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Ancient EgyptChapter 2 -1 & 2
PYRAMIDSTombs were built for preparation for the afterlife.They preserved the dead bodies of their rulers and buried them with all worldly possessions including servants.
EGYPT 2011Current Day EgyptGeography of the Nile
Geography of the Nile1. The Nile rises and floods the interior region of Egypt every spring feeding the land. It provides the land with live giving water and depositing layers of silt.2. In ancient times, Egyptians eagerly awaited the floods. Why? Ancient Egypt was divided into two distinct regions: Upper Egypt in the south and Lower Egypt in the north.In 3100 B.C. King Menes, the king of Upper Egypt unites the two regions. As a King, why would you want to unite the two regions?
The old kingdomPharaohs organized a strong central government. Egyptians regarded Pharaohs as Gods.Pharaohs had viziers that took care of various departments such as tax collection, farming, and irrigation.Ptah-Hotep, a wise vizier took an created a book known as the Instruction of Ptah-hotep to advise young viziers on how to avoid the errors he had seen in other young officials.
The Middle KingdomThe Middle Kingdom was a turbulent time because the Nile did not rise regularly. Foreign invaders called the Hyksos defeated the Egyptian Armies using horse drawn war chariots. What is the benefit of using this technology versus hand to hand combat?
The New KingdomHatshepsut- she encouraged trade with the eastern Mediterranean lands and along the Red Sea coast of Africa.Ramses II the most powerful ruler had conquests as far as Syria.
EGYPT VERSUS NUBIAEgypt went to war with Nubia and conquered it during the New Kingdom under the reign of Ramses II.The Egyptians acquired cattle, ivory ,slaves, and gold from Nubia.Much Egyptian art of this period shows Nubian soldiers, musicians, or prisoners.
EGYPTIAN RELIGIONSun God-Amon ReThe Pharaohs were closely associated with Amon-Re.
OsirisRuler of the underworld.God of the Nile
AFTERLIFEThe Egyptians believed that each soul had to pass a test in order to win eternal life.If Osiris judged the person to be a sinner they would be fed to a crocodile-shaped Eater.If the soul was considered worthy it would enter the Happy Field of Food.To survive the journey Egyptians relied on the book of the dead.
MummificationSkilled embalmers extracted the brain of the dead through the nostrils and removed the internal organs.The body was wrapped in strips of linen.
1. Create a hero or heroine2. The Funeral Procession3. Entering the afterlife4. The Hall of Maat (weighing the heart)5. Fields of Piece
Egyptian societyMost Egyptians were peasant farmers.Women were more independent compared to other parts of the world because they were able to inherit property, enter business deals, and obtain a divorce.Advances in learning: Written records (hieroglyphics),The Rosetta Stone (decipher codes),advances in medicine (geometry, calendars, and diagnosing illnesses,)
Review Questions(Answer in complete Sentences)1.Give two examples of how the Nile shaped Ancient Egypt.2. Provide a two sentence description of Egypts three kingdoms.3. Explain how Egypt was affected by its contacts with the Nubians.4.How did Osiris influence the people of Ancient Egypt? How did his decision effect the afterlife?5.Describe the position of women in the Egyptian society.
Continued6. Who is Ramses II? What is his importance in ancient Egyptian History?7. What were some advances made in medicine by the Ancient Egyptians?8. Why was the process of mummification so important to the preservation of the body?