How to paraphrase Claire Conroy Writing Specialist.

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  • Slide 1
  • How to paraphrase Claire Conroy Writing Specialist
  • Slide 2
  • ParaphrasingSummarizingQuoting Use own words Same words More or less same length as original Much shorter than original Same length as original All ideas includedOnly main idea included Use quotation marks
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  • 1. The reader is unfamiliar with the text 2. The reader takes some of the original words and patches them together with his/her own words 3. The reader only exchanges vocabulary items with dictionary synonyms 4. The paraphrase reads like a note-taking device
  • Slide 5
  • In order to paraphrase successfully, one has to have a deep understanding of the original text, so..
  • Slide 6
  • Read, read and reread the text/ passage. It is vital that you understand what the author is saying.
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  • Take notes ( in your own words) of the main ideas
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  • Replace synonyms ( use a dictionary if needed) Example: Movies can be divided into three categories. Films can be divided into three types.
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  • Change plural nouns to singular ones ( Remember subject/verb agreement ) Example: Overweight people usually do little exercise. An overweight person usually does little exercise.
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  • Restructure sentence(s) grammatically Suggestions: Change Active Voice to Passive Voice Example: The people of this country speak various languages. Various languages are spoken in this country.
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  • Use Negative or Opposite Expressions Hamed was disappointed, because the movie wasnt very good. Hamed wasnt satisfied, because the movie wasnt very good.
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  • Changing Word order If youre going to Russia in December, be sure to take warm clothes. Be sure to take warm clothes, if you are going to Russia in December.
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  • Changing Parts of Speech For example, changing a noun to a verb Example: The company needs to find a solution to this problem. The company needs to solve this problem.
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  • Short sentences can be combined to make one longer sentence Example: Ireland is a wonderful country. It has beautiful scenery, friendly people and an interesting history. Ireland, which is a wonderful country, has beautiful scenery, friendly people and an interesting history,
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  • When you have finished your draft, reread the original text and compare it to your paraphrase. You can then check that you have retained the meaning and attitude of the original text.
  • Slide 17
  • Paraphrasing Sentences Tip: Paraphrasing sentences helps students practise paraphrasing blocks of text 1..Original: Giraffes like Acacia leaves and hay and they can consume 75 pounds of food a day. Paraphrase: A giraffe can eat up to 75 pounds of Acacia leaves and hay everyday. 2..Original: Any trip to Italy should include a visit to Tuscany to sample their exquisite food. Paraphrase: Be sure to include a Tuscan food-tasting experience when visiting Italy.
  • Slide 18
  • 1.Original: Giraffes like Acacia leaves and hay and they can consume 75 pounds of food a day. Paraphrase: A giraffe can eat up to 75 pounds of Acacia leaves and hay everyday. 2. Original: Any trip to Italy should include a visit to Tuscany to sample their exquisite food. Paraphrase: Be sure to include a Tuscan food-tasting experience when visiting Italy.
  • Slide 19
  • 3. Original: John set out to visit his friend on Saturday morning. He had a map, GPS and his friends mobile number, but he still could not find his friends house. By late afternoon, he gave up and returned home. Paraphrase/ Summary: Although John had lots of information to help him find his friends home, he still could not discover where his friend lived.
  • Slide 20
  • 4. Original: Niagara Falls is viewed by thousands of tourists every year. Paraphrase: Each year, thousands of people visit Niagara Falls. 5. Original: Qatar shall be a model national university in the region, recognized for high- quality education. Paraphrase: Qatars national university will serve as an example in the Gulf, and it will be known for top-class education.
  • Slide 21
  • Avoiding Plagiarism There is a fine line between plagiarism and paraphrasing. If the wording of the paraphrase is too close to the wording of the original content, then it is plagiarism. The main ideas need to come through, but the wording has to be your own. A quote will need to be the exact wording and the author and source will need to be identified. Paraphrasing usually makes the passage shorter than the original.
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  • 1 1 Jacques Cousteau, in his book, The Oceans, reports that the Antarctic is a vast source of cold on our planet. The very icy water around the Antarctic flows north to mix with the warmer water from the tropics, which helps to cool both the surface water and the atmosphere. However, this cooling system is now being threatened by human activity. According to Jacques Cousteau, the natural meeting of the cold water from the Antarctic and the warmer water from the tropics is now in danger from the lifestyle of human beings on planet Earth.
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  • What changes did I make?
  • Slide 24
  • 1 1 Jacques Cousteau, in his book, The Oceans, reports that the Antarctic is a vast source of cold on our planet. The very icy water around the Antarctic flows north to mix with the warmer water from the tropics, which helps to cool both the surface water and the atmosphere. However, this cooling system is now being threatened by human activity. According to Jacques Cousteau, when the enormous amount of cold water from the Antarctic and the tropical warmer waters join together, this helps cool the air around us. Nowadays, the lifestyle of human beings on planet Earth is endangering this system. Sentence restructure synonyms Passive to Active
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  • . Of more than 1000 bicycling deaths each year, three-quarters are caused by head injuries. Half of those killed are school-age children. The latest study shows that wearing a helmet can reduce the danger of head injury by 85%. In an accident, a bike helmet absorbs the shock and protects the head ( ConsumerReports, May 1998) 75% of the 1000 bike accidents annually in UK that result in death are due to head injuries. Wearing a helmet, which protects the head, can decrease the death rate by as much as 85%.
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  • Original Paraphrase 3 Make books your companions; let your bookshelves be your gardens; bask in their beauty, gather their fruit, pluck their roses, take their spices and myrrh ( Ibn Khaldun, historian and philosopher) Ibn Khaldun, the famous Arab historian and philosopher, advises us to become readers, to cherish our books as friends, to gather information from them about our daily life.
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  • Original 4 Paraphrase 4 . Setsubun, a traditional holiday in Japan marks the beginning of spring and is celebrated on February 3 rd every year. While not a national holiday, foods commonly grown in that season are used. These include the throwing of beans, which means throwing roasted beans out from the house crying, Out with the devils, in with good fortune. Each person also consumes a number of beans according to his or her age. Although Setsubun is not a national Japanese holiday, it is celebrated every year in February to welcome the season of spring. People throw beans out of their homes to get rid of devils and bring in good luck. Everyone eats the number of beans according to his/her age.
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  • Student paraphrase Worksheet 2013.docx Student paraphrase Worksheet 2013.docx
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  • Presentation on Paraphrasing Worksheet Answer Key.docx
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  • Any questions?