Materials Needed Qty

    Owl Pellets 4-5 owl pellets (available from Carolina or Delta Education) 1 per student pair

    The Structure of

    Skin 13-14

    orange or tangerine 1 per student group

    newspaper 4-5 per student group

    masking or painters' tape 1 roll per student group

  • Human Body Page 4

    The Function of Skin

    15-16

    bag of objects that includes: marshmallow, sandpaper, rock or marble, and a cotton ball

    1 bag of objects per student pair

    unsharpened pencil 1 per student pair

    ice cube 2-3 per student pair

    large paper clip 1 per student pair

    cm rulers with mm marks 1 per student pair

    Investigating Gravity &

    Forces 17-20

    cardboard, tray, or binder to create a ramp 2 ramps per student pair

    items to alter the surface of the ramps: soft, absorbent paper towels, felt, sandpaper, and aluminum foil

    materials should be accessible to each student pair or group

    straws 1 per student

    This unit provides a unique opportunity to solicit the assistance of the Physical Education Specialist at

    your school. The physical science Essential Standard and related Clarifying Objects about gravity and

    forces can be demonstrated through physical activities and followed up with conversation about them.

    For example, pitching and catching a softball, kicking a soccer ball, playing tug-o-war, relay races, and

    jump roping are only a few examples of activities to demonstrate and discuss physical science concepts

    such as gravity, forces, and relative speeds.

    Owl pellets used in Lesson 3 need to be ordered from Carolina Biological or Delta Education about

    one week before the investigation to ensure delivery.

    Consider making leg, thumb, and arm models prior to teaching Lessons 8, 9, and 10. The models can

    serve as a visual as students construct their own models. Building your own model will help you

    troubleshoot issues that may arise as students construct models.

  • Human Body Page 5

    FOSS Investigation 1, part 1 Counting Bones Students will observe the human body in motion, count the number of bones in the human skeleton to determine there are 206 bones and identify a skeleton as a system of bones.

    Clarifying Objectives

    3.L.1.1 Compare the different functions of the skeletal and muscular systems.

    3.P.1.1 Infer changes in speed or direction resulting from forces acting on an object.

    3.P.1.2 Compare the relative speeds (faster or slower) of objects that travel the same distance in different amounts of time.

    3.P.1.3 Explain the effects of earth's gravity on the motion of any object on or near the earth.

    Focus Question(s)

    How many bones are in each subset of our skeletal system?

    Activity Guiding Questions

    Introduce the activity to study the most exquisitely designed machine in the world, our body, we will start by observing it in action.

    Jumping Rope in teams of two students take turns jumping rope, observing and recoding in science

    notebooks observations of partners body

    movement. (Be sure to point out that

    when someone jumps rope, s/he returns

    to the ground.)

    Bring class back together for a class discussion with a focus on the bone system.

    Have students count the number of bones in the human skeleton. Assign groups of students the following subsystems:

    o Leg (including foot) o Arm ( including hand) o Head or skull ( not the neck) o Torso (including neck, shoulders,

    and hips)

    Encourage students to feel their own bones through their skin. Have student record their count on the Counting Bones

    Do your bones move when you jump

    rope?

    Where are your bones?

    How can you tell where your bones are?

    What do you call the whole system of

    bones?

    Why do we fall back towards the earth

    when we jump? [The Earth pulls us and

    any object on or near its surface toward its

    center. This pull is called gravity.]

    How do bones?

    If bones are hard, how do our bodies

    bend?

    How will we know if we missed any bones

    when we counted?

    What might we use to help us find out

    more about bones?

    What parts of the skeleton give us our

    unique human shape?

    What does the skeleton support?

    What does the skeleton protect?

    What is the function of the skeleton?

    How many bones in the human skeleton?

  • Human Body Page 6

    sheet

    Propose refining the count. o Introduce the skeleton

    photograph to assist with refining the count.

    o Introduce the Bone Posters and again refine the count.

    Revise the total bone count and have students make corrections on their Counting Bones she